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ஆரியர்கள் இந்தியர்களே அது பற்றி சில கருத்துக்கள்

Post by ஆத்மசூரியன் on Wed Mar 09, 2011 9:06 pm

First topic message reminder :

ஆங்கிலேயர்களால் பிரித்தாள்வதற்காக தோற்றுவிக்கப்பட்ட ஆரியர்களின் ஆக்கிரமிப்பு கொள்கைகள் இன்றும் நம் பாடபுத்தகங்களை ஆக்கிரமித்துள்ளது.
ஆரியர்களின் ஆக்கிரமிப்பு கொள்கைகளுக்கு எதிரான வாதங்கள் சிலவற்றை பார்போம்.

1. வேதங்கள் ஆரியர் என்ற வார்த்தையை மனிதர்கள் பின்பற்றக்கூடிய உயரிய குணங்களை உடையவர் என்றே கூறுகிறது.

2. வேதங்களில் ஆரியர் எந்த வெளிநாட்டிலிருந்தும் வந்ததாக தெரிவிக்கவில்லை.

3. 1946 ல் அம்பேத்காரல் எழுதப்பட்ட " யார் சூத்திரர்கள்" என்ற நூலில் மேற்க்கத்தியர்களால் உருவாக்கப்பட்ட ஆரியர் ஆக்கிரமிப்பு கொள்கை பல விஷயங்களை விளக்க தவறி இருக்கிறது. இது முன்னமே உருவாக்கப்பட்டு அதற்கெற்றார் போல் சூழ்நிலைகள் உருவாக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன. என்று கூறியுள்ளார்.

4. சுவாமி விவேகானந்தர் அமெரிக்காவில் ஆற்றிய சொற்பொழிவில் பின்வருமாறு கூறியுள்ளார் "உங்களது ஐரோப்பிய பண்டிதர்கள் கூறுவது போல் ஆரியர்கள் வெளிநாட்டிலிருந்து வந்து இந்தியாவிலுள்ள ஆதி குடிமக்களை வென்று அதிகாரம் செலுத்தினர் என்பது முட்டாள் தனமான பேச்சாகும். இதில் வேடிக்கையானது என்னவென்றால் எங்கள் இந்திய பண்டிதர்களும் அவர்களுக்கு ஆமாம் போடுவது தான்" .

5. அரவிந்தர் அவரது வேதங்களின் ரகசியம் எனும் நூலில் " ஆரியர் ஆக்கிரமிப்பு கொள்கை அதன் தரத்தில் மிகவும் குறைவாகவும் அதன் முக்கியதுவத்தில் நிச்சயமற்றதாகவும் உள்ளது. அதை பற்றிய எந்த ஒரு உண்மையும் முழுமையாக விவரிக்கப்படவில்லை" என்று கூறியுள்ளார்.

6. ஹரப்பா மற்றும் மோகஞ்சதரோ வில் பல ஆயிரம் வருடங்களுக்கு முன்பே நாகரிகங்கள் இருந்ததாக கூறப்படுகிறது . இதை வைதத்து பார்க்கும் பொது ஆரியர்கள் வெளிநாட்டிலிருந்து வந்து இந்த நவீன நகரங்களையும் கலாசாரங்களையும் அழித்திருப்பார் என்று கூறமுடியாது.

7. மேலும் ஹரப்பா மற்றும் மோகஞ்ச்சாதரோவில் பசுபதி எனும் சிவனை வழிபட்டுள்ளனர். அங்கு கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்ட சின்னங்களும் இந்து சமயம் சார்ந்ததாகவே உள்ளது. 5000 வருடங்களுக்கு முனதாகவே அதாவது ஆரியர் வந்தனர் என கூறப்படும் காலத்திற்க்கு முன்னதாகவே இந்து சமயம் இந்தியாவில் இருந்தது. எனவே வெளிநாட்டவர் இந்தியா வந்தனர் இந்து சமயத்தை பரப்பினர் என்று கூற வாய்பேயில்லை.
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:44 pm

burgh. The scenery was beautiful, and the fine air very enjoyable, and I hope my work will go on all the better for it.’
The expedition to Ardtornish, to stay with the parents of their old friend W. Sellar, nearly proved fatal to Max Miiller and Theodore Walrond. They crossed from Oban, and a sudden storm coming up, the row-boat in which they were was in great danger. The crew, who only spoke Gaelic, to quiet their fears, imbibed so much whisky that they seemed incapable of managing the boat, and both Max and his friend had to lend a hand at the oars. But they were well repaid on their arrival by the beauty of the scenery round Ardtornish, and the next morning, the sea being calm, Max Miiller, who was all his life a good swimmer, ran down to the beach for a dip. Putting his things, as he thought, in safety under some stones, he enjoyed his bath to the full. But he had not calculated on the force of the wind, and on emerging from the waves he found his clothes scattered far and wide, and some gone for ever. The stony beach was covered with a sort of prickly growth, probably a sea-holly, and the search was long and painful, and resulted in the recovery of only a few necessary garments. In this guise he had to make his way back to the house, the hall of which was used for break- fast, and where the family were already assembling. He used to say, in recounting the story, that the horror of the moment always came back upon him in full force.
On September 24 Bunsen writes : —
‘ You have sent me the most beautiful thing you have yet written.
I read your Veda essay yesterday, first to myself and then to my
I L


146 Taylorian Professorship [ch. vm
family circle, including Lady Raffles your great friend in petto, and we were all enchanted with both matter and form.’
The article of which Bunsen speaks will be found on p. 128 of Volume III, CJiristianity and Mankind, and was republished in Chips, Volume I, original edition, but like the Persian chapter was omitted in the last edition. In diction it well deserves the praise bestowed on it by Bunsen.
We constantly at this time, in his letters to Bunsen, find Max Miiller complaining of the dilatoriness and carelessness of even the best London printers, as compared with the University Press at Oxford. In the latter years of his life he would consent to print nowhere else.
The lectures this term were on ‘The Origin of the Romance Languages,’ and he tells Bunsen his ‘audience is larger than ever.’ How he managed to get through all his work is a marvel, for besides his lectures, his Vedic work, the Turanian article for Bunsen, and a new work forced on him by his indefatigable friend, of which we shall hear presently, he was collecting testimonials for the Curators of the Taylor Institution, who had definitely fixed the election to the Professorship for the beginning of the January Term. Meantime they had been so satisfied with the result of the lectures, that, as he tells his mother, he is already receiving this quarter the full salary. The testimonials, the originals of which must ever be a precious treasure for his children, are from Humboldt, Bunsen, Bopp, Lepsius, Canon Jacobson (later Bishop of Chester), W. Thomson (later Arch- bishop of York), Mr. Jowett, Professors Wilson and Donkin. Mr. Jowett says of him, ‘ There are few persons in whom so much judgement is combined with so much imagination. It would be unnecessary to add, except to those who do not know him, that, during his stay at Oxford, he has been universally beloved and respected.’ Mr. Donkin says, ‘ He can be elementary without being (in the bad sense) popular, and scientific without ceasing to be intelligible and interesting to beginners.’
And now we come to an event that was to alter and
influence the whole remainder of Max Miiller’s life, though
for several years to come the outer tenor of it may have


1853] First Meeting with his Wife 147
seemed unchanged, and only one or two intimate friends knew the influence at work within him. On November 26 Max and his future wife met for the first time at her father’s house. Mr. Froude, her uncle by marriage, had often spoken of his clever young German friend, and his brother-in-law asked him to bring Max Muller for a Saturday to Monday visit. Years after, he told her that as soon as he saw her, he felt, ‘ That is my fate.’ The party assembled at Ray Lodge was a pleasant one, and he at once fascinated all present by his brilliant, lively conversation and exquisite music. He was very dark, with regular features, fine bright eyes, and a beautiful countenance full of animation, and it was difficult to reconcile his youthful appearance with his already great reputation. Two days later they met again, this time at Oxford, where the family from Ray Lodge went for a meeting of the leading Church choirs of the Diocese. Max Miiller was their constant guide, and Magdalen, Merton, Christ Church, the Bodleian, &c., were visited in his company. He was asked to spend Christmas at Ray Lodge, but fealty to Bunsen and the work he was engaged in for him kept him at Oxford.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translaimi. Oxford, December 9, 1853.
‘ I gladly accept your invitation for next Tuesday (to meet Kings- ley), and I hope by then the first half of my essay will be printed. Aufrecht is very busy. A week ago he left this house and has taken a lodging for himself. He feels more independent, and I too feel more free. I wish one could find a secure place for him. He has been a year here, and I have never seen a man so totally changed, and certainly only for the better.’
It was almost at the close of the year that Bunsen asked
Max Muller to help him in a scheme which was occupying
his own mind a good deal, i.e. a Uniform Alphabet to be
used by missionaries in reducing languages to writing for the
first time. Lepsius had been occupied with this problem for
some time, but his alphabet seemed too complicated for cheap
printing. Max Muller at once took up the subject, and so
hard did he work that his pamphlet. Proposals for a Uniform
Missionary Alphabet, was ready to lay before the first
L 2


148 Missionary Alphabet
conference held on the subject at Bunsen’s house early in January, 1854. Max Miiller’s alphabet was very simple, employing italics for the modifications of the usual alphabet, whereas Lepsius’s plans represented these modifications by signs, in some cases as many as three, over each letter. In one letter to Bunsen, Max Muller says, ‘ If we come to a common understanding with regard to the thirty-five definable consonants, and the twelve to fourteen vowels, let us thank God.’ And again, ‘ If conferences are first to be held, I think it would be best I should not appear, but ask you to play the part of pleader. I have spoilt so many things through undue eagerness, that I prefer managing everything by writing. But I await your orders. If my proposals are not likely to be accepted, it is not worth the trouble of printing. If it is accepted, I am ready to publish them in golden letters on parchment ! I promise Lepsius that if his alphabet is accepted, I will not print a word but in that, even if each letter has three accents.’ So carefully and thoroughly did Max Miiller go into the whole question, that he spent several days dissecting throats with Dr. Acland. ‘I could give the whole alphabet anatomically drawn,’ he says. In the Life of Baron Bunsen we find some extracts from the diary of one of his daughters : —
‘ To breakfast came Sir C. Trevelyan, Sir J. Herschell, Mr. Arthur, Professor Owen, afterwards Mr. Venn and several missionaries and men of learning, to take part in the long-planned conference on the comparative merits of two systems of transcription for all alphabets. According to that of Max Muller, italics would take the place of all accents, lines, dots, used by Lepsius. The conference lasted uninter- ruptedly till half-past one o’clock.
‘ Bishop Thirlwall dined with us, and the conversation was ani- mated between him and Lepsius (who arrived on the 27th) and Max Muller and my father. The alphabetical conferences take place every day.
‘ Lepsius has returned to Berlin. The last conference to-day leaves the matter undecided.’
And so it remained, after all the labour and time Bunsen and Max Miiller had expended. The English missionary societies now mostly follow a system used by the Bible Society, but there is not entire unanimity.


CHAPTER IX
1854-1855
Professor of Modem Languages. Second volume of j??z>-7/Paris. Dresden. M.A. by decree. Renan.
The year opened darkly with rumours of war. Writing to Bunsen for the New Year, Max Miiller says :—
Translation. 9, Park Vh^c^, January i.
‘ Above all, my best congratulations for the New Year : may it be a calm and blessed one for you and yours ; and may it above all things teach the Russians and the Russophiles, that Europe will not be Cossacked nor Kossuthed, and that she would prefer to see the Crescent at Petersburg to the Russian Cross at Constantinople.
• My best thanks for your kind testimonial, which arrived just at the right time ; I hope it will have had its good effect in about a fortnight or three weeks’ time ; if not, I am just as ready to go to India as
Botticher is,’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxso^ii, January 26, 1854.
‘ Since Christmas I have not had a quiet moment, though it is our
vacation. ... I have had to go constantly to London to talk to
missionaries and others. The alphabet is now printed, and yesterday
we had a general conference at Bunsen’s, where all missionary
societies were represented. There are many difficulties, and I am
tired of the whole thing, for it takes up so much of my time, and it is
difficult to fit all missionaries with the same cap ! I was quite alone
here in Oxford at Christmas, to write my treatise on the alphabet,
which had to be printed before the New Year. Since then I have
been living between Oxford and London, and have thus met many
interesting people, which is always a good thing. Bunsen now begins


150 Loss of MSS. [cH. IX
to believe in war, but always says, if the Russians can find a back door, they will yield. But England begins to feel it has had enough, and when they once begin war here, diplomacy can do nothing ; for it is the people that make war here, not the sovereign and ministers. It was very cold early in January and I had some skating. How curious that you should just have been at Jessnitz when the old grandmother died ! One need not lament her death, for her soul must have longed to be free from its old body. No doubt the soul must find it difficult in childhood to accustom itself to the human body, and it takes many years before it is quite at home. Then for a time all goes well, and the soul hardly knows it is hidden in a strange garment, till the body begins to be weakly, and can no longer do all the soul wishes, and presses it everywhere, so that the soul appears to lose all outward freedom and movement. Then one can well understand that we long to be gone, and death is a true deliverance. God always knows best, when the right time comes. I have just been reading Riickert’s poems ; they are very beautiful in spite of a certain weakness, and his latest home poems are full of natural feeling.’
Though much time and thought had been given to the
missionary alphabet, Max MUller’s real interest was with the
second volume of the Rig-veda, which was published early in
this year. The preface is dated Christmas, 1853, and the
printing had been finished by that date, but there was always
some delay about the binding and publishing, which were not
in Max Muller’s hands. With the text of the Hymns in this
volume there had not been much difficulty, but the MSS. of
Sayana’s Commentary were most defective. Max MUller,
before finishing the first volume, had written to India to obtain,
at his own expense, new MSS. for the second. After long
delay he heard that the MSS. which Dr. Roer had secured for
him in Calcutta had been lost by shipwreck. Fortunately,
Professor Wilson received just at this time a complete copy of
the Commentary from Benares, the most ancient copy of Sayana
that had then come to Europe. This he generously gave to
his young friend. It contained many emendations and correc-
tions, which greatly simplified the editor’s labour. The task
had been further lightened by the work of other Vedic scholars,
who, since Max Miiller had begun his edition, had published
many of the works alluded to by Sayana, which, for his first
volume. Max had had to copy and collate for himself, before he


1854] Death of Burnoiif 151
could verify the innumerable quotations. The Sdma-veda had been published by Benfey, and the Yajitr-veda by Weber, whilst Stenzler, Roth, and Whitney had all been active in this field of Sanskrit literature. To all these writers Max MUller acknowledges his indebtedness, and also gratefully men- tions the assistance and active co-operation of his secretary, Dr. Aufrecht, in the latter part of Vol. II — ‘ my learned friend,’ as he calls him, and adds, * The benefit of his services cannot be too highly valued.’ The preface ends with an eloquent tribute to his master and friend, Eugene Burnouf, whose death in 1852 had been an almost irreparable personal loss to Max Miiller, as well as to all Sanskrit students : —
‘ In losing Burnouf we have lost, not only an indefatigable fellow labourer, not only a disinterested teacher, but a most respected judge; in his approval valued by all, in his censure feared, in his verdict distinguished unfailingly by fairness and by truth. . . . When I heard of his death I felt — and I believe that many engaged in similar studies shared the feeling — as if our work had lost much of its charm and its purpose. “ What will Burnouf say ? “ was my earliest thought on completing the first volume of the Rig-veda. And now as I finish the second, in its turn submitted to the judgement of so many scholars whose friendship I value, and whose learning I admire, my thoughts turn again to him who is no longer among us, and I think, not without sadness, of what his judgement would have been.’
Early in February the long uncertainty about the Taylorian Professorship was brought to a close by Max MUller’s nomi- nation by the Curators, confirmed by Convocation on February 21. The Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Cotton, in writing to announce the unanimous election by the Curators, adds, ‘ I feel great satisfaction in the consideration that so eminent and talented a Professor has been elected.’ He hastens to announce his success : —
To F. Palgrave, Esq.
February 8, 1854.
‘ The Professorship has been settled at last, and I got it. I cannot
tell you how happy I feel, after the long suspense, to have at last
a TToC aju) for the rest of this life, and to be able to look on quietly
till the moving panorama comes to an end. I feel now more than
ever that it is owing to the kindness of those who first received me at
Oxford that I owe my further success and my present position — ce


T52 Full Professorship [ch. ix
n’est que le premier pas qui cofite, aud after I was once in the right boat, I was sure to get into harbour sooner or later. I shall write to old Joe. I wish we could all meet again and have a jolly party, as we used to have five or six years ago, when I little thought of what was looming in the future. I hope we shall manage a little gathering after Froude is able to come. He has taken a cottage at Babbicombe for the next year. I was in London for a week, kept from day to day by alphabetic conferences, where I had to act as secretary and to write generally till 3 o’clock in the morning. I had not an hour to myself, and after it was over I had to go to Oxford in order to see that all was going right about the ship. Now it is launched, and I hope to have a pleasant cruise in it.
‘ Ever yours, M. M.’
Bunsen wrote at once to congratulate : —
Translation. February 8.
‘ . . . Your position in Hfe now rests on a firm foundation, . . . and that in this heaven-blest, secure, free island, and at a moment when it is hard to say whether the thrones of princes or the freedom of nations is in greatest danger. With true affection, yours.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, March 10.

‘ I am living in such a turmoil that I can settle to nothing, and
have hardly time to write a letter. I have been made full Professor
this term, and so there have been endless invitations and parties of all
sorts. I am rather tired of it all, and wish I lived some miles out of
Oxford, so as to have my time to myself. You can imagine I was not
a little pleased when everything was definitely settled, but when one
waits so long for a thing it does not give one the same pleasure as
when it comes unexpectedly. But I heartily thank God that my
future is now entirely secured, as far as food and raiment are con-
cerned ! At present I shall stay where I am, and I shall be very sorry
to leave, but I know I must take a larger house in time. I shall stay
here till the Summer Vacation, and then when I come back I will
furnish a small house, in which you can perhaps help me. Or
perhaps you will pay me a visit in the vacation here, instead of my
going to Dresden } I have still a good deal of correspondence with
missionaries, who are not always easy to deal with. Aufrecht is still
working for me, but he lives in another house for himself, and gives
private lessons. He is happy here, and very useful to me, but it is
rather expensive. I shall not want for money, when I think with how
little I managed once. I enclose a little proof of my Professorship ;
you will know what use to make of it. If you want to buy a book,


1854] Languages of the Seat of War 153
I would recommend Tauler’s Sermons ; they are very beautiful, but you must get an edition in modernized German. We already begin to feel the war. Everything is dearer, and the taxes will be doubled. It can’t be helped, and there is no doubt as to the result.’
On March 2J, three days before war was declared against Russia, Max Mliller received a letter from Sir Charles Trevelyan, then Assistant-Secretary to the Treasury, begging officially for his help in directing the officers proceeding to the East how to study the languages of the northern division of the Turkish Empire and the adjoining provinces of Russia. Some private letters had already passed between Sir Charles and the Professor of Modern European Languages, and Max Miiller had written :
‘ That corner of Europe between the North of Italy and Turkey and along the Danube is a real linguistic rookery. All the lost daughters of the European families of languages have taken refuge there ; and they exhibit, each, the lowest degradation and corruption of grammar that can be imagined. In the Albanian we recognize the noble features of Greek ; in Wallachian, those of Latin ; in Bulgarian, those of the Old Slavonic language ; but all sadly distorted and disfigured. Very little has been done toward a literary culture of these dialects, and even grammars are scarce ; there are certainly none in English, as far as I am aware.’
He had prepared a list of elementary grammars and a few
simple instructions, which Sir Charles had imparted to all the
commissariat officers. But the letter, dated March 20, states
that something more than this should be attempted, and adds,
‘ If you agree with me in this, you will at once feel that there
is a call upon you to help in this good work ‘ ; and Sir Charles
entreats Max Mliller to prepare at once a treatise, showing
what languages are spoken in that part of the world, their
general structure, and the alphabets used, and what would be
the most useful books on the respective languages. Sir Charles
concludes thus : ‘ I have only two further suggestions to make,
(i) That whatever you do should be done quickly. Every
part of this great effort is under war pressure. (2) That you
should tell us at once what you know now^ leaving the rest to
be perfected hereafter.’ So heartily did Max Mliller respond
to the call, that by May 16 he was able to send Sir Charles


154 Oriental Studies [ch. ix
his Suggestions for the Assistance of Officers in learning the Languages of the Seat of War in the East. A second edition was required within a year.
In his introductory letter to Sir Charles he first called attention to a subject that continued to occupy his thoughts almost to the end of his life. He writes : —
‘ It is undoubtedly high time that something should be done to encourage the study of Oriental languages in England. At the very outset of this war, it has been felt how much this branch of studies — in emergencies hke the present so requisite — has been neglected in the system of our education. In all other countries which have any political, commercial, or religious connexions with the East, provision has been made, by Government or otherwise, to encourage young men to devote themselves to this branch of studies. Russia has always been a most liberal patron of Oriental philology. In the Academy of St. Petersburg there is a chair for every branch of Oriental literature. The French Government has founded a school, ‘ L’&ole pour les langues orientales vivantes.’ At Vienna there is an Oriental seminary. Prussia finds it expedient to give encouragement to young Oriental scholars, employed afterwards with advantage as consuls and interpreters. In England alone, where the most vital interests are involved in a free intercourse with the East, hardly anything is done to foster Oriental studies.’
Just before the publication of his book, Max writes to Bunsen : —
Translation. Park Place, 1854.
• I am busy with my lectures, and am printing my book on the Languages of the Seat of War, 100 pages, with a very fine map by Petermann, so that I never get to bed before 2 a.m.’

To his mother he writes : —
Translation. Park Place, April ji.
‘ I am so engrossed with work, that I have hardly a free minute, and that will go on till vacation. I cannot feel certain about my plans for travelling. I must spend part of the vacation in Paris, as I must work at a IMS. in the library there. The only thing that draws me to Germany is Auguste, who cannot well leave Chemnitz, otherwise life in Dresden or Dessau is not very attractive, and we might all meet nicely in Paris, if Emilia would come there.
Time becomes more precious every year, and a quarter of a year
is now as important to one as a year was formerly. This shows one


r854] Btmsen’s Resignation 155
is no longer young. One becomes economical with one’s time, and life is so serious just now, one has no right to think of pleasure, when so many men are suffering. And yet it is a war that could not
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:45 pm

be avoided. The Russian lust of conquest and the whole influence of Russia in Europe, especially in Germany, must be thrown back on its own borders, or we should have to fight the battles which are now being fought on the Danube, on the Elbe or Rhine. It will be a terrible war, but one cannot doubt the issue, for England, when war once begins, puts forth her whole strength, and the feeling that you are fighting for a just cause keeps up the courage even in disaster.’
But whilst realizing the necessity of the war. Max MUller was to be indirectly one of the many sufferers from it. His friend and patron, Bunsen, could not approve the attitude of Prussia, and it was widely known that his recall from England was imminent. George Bunsen, Max MUUer’s most intimate friend of all Bunsen’s sons, writes to him :
Carlton Terrace, April 14.
‘ Dearest Friend, — So it is. My father has not up to this moment received a recall. On the other hand, we expect to-morrow the reply to an answer sent by my father to a renewed and very impetuous offer of leave of absence. In this answer my father made his accepting leave of absence dependent on certain conditions guaranteeing his poli- tical honour. If the reply to-morrow does not contain those con- ditions, nothing remains but for my father to send in his resignation.’
To F. Palgrave, Esq.
9, Park Place, April i8, 1854.
‘ . . . I should like to have seen you when you heard of Scott’s appointment. I am afraid you did not use quite parliamentary language on the occasion; I neither, particularly as, up to the last, Jowett’s chances seemed as clear and certain as could be, without downright bargaining. I am sorry to see that Jowett feels it very much, and I think just now some testimonial from his friends, like the one you contemplated some time ago, would be very opportune.
Could you persuade Richmond to do his portrait ? I think it might be
done for about £100, and I am sure we could get as much from his
friends. What do you say ? Vacation is nearly over, and I have not
yet been away, though I intended to go to the seaside and get fresh
air. But I have to do some work for the Government, and have been
at it day and night, working against time. I hope we shall hear
something from the Black Sea soon. The slowness of these people


156 Work for Bunsen [ch. ix
is intolerable ; they are always a day too late. I congratulate Bunsen on having got out of the claws of the Black Eagle. I dare say he will get the next vacant seat on the Episcopal bench in England !
‘ Ever yours, M. M.’
Besides the work for the Government, Max Miiller was busy-
in printing his essay on the Turanian languages for Bunsen’s
book, which had grown under his hands, and had had to be
put aside whilst the missionary alphabet was printing. The
dilatoriness of the printers in London caused him and Bunsen
much trouble, as the work had to be finished before Bunsen
left England, and though Max Miiller worked through half
the night whenever a proof-sheet appeared, his letters are full
of despair. Bunsen writes on May 10, ‘ The work presses,’
but did not seem to realize that the delay was not with Max
nor in Oxford. In the same letter the Minister, writing for
the last time from Carlton Terrace, says, ‘ The house is
deserted, but the heart rejoices, and the soul already spreads
its wings.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, May 12.

‘ Bunsen’s resignation is a real loss to me. I saw him in London — the house is now empty. Yet one can only congratulate him on having saved his good name, at the right moment. His leaving gave me a great deal of work and disturbance. He is just bringing out a new book in seven volumes. I had various things to write for him, and as it had to be ready by the twentieth, I never got to bed be ore two. Now I have undertaken a work for Government, which is just printed. Then came the lectures, and the Veda above all, so that I really have not a moment to think of or do anything else, and can say nothing about my plans for summer.’
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. Oxford, May 22.

‘ I cannot believe that you think of leaving England. Surely the
Prussian crisis cannot last much longer, and when it is over, you will
have to return to Carlton Terrace. Whilst writing the word believe,
I think of a question I meant to ask. To believe, as far as I know,
means “to be “ — lieben ; Lat. liber e and lubereJ
To THE Same.
Translation. Oxford, June 8.

‘ Are you really leaving as soon as Acland tells me ? If this is so,
I must go to London on Saturday or Sunday, the only days I can get


1854] Bunsen leaves England 157
away, as I am giving my lectures. I still wait, and still hope, a new Prussia will arise, which cannot do without you here in England. England begins to feel like a strange land to me, when I think that you are really going. Will you not wait till Hippolytus is out ? The printer does not seem in any hurry.’
On June 12 Bunsen, writing to his wife, who had gone to Heidelberg to settle his future home, mentions that he had had ‘a delightful day with Max Miiller.’ Five days later, this faithful friend left England, and Max felt as if stranded in a foreign land. Too much occupied at this time with his work to write more than very short letters to his mother, in all of them he expresses his sense of loss. Bunsen’s house in London had been a second home to him, where he was always sure of a welcome, always sure of encouragement and sym- pathy, of intellectual intercourse, and of that intelligent interest in his work and the far-reaching problems which it unfolded, which he missed so sorely in his daily life in Oxford, where hardly any one understood the work on which he was engaged, or took a real interest in it, or were capable of discussing it with him scientifically.
‘ In all my researches,’ he writes in ihe Autobiography, ‘no one took a livelier interest or encouraged me more than Bunsen. When some of my translations of the Vedic Hymns seemed fairly satisfactory, I used to take them to him, and he was always delighted at seeing a little more of that ancient Aryan torso, though ... he was more especially interested in Egyptian chronology and archaeology. Often when I was alone with him, we discussed the chronological and psycho- logical dates of Egyptian and Aryan antiquity.’
The last left of the daughters of that large and happy family writes : —
To Mrs. Max MiJller.
Carlsruhe, December 13, 1901.
‘ My memory now only recalls impressmis of your dear husband.
The charm of his whole being, his beautiful, almost Greek profile, his
wonderful playing, specially of Mendelssohn and Chopin, and delightful
power of interesting and fascinating one by his conversation, all that
is still very clear and warm in my recollection ; and we girls all fully
understood my father’s admiration, and fatherly love, and interest in
him. . . . He did not live in Carlton Terrace with us, only came
in and out, and of course was chiefly closeted with my father in his


158 Nehemiah Nilkanth [ch. ix
library below ; and we only saw him at meals, or when he had time
to look us up in the drawing-rooms, and there, I well remember, we
tried as soon as possible to get him to sit at the pianoforte and play
to us. ‘Very truly yours,
‘Emilia von Bunsen.’


It was soon after the parting with his friend and patron that Max Miiller heard from Sir Charles Trevelyan that he was thoroughly satisfied with his treatise : ‘ I cannot bestow higher praise upon it than by saying that it appears to me com- pletely to answer the important object for which it was written.’ Bunsen, too, wrote : ‘ I read your book . . . with real delight and sincere admiration.’
The following letter from Dr. John Muir, the editor of Original Sanskrit Texts, or the Origin and History of the People of India, and later the munificent founder of the San- skrit Professorship in Edinburgh, then just returned from twenty-five years’ service in India, contains the first mention of a man of whom Max Miiller always spoke with reverential affection : —
33, Sussex Gardens, /z^«(? 26, 1854.
‘ My dear Sir, — It may interest you to know that there is at present in London a Pundit from Benares, though he has become a Christian. He has come to England with the Maharaja Duleep Singh, as a sort of tutor or companion to His Highness. His name is Nehemiah Nilkanth, the former appellative having been adopted by him according to his own wish on the occasion of his baptism. He was not a pro- fessed Pundit in the sense of being a teacher of Sanskrit Grammar, or of any of the Six Darsanas or any other branch, but he is a Sanskrit scholar, being able to write the language accurately and fluently, and having a general knowledge of the philosophical schools. At the commencement of his inquiries into Christianity, he wrote an answer to one of my tracts (a former edition of the Mataparikshd), composed in Sanskrit verse. After long and painful inquiries and struggles, he became convinced of the truth of Christianity, which he accordingly embraced. He has latterly been employed as a catechist ; and when Dr. Login (who has charge of the Maharaja) was leaving India, he brought Nilkanth along with him.
‘ If, therefore, you are curious to see a specimen of a Pundit without
going beyond London, your wish can be gratified, and if you desire


1854] Visit to Germany 159
it, I shall be glad to go with you to Dr. Login at Mivart’s in Brook Street, if you are likely to be soon in London. Nilkanth, since his conversion, has written a tract in Hindoo against the Vcddnla, which is interesting as an exposition of what he considers the doctrine of that school. He knew some English when I last saw him, and is probably improved in his knowledge of it now.
‘ Believe me, yours very faithfully,
‘ John Muir.’
Nehemiah Goreh came to Oxford to see Max MUller, and they became, after a short time, very intimate. Nehemiah had suffered cruelly for his change of religion, and on his return to India his mind seems to have lost its balance, and after some years of asceticism and complete renunciation of the world, he joined the branch of the Cowley Fathers estab- lished in India. Up to that time, he had written to and heard from Max Mliller from time to time. When he revisited England and Oxford many years later, he was so completely under the discipline of the Brotherhood, that it was only the very day that he left Oxford, where he had spent many weeks, that he was allowed to visit his old friend for a few moments, and the visit gave little pleasure to either. ‘ He was steeped in the Christianity of the Church,’ which Max always distin- guished from ‘ the Christianity of Christ.’
In July Max MUller went to Germany, and with his mother revisited his sister and many other relations.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. CnEumTZ, July 30, 1854.
‘I received your last friendly letter from Heidelberg, just as I had
struck my tent in Oxford, and was on my way to Germany. Since
then I have been always on the move from place to place, and never
had any rest or a moment for writing. Now I have finished my visits,
and am going on a few longer expeditions, and your kind invitation
draws me westward to Heidelberg, and thence I hope to go to
Switzerland, North Italy, Venice, and Vienna. My plan is to start
in a few days with my mother, to pay a few visits on the way, to see
Riickert and reach Heidelberg about the middle of August. I hope
to stay there with my mother for a fortnight, and as it is not so far
from Heidelberg to your house as from the City to the West End,
I hope to renew the happy hours which, only a short time ago,


i6o Visit to Heidelberg [ch. ix
I could spend with you in Carlton Terrace. I do not know Heidel- berg, and your account has made me long to see the Academia Nicorina. Then I hope we shall be reconciled about Aryans or Iranians, about which I do not care to speak from Chemnitz, as no philological wind blows here. The middle of August I expect some friends in Heidelberg, perhaps Jowett, and we may go on together to Italy and Vienna. Unfortunately I must be back by October i, as the Election takes place then. I have not yet heard whether the Bill has been sent back to the Commons, and what changes have been made in it, but I fear I must be at my post by the beginning of term. The parties are nearly equal, and each vote tells. Dissenters are admitted, but Gladstone has done much harm, and the Commissioners are very much restricted in carrying out the needed reforms, at least in what concerns the colleges. The advance of public opinion in Oxford is remarkable, when one thinks how quickly it has come.’
After a pleasant time in Heidelberg, where he was able to introduce to his friends his dearly loved mother, of whom Bunsen writes later as ‘ your remarkable mother,’ Max Miiller joined his old friend Baron Hagedorn, and with him visited Worms, Speyer, Baden-Baden, and the Black Forest, and went on alone to spend a week at Vienna with his friend Robert Morier, then secretary at the English Embassy. Italy had to be given up on account of cholera. From Vienna he went again for a time to his mother in Dresden, and finally returned to Oxford early in October, where he tells his mother he had a rapturous welcome from his little dog Belle. He writes on his return that he is feeling so very well that he has no qualms of conscience over his three months’ idleness, and adds, ‘ If we can be together three months in the year, free from all cares, we can bear the other nine months, and if the parting is always very painful, it is made up for by the joy of meeting.’
During the summer. Max MUller received from time to time, through Sir Charles Trevelyan, letters from officers, consuls, and others on his Languages of the Seat of War, many of them containing valuable corrections which he embodied in the second edition. The consul at Mitylene wrote, ‘ I have received Miiller’s admirable memoir, and must thank him for the pleasure and instruction it has afforded me. It is like letting in broad daylight on a subject which had been hitherto explored by a farthing rushlight.’


1854] Fronde and Kingsley 161
To HIS Mother.
Translation. November ii, 1854.
‘ I tried on your birthday to play a little, but I have no time now for such things. I have a great deal of work in prospect, and however great the delight I feel in music and art, my work comes before everything else. My free time I must give to walking, which is most necessary; and to get stronger exercise I play racquets, which makes one perspire even more than camomile tea. When one is nearly thirty-one, one must be economical of one’s time, and give up many things that are a pleasure, but for which one’s time is loo precious. How many things I would like to read, but there is no time, and I must be content. One’s delight in music always lasts, and I owe the old instrument so much — not only the enjoyment one has had, and the use my music has been as an introduction in a foreign place, but also the happy frame of mind which music unconsciously produces in one, and it smooths many little roughnesses which one often sees in those who have no taste for music. People who cannot sing are almost as badly off as people who cannot cry, but one does not always want to cry, nor always to sing ; if we know that we can, it is enough.’
In this same letter he mentions that the cholera had been so bad in Oxford — worse than anywhere else in England — that the lectures had, many of them, been postponed.
To THE Same.
Translation. Oxford, December 10.

‘ I must thank you for all your love, which is the best of birthday gifts. As I took up your birthday letter, I wondered where the smell of violets came from, and when I opened it and found them, the scent was as fresh as if they were just picked ; and even now, as your letter lies on my table, they have not lost it. Your letter too is full of love and goodness, which remains ever fresh. But I must tell you I was ‘ not in Oxford on my birthday, but in Bideford. I was first with Froude, who lives at Torquay, and then I went with him to Bideford to stay with Kingsley. He is a well-known writer, and his last novel Hypatia has made a great sensation. He is married to a sister of Fronde’s wife, and they are both charming. I played to them on my birthday, and thought of you. ... I shall probably be quietly in Oxford at Christmas, unless I go to George Bunsen’s wedding; he is engaged to an English lady. . . . Here one hears of nothing but the war . . . the losses are very great. Taxes are very high, six per cent, now, and we are to be prepared for ten per cent.’
I M


i62 Macaiday [ch. ix
To THE Same.
Translatiott. Oxford, December 28.

‘ I spent Christmas quietly here, for I had wasted so much time that it was high time to begin my work again. On Monday, as I was drinking my coffee, came your letter, and soon after I received your picture, which I like very much. ... I made acquaintance this time in London with Macaulay, and had a long conversation with him on the teaching necessary for the young men who are sent out to India. He is very clear headed, and extraordinarily eloquent.’
This must be the interview so humorously described in Auld Lang Syne ^ vv^here the young Professor, primed with every possible argument in favour of Oriental studies, had to sit silent for an hour whilst the historian poured forth his dia- metrically opposite views, and then dismissed his visitor, who had tried in vain to utter a single word. ‘ I went back to Oxford,’ says Max MUller, ‘a sadder, and, I hope, a wiser man.’
The New Year found Max Miiller quietly at work in Oxford. He had been to London, intending to accompany his friend George Bunsen to Norfolk for his wedding, but serious illness in the bride’s family prevented any but the nearest relatives from being present. Max’s mother had been urging him to follow his friend’s example — a favourite them.e with her — and she amused herself from time to time in recommending him a wife.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, January.
‘ That you are so anxious to find me a wife is very good of you ! But I am afraid there are difficulties, and in such things we must take life as God sends it. A happy marriage must be a great blessing, but how few marriages are happy. I have no opportunity of really knowing and observing young girls, as one can if one lives at home, and where families know each other, and live much together. I should not fall in love with a merely pretty face, and for a mariage de convenance there is plenty of time. Elise, who delighted you so much in Carlsbad, seemed to me pleasant enough ; but, as I had no opportunity of knowing her better, I have never thought more about her. If you are writing, greet her kindly, but don’t make any pro- posals for her hand ! Perhaps if Krug sends you this year to Carlsbad, you can tell me if she is the sort of daughter-in-law you would like.


1855] Reforms in Oxford 163
Sunday is my best day for writing letters, as I get up early, and go at eight o’clock to our chapel, and have the whole day then to myself. Getting up so early at this time of the year is not pleasant ; but the chapels here in the colleges are so beautiful, so warm, and so well arranged that one is far more comfortable in them than in our large cold churches.’
Bunsen had written to him earlier in the month to express his pleasure that Max Miiller ‘ would undertake to bring the last sevenfold child of my English love ‘ {Christianity and Mankind^ in seven volumes) ‘ into public notice. You know better than any one what is the unity of the seven volumes, and what is the aim and result. Your own is certainly an important and independent part of it. But you have, with old affection, worked and thought yourself into the whole, even when the particulars were of less interest to you.’ To this the following answer was sent : —
Translation. 9, Park Place, OxYom), January 14, 1855.
‘Philip Pusey seems quite unexpectedly better. Acland had very little hope, but thinks it quite possible now that his life will be spared. He is living still with his brother in Oxford, and as I have had little intercourse with the latter, I cannot call there to inquire. His brother has engaged a tutor for Sidney, who now reads with him, but his chief studies are Pusey’s folios, the Patres and the Haeretici. Oxford is in a sad condition ; the reform has done nothing, and we are worse off than before. Balliol has declared that Dissenters will not be admitted ; but the minority has appealed to the Bishop of Lincoln, who has cancelled the resolution. Gladstone’s Bill has introduced a com- plicated and impractical system, which suffocates all proposals for the better. There is only one chance of salvation for Oxford — fellowships open to all and no clerical restrictions. If this were done we should have a very different Oxford in about twenty years. At present lay- fellows are only admitted as fellows for a certain period — if they are admitted to an open fellowship at all. What remains therefore is nothing but the coffee-grounds which nobody desires to have — clergy- men without a parish and scholars without scholarships ! I often long to get away. I cannot, especially as a German, take part in these things ; my old friends leave, and I have no wish to make new ones, and so the MSS. of the Veda are my one consolation.
T have written a review on the philological part of your work; I told Dasent ^ about it a fortnight ago, but I have had no answer so far.
• Editor of the Times.
M Q,


164 Dr. Pusey [ch. ix
‘Aufrecht has at last made up his mind to go to London. I have written to Dr. Jelf, who may probably secure for him the Sanskrit Professorship at King’s College, I shall look out for some- body later on, who will do the mechanical work of copying and compiling, so that I shall only have the constructing of the text to do. Aufrecht was too good for this mechanical work. I do hope he will succeed better in London than here. ... I think of going to Paris in the summer, to study there, and to get acquainted with the people, if only there were no Exhibition. And what about the war ? — I hope there will be no peace till Sebastopol has fallen.’
(Continuation on Mojiday.)
*I received your letter this morning, which made me reflect, Alea iada est, but where and how ? The old Prussia is lost, and a new one can only rise from a Protestant, constitutional Germany. The hour for that must soon be at hand, for I do not believe in the peace negotiations. If once the struggle becomes widespread, it will be the voice of the people that will secure the welfare of the Fatherland. In war and in peace, in death and in life, the people must have a voice, and it could never wait for the word of command to emanate from one family. Peace now would be a great disaster.
‘ I wish the notice of your book had fallen into better hands. Dasent told me that the second part of his review of the first edition had not passed the censor \ and so had never been printed. After hearing this, I did what I could, i.e. I explained the connexion of the whole — but it is for the Times, and the times are bad ! ‘
It will be observed that in the beginning of this letter
Max Miiller speaks of having had little intercourse with
Dr. Pusey. When he was made an M.A. of Christ Church,
he attended chapel regularly, and Dr. Pusey at once an-
nounced that he would never administer the Holy Communion
to him, as he had only been confirmed in the Lutheran Church
• not by a bishop ! The Dean, Dr. Gaisford, at once said that he had no scruples of the sort. This, of course, made a feel- ing of estrangement for some years between Dr. Pusey and the young Professor ; but it passed away gradually, and in i860, at the time of the election to the Sanskrit Professorship, it IS well known that Max MUller had no warmer supporter or more energetic canvasser than Dr. Pusey, who sat up

^ Mr. Walter, proprietor of the Times, saw almost all articles that touched on religious subjects.


1855] Dr. Piisey 165
many nights writing letters in his favour. Max always remembered and alluded to this with gratitude. His feelings about Pusey form some of the most interesting passages in the AiitobiograpJiy. Their religious views were far asunder. Max Muller, who, as he tells us, had learnt his practical religion from his mother, which remained unshaken amidst all storms, could not sympathize with the utter terror with which Dr. Pusey looked back on his own religious difficulties, as if they were in themselves a crime. Max always felt that ‘ religion, in order to be real religion, a man’s own religion, must be searched for, must be discovered, must be conquered. If it is simply inherited, or accepted as a matter of course, it often happens that in later years it falls away, and has either to be reconquered, or to be replaced by another religion.’
How completely all distrust of Max Muller had passed from Dr. Pusey’s mind, is shown by the following extract from a letter from his daughter, Mrs. Brine : —
‘ . . , I remember well the happy walks my father and I used to have through the Parks up to your house, when he wanted to consult Professor ]\Iax Muller on some abstruse questions. You know the very high esteem in which my father held the Professor.’
In February Bunsen writes to Max MUller: —
Translation.
‘I am delighted to hear that your Veda gets on. If you would only not allow yourself to be frightened from the attempt to let others work for you in mere handicraft. You have now fixed your impress on the work, and any one with the will, and with the necessary knowledge of the tools, could not go far wrong under your eye. I should so like to see you free for other work. Only do not leave Oxford. You would not like Germany, and Germany could offer you no sphere of activity that could be compared ever so distantly with your present position. So do not be low-spirited, my dear M., or impatient. It is not so much the fault of England, as of yourself, that you do not feel settled and at home. You have now as good a position as a young man of intellect, and with a future before him, could possibly have anywhere, either in England or Germany. Make a home for yourself. Since I saw your remarkable mother, I have been convinced that, unlike many mothers, she would not stand in the way of your domestic happiness, even were it contrary to her own views.’


t66 Crimean Winter [ch. ix
To HIS Mother.
Translation. February 25, 1855.
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‘ There has not been such a winter in England for twenty years — even the Thames is frozen over, and here in Oxford the cold was un- bearable, for the open fires are not as warm as a German stove. The one pleasure is the skating, which one generally gets for a couple of days only — this frost has lasted for weeks. You must have felt the cold, if you have carried out your stove-economies, and used a lamp instead of fire. I am very busy with my lectures, and am printing a second edition of my Languages of the Seat of War, and there are many other things which fill up my time. The war becomes more complicated, but we must hope that they will not make peace hurriedly, so that the victims will have fallen in vain. Here people are very much excited, chiefly from the constant change of Ministers and the incapacity of the highest officials. It is a real revolution, only such crises pass over quietly here, but the effect is the same. The aristocratic party must yield before it comes to street fighting. I have made no plans for the summer. I must stay here during vacation, unless I go to Paris for work. If you have really meanwhile found a wife for me, that may make a difference, but I am not at all inclined for one ! ‘
In March, Max MUller tells his mother of a visit to London, where he had made acquaintance with Lord Ashburton, ‘ one of the richest peers in England, and a patron of literature.’ He stayed with his friend George Bunsen, and laments that his pleasant, amiable, and rich wife has no sister to take the place of Elise of Carlsbad, who was going to be married, much to his mother’s disappointment ! True to his determination to spare his mother all anxiety, he never betrayed what his real feelings were.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. 9, Park Place, Oxford, April 15, 1855.
‘ . . . I chiefly work at the Veda now, and have just sent an essay on Vedic burials to the German Oriental fournal. It is always the same story with Aufrecht, and, alas, no position seems to turn up for him. Jowett has been in London for the whole term ; his Commentary is printed and is to appear soon. I expect few facts, but free and open treatment of the matter. Tischendorff” appeared here in Oxford with all his various Orders and MSS. I hope to get the latter accepted by the Bodleian. Are they really worth £800 after having been collated and edited ? ‘


1855] Kosmos of Language 167
On April 17 Bunsen wrote to thank Max Muller for an article on his Outlines : —
Tra7islati07i.
‘ You have so thoroughly adopted the English disguise that it will not be easy for any one to suspect you of having written this “ curious article.” It especially dehghts me to see how ingeniously you contrive to say what you announce you do not wish to discuss, i.e. the purport of the theology. In short, we are all of opinion that your cousin was right when she said of you in Paris to Neukomm, that you ought to be in the diplomatic service ! ‘
The letter goes on to sketch out a new work in which Bunsen was anxious for Max MUller’s co-operation, The Kosmos of Language, in four volumes — the second and fourth volumes to be entirely the work of Max Miiller, and half of volume three — and Bunsen asks his friend to Heidelberg, or to Nice in the winter, to discuss the whole scheme.
Translation. 9, Park Place, Oxford, April 26, 1855.
‘ Alas ! I cannot send any definite answer to your kind proposals. My news from home are bad. My mother has been very ill and her recovery is very slow. She is ordered to go to Carlsbad in the summer, and wishes me to go with her, and this seems almost im- possible. Last year even I meant to go to Paris to study there, and to occupy myself with the collation and copying of various MSS. I have been hindered for several years in concluding and finishing various works of mine by not knowing these said MSS. My plan therefore is to spend the summer in Paris, and to give some years entirely to the close study of the Veda, and therefore meanwhile to let the Science 0/ Language alone. The second part of the review in the Times has after all appeared amidst cries and wailing. Nobody seems to know in the least who is the writer of the article, and I have already assisted in various Common Rooms to abuse it, without betraying myself by the movement of a muscle. The gloom here is widespread. As it was said of France in 1847, “La France s’ennuie,” so it may be said here now, John Bull is sulky. He has still thought it possible that men like Aberdeen, Clarendon, Palmerston, &c., could at least have brought Austria round. But as he sees that even that could not be managed, he turns disagreeable. Parliament will have to be dissolved, and a numerous national party will choose statesmen like Layard, Lowe, Bright, Cobden, &c. Whigs and Tories are done for.’
It was in this spring that Max Miiller joined in a delightful
geological excursion to Malvern, which he often mentioned


i68 Geology round Malvern [ch. ix
later with unfeigned delight. The following account is from one of the party, Canon Farrar : —
‘ It was in 1855 that I had the opportunity of knowing Max Miiller more closely, and seeing his mind employed on a new subject, Geology, in an interesting excursion to the Malvern Hills under the guidance of Professor Phillips, who wisely proposed to utilize the three days’ vacation which at that time separated the two summer terms at Whitsuntide, by taking a party to visit the igneous formations of the Malvern Hills. The party was of graduates, except one gentleman commoner. The only survivor besides myself is the Rev. H. F. Tozer.
We hired a country hotel at IVIalvern Wells, and thence made
excursions under the Professor’s guidance. Miiller was one of the
party. He had only lately taken up the subject of Geology ; the
practical application of it in field work was new to him, and therefore
he afforded unintentionally to us the means of watching the workings
of his mind, both in observation and reflection. I recall at the interval
of forty-six years his looks of surprise and of intelligent delight. He
was amazed by the mineralogical transformations, but what struck
him most was the odd fragments which were indications of obliterated
rock formations. He was fascinated by the inferences which Phillips
drew. I cannot but suspect that there was in his mind the perception
of the close analogy offered by his own favourite study of the history
of language. These fragments of early strata were parallel to the
presence of roots or old forms of words embedded in later linguistic
strata. The second day of our stay was Sunday : most of the party
gave themselves a holiday, and did not go to church. But Phillips
and Miiller accompanied me and some others to the Abbey Church of
Great Malvern. I hope that I am not lifting indelicately the veil
from sacred acts, if I say that it being Whit- Sunday, and there being
Communion, to my surprise both Miiller and Phillips stopped to
partake of the Communion. I name this, for the reason that I suppose
that in Oxford it would have been thought that the two men just
named were, though Christians in life, most indefinite in their religious
views, and probably suspected of excessive broadness. The sight of
these two laymen, whose stay at the Eucharist must of course have
been prompted solely by sincere religious principle, impressed me
much ; it was a rebuke to many of us clergymen, and led me to a life-
long conviction that a depth of Christian purpose without formal
profession exists in many a heart, undiscovered by man, and I often
thought of this occurrence, when Miiller, at the time of his rejection
for the Sanskrit chair, was unfairly charged with the irrelevant question
of Rationalism. After the service, our small party mounted to the


1855] Examiner for Indian Civil Service 169
top of the hills and listened to PhiUips pointing out not only the physical and topographical geography of the vast panorama, but explaining the reasons by which he reproduced the probable con- figuration of the country, of land and sea, at the distant period of the elevation of the hills. This again seemed to impress Miiller deeply. While he revelled in the beauty of the scene, he had never before heard physical geography in a large landscape connected with geology, with the extinct flora and fauna made to live again in Phillips’ description. Our next day, Monday, was spent in a fatiguing walk along the southern half of the hills. Here MuUer had for the first time the opportunity of seeing two British camps ; one of them, the Herefordshire beacon, of gigantic size and remarkable construc- tion, to which ancient German camps offer hardly any parallel. IMiiller showed an equal interest in archaeological as in geological history.’
For the May Term of this year Max Miiller announced for the first time a course of reading and working lectures, ‘ sine ulla solennitate,’ and from this time onwards gave one such course each year. This first class was for reading extracts from German classics to illustrate the history of German literature. His lectures continued to be well attended ; there are above seventy names of undergraduates in one term for certificates of attendance, and the more private classes were also very popular. The wide range of investigation which Max Miiller contrived to bring within the scope of modern languages and literature and the vivacity and picturesqueness with which every subject was treated were totally unlike the usual professorial lecture, and he continued to attract large audiences till tutorial teaching gradually destroyed the attendance at Professors’ lectures.
Early in June, Max Miiller was placed on the commission for the examination of the candidates for the Civil Service of India, and appointed examiner in Sanskrit. The pre- liminary meetings he found very interesting, and the constant visits to London gave him opportunities of seeing many old friends. He was busy with the examination in July, and wa^ then asked to undertake the German and French examinations for commissions in the Engineers and Artillery, which included the history and literature as well as the grammar of both languages.


lyo Visit to Paris [ch. ix
The middle of August Max Miiller settled himself in Paris, glad to have the change from England and all the work he had been doing. He found Gathy and other old friends there, and began to work at collating and copying the MSS. he had specially come to see. His mother, however, when she knew that the sea no longer separated them, became impatient to see him, and the end of the month he started for Dresden, where he stayed a fortnight.
On his return from Dresden he found Paris so full for the Exhibition that it was with difficulty he secured a room for himself, and an apartment for his cousin Emilie and her husband Prince Wilhelm. Princess Friedrich of Anhalt- Dessau and her two daughters were also in Paris, and, as Max Miiller soon found, he was expected to act as cicerone to the whole party ; so he gave up all idea of work, and spent the short time that remained before his return to England in a round of amusements. He tells his mother he was never quiet from morning till night, and that he had explored Paris again from end to end. There were delightful excursions to Fontainebleau and Versailles, constant visits to the Exhibition, whilst almost every evening was spent at the theatre. The princesses, accustomed to a stiff little German court, were delighted with the freedom of the life, the dinners at the cafes, and the gaiety of the city, and were very pleasant and amused at everything. Max Miiller, however, was not sorry when the arrival of the old family friend, Baron Hagedorn, set him free to return to his busy, yet quiet, life in England.
To his mother he writes before leaving Paris : —
Translation.
‘ It is tiresome, though, that my plans for work were all upset, but it can’t be helped ; one must take life as it comes, and do one’s duty by others, when it is necessary. The summer has been a happy one, and I am quite satisfied. We had a happy time together in Dresden — happier than I had dared to hope for.’
On his return home, Max Miiller found himself involved in
a controversy on the examinations for the Indian Civil
Service. He entirely agreed that the first examination
should be a test of that liberal education which can be
obtained at our schools and universities, and that a small


i855] Death of Belle 171
number of marks should then be given for Arabic or Sanskrit. But in the second examination he was anxious that high marks should be given for Sanskrit as the origin of nearly- all the spoken languages of India, and that the vernaculars should be studied in India, when a man knew in which presidency his life would be passed, and which vernaculars he would really require. In Mr. Lowe’s reconstruction of Macaulay’s scheme, Sanskrit had been set aside in favour of vernaculars. Max Miiller wished to see 1,000 marks for Oriental languages divided into 800 for Sanskrit and 2co for one vernacular.
The lectures this term were on ‘The History of the Lan- guages of Europe,’ with again a good attendance. Great part of the term was spent in looking for a house, as the lodgings where he had lived since the autumn of 1848 were now too small for his rapidly growing library, though it had not yet attained the dimensions of later years, some 13,000 volumes. The choice of houses was very limited in those days : none of those to the north of St. Giles’ Church then existed, except some half-dozen in Park Town, which was considered an impossible distance from Oxford for a Professor!
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, November 9.
• Everything goes on again as usual. Lectures, work, parties, and one day follows another without anything special to mark it. But a holiday does one good, and one’s work goes on all the better after a time of thorough idleness. Only think, my poor Belle has been very ill ever since I came home, and cannot die ; she is a perfect skeleton. The people say I ought to give her poison, but I can’t do it, though she is hopelessly ill. ... I have long had fires, and the weather is cold and disagreeable, just like England, and then every night I must make myself wretched with a heavy English dinner, whilst in Paris one never felt one had eaten anything. Yet Emilie will tell you we did not live so badly there ! ‘

The end of November his faithful little companion for seven years, little Belle the terrier, so well known to his old friends, died. Max tells his mother that it had made him very unhappy, and he missed the little creature terribly.
Max MUller, who had been made an honorary M.A., as we


I


172 M.A. by Decree [ch.


IX


have seen, in December, 1851, was made M.A. by Decree of Convocation on December 13 of this year.
To HIS Mother.
Translatmi. 9, Park Place, December 28.

‘ There is little to tell you about my Christmas. Oxford is nearly empty in the vacation, so one does not see much festivity. But the week before Christmas I enjoyed myself very much. I went to a friend (Augustus Vansittart) in Cambridge, which I had not yet seen, and most beautiful it is, in some points more beautiful than Oxford, which is saying a great deal. Everybody was very hospitable, and for a whole week I had to eat four dinners daily, for breakfast, luncheon, dinner, and supper were all like a gala dinner in Germany. Four times a day roast pheasant, and never in bed before 2 o’clock. It was real feasting, and I am only surprised that I could eat my way through without headaches. I came back through London, and dined with one of the Ministers, where I met . . . Sir Colin Campbell, the English general from the Crimea ; and then I went to the Latin Play by the scholars of Westminster School. So you see one can amuse oneself here, if not at Christmas, but beforehand.’
Towards the close of this year Renan wrote a sharp attack on Max Muller’s Turanian article in Bunsen’s Christianity and Mankind. The attack appeared in Renan’s Histoire gi^nerale des langues shnitiqnes. Max Miiller complained bitterly of the passage in a letter to Stanislas Julien, which he, with childlike innocence, showed to Renan, who wrote a long explanatory letter to Max Miiller, in which he re- peated the very point that was really the cause of offence, i. e. that in that essay Max had been under the influence of Bunsen, and had written it more to command than from con- viction. Owing to the indiscretion of Stanislas Julien, the quarrel threatened to become serious, as Max Miiller could not but feel that his honour as a writer had been called in question. He wrote a review of Renan’s Gravimaire Simitiqtie which amounted to a fierce attack upon the book. Bunsen wrote to Max Miiller : —
Translation. December 2, 1855.
‘ I send you these lines ... to stop if possible your wrath against
Renan. He confesses in his letter “ Ma plume m’a trahi” ; he has partly
said what he thinks, and partly said what he does not think But his


1855] Controversy with Renan 173
note is not that of an enemy. You must deal gently with him. You will do it, will you not, for my sake ? ‘
Renan, too, wrote : ‘ Pardonnez-moi. Je n’ai pas compris ce que vous vouliez dire.’ On this Max Miiller suppressed the pamphlet, though already printed, and they gradually became great friends.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. December 25, 1855.

‘ . . . Your next work, God in History, will be a joy to read, for the
beginning of the God-consciousness in the Veda has much occupied
me of late, and has made me enter into depths of human consciousness
hitherto unknown to me. The Veda alone of all works I know treats
of a genesis of God-consciousness, compared to which the Theogony
of Hesiod is like a worn-out creature. We see it grow slowly and
gradually with all its contradictions, its sudden terrors, its amazements,
and its triumphs. As God reveals His Being in nature, in her order,
her wisdom, her indestructibility, in the eternal victory of light over
darkness, of spring over winter, in the eternally returning course of
the sun and the stars, so man has gradually spelt out of nature the
Being of God, and after trying a thousand names for God in vain,
we find him in the Veda already saying : They call Him Indra, Mitra,
Varun(2; then they call Him the Heavenly, the bird with beautiful
wings; — that which is One they call in various ways; they call it
Agni, Sama, IMatarisvan. The belief in Immortality is only the other
side as it were of the God-consciousness, and both are originally
natural to the Aryan race. “ As the sun sets, yet never dies, but “h* j
returns,” says the old Aryan, “ neither shall I go into non-existence, I
but I shall live with the sun.” The non-existence he denies as often as he can, and in the Veda the a sat is the night of nature, which is nothing, though it frightens man and torments him, but just on account of that very thing makes him most sensitive to belief in and to hope of the ever-returning light. The Veda is inexhaustible, and the more I long to get to a close, the more I feel how much there remains still to be done, and yet I feel it a great blessing that such work has been given to me to do as the daily occupation of my life — and then everything seems to become indifferent, even if Monsieur Renan reviles me !
‘ In Oxford everything proceeds slowly but well. Liddell has been made Dean ; he has a difficult position, but he is surely planted, and nobody will succeed in moving him away again. It is said that the Prince of Wales will be with him, but that may only be a report.
Secondly, Jowett is established, and Pusey gets angry about him, and


174


Sir B. Brodie


is sure to accuse him of heresy, and so secure him much greater influence. Pusey is very dangerous, and his influence is again on the increase. He seems to have designs on me, and I am on my guard. Then there is Thomson, Provost of Queen’s, honest and friendly. Vaughan is also to come to Oxford. Brodie has been made Professor without signing the Articles, my own case preceding his, but he had a stronger case, being an Englishman. Everything was tried against him, even secret surprises at the voting, after making it known that no contest would take place. Everybody was afraid of a sudden attack at nightfall ; the guards were called out, and the ambuscade found itself confronted by a picket which towered above them. Everything cannot go exactly as we wish, but the avalanche rolls in the right direction.
‘ What a beautiful speech Prince Albert made in Birmingham ! He ought not to show his cards too readily ; he has to play the Brutus with the EngHsh, or else he will be treated as was Aristides. Excuse this long letter, but it is so rarely that one can speak to anybody about one’s thoughts and feelings, that when I write to you my pen runs away with me.’
Bunsen later thanked Max Miiller for his just, but sharply expressed and nohly suppressed, essay against Renan.


CHAPTER X
1856-1857
Comparative Mythology. Commemoration. His mother in England.
Volume III of Veda. Curator of Bodleian. Christmas at Glasgow.
Deiitsche Liebe. Buddhist pilgrims. Examination at Exeter.
Visit to Froude. Germany. Manchester Exhibition.
In the last days of the old year, Max Miiller had found a house, ^S, St. John’s Street, and so hard did he work that he was settled before term began, as the notice of his lectures is dated from his new house. His course was on the ‘ History of the German Language, and its relation to Greek and Latin.’ He writes to tell his mother how comfortably he is settled, and how much he hopes she will visit him in the summer, to see his home and life in England, though at the same time he cautions her not to expect much amuse- ment, as he is far too busy to travel about with her, or give up much time to her, as he has daily work at the Bodleian, besides all his work at home. To Bunsen he writes : —
Translation. 55, St. John’s Street, March 14.
• Everything progresses well in Oxford ; it seems to me there is no other country in the world so pliable as England. At the right time we shall get everything in Oxford that we wished for, and the whole academical phraseology changes visibly. Of course Jowett is preached against every Sunday ; it does not hurt him in the least, however, and he is occupied with a second edition \ The essay in the Quarterly is by Conybeare; I have not read it, for that sort of thing does not matter. When we grow older here in England we leave the talking and writing to others, and we occupy ourselves with the “ doing “ ; and as I am now a member of Convocation and Congregation the committee- work and report-writing begin to occupy all my time. So I retire as

^ Commentary on the Thessalonians, &c.

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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:52 pm

176 Article on Comparative Mythology [ch. x
much as possible and rejoice when something is really accomplished. It looks disgraceful in Prussia; the whole morality begins to be bankrupt.
‘ I am so glad to know that your great work ^ is to be concluded before the great war breaks out. I should have liked to send you my little contribution about the Veda, but Easter approaches, and till then I am actually glued to my table day after day, as I have promised Brockhaus, by contract, to hand over to him the MS. at the end of ]\Iarch. I am sending him a Vedic grammar as introduction to the first volume of the German edition of the Rig-veda. The text was printed some time ago, and therefore he presses me to send him the preface. So you see it is absolutely impossible to answer your questions now.
‘ The Flood-legend does not occur in the Hymns of the Veda, but in the Brahmanas. Burnouf considers it borrowed, and he may be right, as it only occurs in a modern Brahmana. The Fall is hinted at, not morally but only metaphysically. . . . The keynote which runs through the whole always is : We do not know ; who looked on when God made the world ? To whom did he mention it ? I mean to stay here for the summer, and expect my mother to pay me a visit.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, March 23.
‘ You must lead a very quiet life, and not anger and excite yourself. The things that annoy us in life are after all very trifling things, if we always bear in mind for what purpose we are here. And even in the heavier trials, one knows, or one should know, that all is sent by a higher Power, and in the end must be for our best interests. It is true we cannot understand it, but we can understand that God rules in the world in the smallest and in the largest events, and he who keeps that ever in mind has the peace of God, and enjoys his Hfe as long as it lasts. I am sure that a quiet, contented mind is better than all medicine and Carlsbad. I dare say a change of air will be good for you, and life in England is very healthy, if you will hve quietly. We cannot travel about much, for it is too expensive and requires younger legs, but Oxford itself is sure to please you, and you will see what my hfe here is.’
This spring Max Miiller’s article on Comparative Mytho-
logy appeared in the Oxford Essays. It has been reprinted
in both editions of the Chips. A contemporary writer speaks
of the ‘ great impression made by Max Muller’s essay on
1 EgypL


1856] Indian Chronology 177
Comparative Mythology, published in the Oxford Essays, in
which he applied the rules of comparative philology to the
elucidation of Aryan myths, in a manner at once scientific
and popular.’ ‘ Max Miiller,’ says Professor Macdonell in his
obituary notice in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,
‘ was a pioneer in this country of the Science of Comparative Mytho- logy, founded by Adalbert Kuhn. . . . Beginning with his essay on Comparative Mythology, which appeared in 1856, he wrote a number of papers on mythological subjects. . . . His mythological method, based on linguistic equations, has but few adherents in the present day, for most of his identifications . . . have been rejected owing to the more stringent application of phonetic laws which now prevails in Comparative Philology. . . . Nevertheless, his writings have proved valuable in this field also by stimulating mythological investigations even beyond the range of Aryan-speaking nations.’
Of this essay a friend wrote many years later to Max Miiller :—
‘ When I was young I remember you were my ideal hero — the magician who admitted me into a gorgeous fairy-land. I can remember as if it were yesterday, in the early sixties, how I read tAe Oxford essay in the British Museum, and walked home to Clapham westward facing a glorious sunset, hardly conscious that I was a creature of this planet ! And later on a new book of yours was an event in my life ! ‘
Bunsen was busying himself at this time with questions of Indian chronology, in which Max Miiller could not sympathize, feeling the ground too insecure for any real historical treat- ment. In one letter he says: —
Translation. April, 1856.
‘ I only recognize one chronology for India, the four literary
periods of the Veda, which bring us to at least 1 500 b. c., and even at
that time show us a formulated system of divinities and even priest-
craft. Before this time the schism of Brahmans and Zoroastrians
had taken place. And long before this, even, the schism between the
Aryans tracking north-eastward and those tracking southwards took
place ; and before the nomadic Greeks separated from the nomadic
Indians, centuries must have passed. There seems no doubt that
the South Aryans (later on divided into Indians and Zoroastrians) had
settled together in Bactria. . . . The alphabet on the Aryan coins in
the north of India is no doubt Semitic. The Sanskrit alphabet has
I N


178 Megasthenes [ch. x
its origin from elsewhere, and I believe I shall be able to trace it to the Himyaritic. When it reached India is the great question, and that I am unable to answer. “ Ophir “ proves how old the commerce between India and Phoenicia must have been ; for “ Ophir “ is Abhiva on the Indus. So you see the oldest date of the name Ophir occurring in the Bible is the latest time in which the Aryans were already settled by the sea, and at the time of the Veda they had not yet settled there. Could it be proved that Solomon knew the name Ophir, it would of course be a terminus a quo. His lion-throne made of ivory reminds one of the Sanskrit lion-seat, i. e. throne. Lassen has established the Sanskrit etymology of the products of Ophir. I am now printing my old Vedic grammar — ^just think that 400 B.C. each syllable of the Rig-veda had been counted, each lengthened syllable had been carefully marked, and each metrical inaccuracy had been carefully registered. But it is an awful work, and I long to return to my mythology.’
This letter crossed one from Bunsen, in which he tells Max Miiller, ‘ It would be a great pleasure to you, my dear friend, if you could see the enthusiasm of my reawakened love for India, which possessed me in 181 1-4, and which now daily overpowers me.’ The letter ends, ‘ Send me a letter, only without “ Your Excellency.” I beg you will always write to me as friend to friend.’
To this friendly invitation Max Miiller replies : —
Translation. 55, St. John Street, Oxford, April 25, 1856.
‘ Your Excellency, — Allow me to continue to call you so ; it is an old habit, and reminds me of the time when first I entered your study to have my passport to Germany vise’^d, in a despairing mood as I was then, without an aim, without means to carry out the one scheme which I had clearly planned for myself! How much has happened since then ! Oh, when I think how I have to thank you, your encouragement, your sympathy, for the whole turn of my fate, if I consider that, I know of no other word which would better express my veneration for you, my love and my gratitude, than the one by which I addressed you with German awkwardness at the first visit I paid you, a word which, like many another one, has been much misused, but has nevertheless not yet lost its true meaning !
‘ With regard to Megasthenes \ I do not know how I can help you.
As far as I have occupied myself with the chronological question,
^ Greek envoy from Seleucus Nicator (306-298 B.C.) to Chandra-gupta (Sandrocottus). He wrote a work on India.


1856] Froude’s History 179
which has never been a passion with me, I do not see in the least how Megasthenes cozild know more than Wilford or Sir W. Jones. Mega- sthenes could not know anything but what we know, for though we know nothing of Indian history, we know the history of Indian litera- ture sufficiently well to be able to ascertain that no annals have ever been lost, simply because none ever existed. We have the most distinct traces in the Rig-veda of the schism between the Brahmans and the followers of the Zend-Avesta.
‘ I intend very soon to publish something about this, perhaps in the Long Vacation, when Mrs. Liddell, &c., will have no more music parties, when there are no more examinations in London and no more lectures in Oxford, and when the third volume of the Veda has been published. Now I feel so hunted that I can accomplish nothing. I have so many claims on my time during term, that I often have to do the most necessary work in the middle of the night. Froude’s History is out ; I have devoured the first volume, and have put the second on one side for later on. It seems to me very good. Jowett has not yet been burnt ; instead of that he thinks of publishing Plato’s Republic. Examinations, education, are the ordre du jour \ in a very short time all positions will be open for competition. What a social revolution that is ! It would have drawn blood in other lands. Much of it is due to Trevelyan. Gladstone made a manful speech last night — how much that means. Ever yours.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, May 6.

‘ I have been in London again for a week and have made many interesting acquaintances. Life in England is so grand, and I wish you could see me at such a dinner as lately at Lord Denbigh’s — such pictures all round the room ! I am in no want of work to do, and with all the interruptions here, I can hardly get on. ... I hear occa- sionally from Bunsen. I do ‘not believe he means to return to England. As to your journey here, you must inquire whether any acquaintances are coming to England. I shall certainly stay in Oxford this summer, as I have a good deal of work before me. Oxford in summer during the vacation is delightful. In a fortnight I must go again to London. I shall be staying with friends in one of the best houses — very pleasant, and cheap. Then I shall hear Jenny Lind, and in a month she is coming to Oxford to give two concerts, and we shall have grand festivities ; Peace festival, &c.’
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. 55, St. John Street, Oxford, May 4, 1856.
‘Your Excellency, — Your last letter awaited me in Oxford, as
N a


i8o Meets his Wife again [ch. x
I spent all last week in London to examine there. The more I see how deeply you penetrate into Indian chronology, the more I regret that I cannot follow you as I did formerly. It would indeed be a great work if you could find a secure historical foundation for the Indian traditions. I am still at the previous question — i.e. Could Megasthenes make any discovery besides that which we have made from Sanskrit literature ? This question must be answered, and there I am afraid Megasthenes with his total ignorance of Sanskrit will have the worst of it, as compared with Manetho and his knowledge of hieroglyphics, and Berosus with his knowledge of cuneiform. How- ever, I am ignorant, and therefore unprejudiced, and I am willing to learn and to believe. My passion is now Mythology ; and I see you cannot serve two masters, for at present I cannot get away from it, though so many other things claim my attention. I long for the Long Vacation, and I expect a visit from my mother, and therefore I shall not go to Germany. I hope to write something more about Mythology. I find that John Bull has taken a bite and asks for more. At present I am working at my grammar, and I am also working at a German Historical Reader, which I could not refuse on account of my Professorship. Forgive me, therefore, that I do not throw myself into Indian chronology, but I can do nothing unless I can do it with all my heart. Confident of your kind indulgence, I always remain, much honoured friend, master and benefactor, your faithful 1\I.M.’
In April of this year Max MUller had again met his future wife, and during six weeks they saw each other constantly at her home, and in London, and at the Grand Commemoration and Peace festivities in Oxford ; little foreseeing the painful three years of total silence and separation that they had to go through before their marriage was allowed. In the first days of July Max’s mother arrived, accompanied by Emilie von Stolzenberg, and the faithful family friend Baron Hage- dorn. They spent two or three weeks in London, seeing all the sights, going to the Opera, dining at Richmond. The mother, cousin, and Hagedorn went from London to the Isle of Wight without Max, who returned to Oxford. After the visit to the Isle of Wight, Hagedorn returned to Germany, the mother and cousin going to Oxford. From there the Baroness visited Scotland, and the whole party then returned to London, and devoted themselves to sight-seeing, till Emilie went to Germany towards the end of August, leaving the mother to enjoy her son to herself for two months longer.


1856] Visit of his Cousin and Mother 181
On July 17 Bunsen writes to congratulate Max Muller on the visit of his mother and cousin : —
Translation.
‘ You know it was a letter of the la//er which first told me o/jou, and made me wish to see you. And then you came jyourse//, and all that I prophesied of you after the first conversation in London, and your first visit to us in the country, has been richly fulfilled — yes, beyond my boldest hopes. You have won an honourable position in the first English University, not only for yourself, but for the Fatherland, and you have richly returned the love which I felt for you from the first moment, and have faithfully reciprocated a friendship which con- stitutes an essential portion of my happiness.’
On August 25 Max Muller sent his usual birthday con- gratulations to Bunsen. It must be remembered that birth- days are much more observed in Germany than in England, hence the constant references in Max Miiller’s letters to his own birthday or those of his mother and sister. In after- years the birthdays in his own home circle were specially marked and joyful days.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. 55, St. John Street, Oxford, August 25, 1856.
‘ I have thought of you with much feeling to-day, and send forth my hearty congratulations, as I think of the beautiful old age, vigorous in mind and body, with which Heaven has blest you. May this day return many a time, and find you surrounded by all dear to you ; and may your Hfe, perfect as it has been, be a pattern and comfort to the world at large. I am looking forward to the concluding part of Egypt, especially to the mythological part of it. I can well imagine that you have found a more comprehensive form of mythological consciousness. I had only just knocked at the door with my essay.
I intended to prove that the mythical form was unavoidable. In the
great regions of God-consciousness we ourselves still think and feel
mythically, that is, language runs away with our thoughts. I\Iy essay
has called forth some opposition, which makes me glad ; for I thought
the matter so evident, that nothing further could be said about it ;
instead of which I perceive that not only has a hole to be made
through the wall, but that the whole wall has to be pulled down and
each barricade to be got rid of. Whether / shall be able to do this is
doubtful, for with all my love for antiquity and the past, my dreams
for the future return again and again, and I feel somewhat drawn to
India — a desire difficult to resist in the end. Only I do not know how


i82 IVtsk to go to India [ch. x
to get there ; but my life here seems so aimless and unfruitful that I shall not be able to bear it for very much longer. I thought the other day whether I could not manage to go to India with the Maharajah Dhulip Singh. He is very well spoken of, and he returns next year after having learnt in England what good things he may do some day for his Fatherland in India. It seems to me it would form the natural nucleus of a small Indo-Christian colony, and it is only necessary to create such a centre in order to exercise one’s power of attraction on all sides. After the last annexation the territorial con- quest of India ceases — what follows next is the struggle in the realm of religion and of spirit, in which, of course, centres the interests of the nations. India is much riper for Christianity than Rome or Greece were at the time of St. Paul. The rotten tree has for some time had artificial supports, because its fall would have been inconvenient for the Government. But if the Englishman comes to see that the tree piust fall, sooner or later, then the thing is done, and he will mind no sacrifice either of blood or of land. For the good of this struggle I should like to lay down my life, or at least to lend my hand to bring about this struggle, Dhulip Singh is much at Court, and is evidendy destined to play a political part in India. I wish I could get in touch with him in some qtiite natural way. Could it be managed with the help of Prince Albert, or would you help me to it ? I do not at all like to go to India as a missionary, that makes one dependent on the parsons ; nor do I care to go as a Civil Servant, as that would make me dependent on the Government. I should like to live for ten years quite quietly and learn the language, try to make friends, and then see whether I was fit to take part in a work, by means of which the old mischief of Indian priestcraft could be overthrown and the way opened for the entrance of simple Christian teaching, that entrance which this teaching finds into every human heart, which is freed from the ensnaring powers of priests and from the obscuring influence of philosophers. Whatever finds root in India soon overshadows the whole of Asia, and nowhere could the vital power of Christianity more gloriously realize itself than if the world saw it spring up there for a second time, in a very different form from that in the West, but still essentially the same.
• Much more could be said about this ; a wide world opens before one, for which it is well worth while to give one’s life. And what is to be done here ? here in England ? here in Oxford ? — nothing but to help polish up a few ornaments on a cathedral which is rotten at the base. But enough for to-day ! My mother and my cousin have been with me for about eight weeks, and some other friends. With the exception of my mother, who is going to stay on with me, they left



1856] Third Volume of Rig-veda 183
a few days ago, and I have set to work again ; my work was inter- rupted for so long. I long for Germany; and how I should like to come to you to Heidelberg, but that is impossible this year, and next year I hope to see you in England. In faithful friendship, yours.’
The poor mother who in her Diary speaks of the quiet time in Oxford alone with her son as ‘ unclouded happiness,’ had little idea of all these thoughts poured out to his fatherly friend !
Meantime the third volume of the Rig-veda had been published, the last volume that was brought out under the auspices of the old East India Company, and dedicated to them. There had been in the previous year some doubt whether it would be possible to finish this great work. The first calculation of the extent of the work, and therefore of its cost, had been based on defective MSS., consequently when the third volume was ready for printing, it was found that this only completed half of the work, whilst exhausting a great deal more than half of the money voted for the whole, and it was with some difficulty and after many anxious months that, owing to the influence which Professor Wilson possessed over the Board of Directors, the additional funds were voted. The preface to this volume therefore ends with an expression of the editor’s gratitude to the Directors ‘for having sanctioned the continuation of the work and granted funds necessary for its completion ; an act of enlightened liberality which will be applauded by all persons interested in the history of India, and in the history of mankind, and by which one of the most important monuments of antiquity will be rescued from oblivion and restored in its integrity.’ Max Miiller was able in his preface to speak of the growing interest the work was exciting among scholars, as being —
• found to shed the most unexpected light on the darkest periods in the history of the most prominent nations of antiquity. Thus, though not yet known in its completeness, the Veda has assumed an importance which no other literary production of India could ever have claimed ; and we may rest convinced that as long as a man cherishes the records of his family, in the widest sense of the word, these simple songs will maintain their place among the most natural annals of ancient history.
One class of readers may have been disappointed [in the Veda] : men
who study ancient literature less on account of its historical than its


1 1


184 His Mother leaves him [ch. x
practical value. But the true historian values facts ancient and genuine, and a corroded copper As of the Roman Republic is of greater value to him than an imperial gold medal of the most exquisite work- manship. ... I must confess that I could have wished that the ancient poets of the Veda and their Indian commentators had been less diffuse; for though I believe that no edition of any author in Sanskrit, or any other language, for which MSS. had first to be copied, others to be collated, innumerable references to be verified, and an index to be made of every word, has ever been brought out so rapidly as this edition of the Rig-veda ; yet I feel that ten years of my life are gone, and I know not whether I shall have suflftcient time left to finish a work which I once undertook perhaps with too m-uch confidence.
Yet even if I should not see the completion of this work, I should not
be sorry for the time I have spent on it ; and nothing will ever induce
me to change the principles which I have hitherto followed, and to
give a hasty copy of a MS. instead of a critical edition of the text and
commentary of the Rig-veda^
Max Miiller again acknowledges the valuable assistance of his learned friend Dr. Aufrecht, and his sincere ‘ regret that he should no longer^ enjoy this advantage, as much of the correctness and accuracy of the last volumes was due to his conscientious co-operation.’
The lectures this term were on ‘ The History of German Civilization and Literature, from the earliest times to the reign of Charlemagne.’
On October 30 Max parted with his mother, who left under care of a friend, going by boat from London to Antwerp, and so to Chemnitz to her daughter.
That afternoon Max writes to his mother : —
Translatio7i.
‘ Our happy time is over, and the winter will not bring me much pleasure. But I beg you to enjoy your time in Chemnitz, . . . and you must tell them how happy we have been here together. I cannot thank God enough for the happiness that I had in your visit, even if I did not talk much about it. You know that one feels most when one says least.’
In several of his letters to Bunsen, Max Miiller refers to
Mr. Jowett, whose orthodoxy was at this time suspected by
^ See p. 164.


1856] M. M.’s Orthodoxy questioned 185
many of the leading people in Oxford, and his intimacy with whom brought Max himself into ill odour with several of his more narrow-minded friends. He received early in the autumn a letter from a friend Avhose good opinion and affection he highly valued — a letter questioning the orthodoxy of his religious views. He answered it thus : —
To ..


55, St. John Street, October 4, 1856.
‘Your letter has been in my hands for some time, and I have thought about it many times, and I have tried to make it clear to myself why you should have written that letter — but at last I felt con- vinced that, though you must have known that it would give me much pain, you wrote it from the kindest motives, and with that anxiety which we feel for a friend only. I see clearly that in your own heart you do not believe the charge which somebody unknown to me has brought against me. For if you did, you would not have written to me, you would not have asked me. For how can I defend myself against such a charge, except by telling you it is not true, and if you believe in me, do not believe it ? If I have said or written anything that has given offence to your friend, let me know it, and I shall then be able to defend myself But if some one, without giving any proof, without giving even his name, tells you that I am an unbeliever, that I do not believe in the Bible, that I do not believe in Christ our Lord and Saviour, I need not fear him. I know that there are not a few who treat our faith as such a light matter that they think nothing of charging a man with infidelity, though they would shrink from charging him with dishonesty. And some of them are honourable men, who act from pure and high motives, and whose only fault is too much confidence in themselves and too little confidence in others. But, I say again, I need not fear them. I have many friends who know me, and know my religious convictions; and though I have always avoided theological controversy, I have never avoided expressing my faith in the doctrines of Christianity, when I felt called upon to do so.
I am not a theologian, and though I have been occupied for many
years with the study of the ancient forms of religion, and though
I have followed with a deep interest the histor}’ of our own Church
from the earliest times, I do not feel competent to lay down the law,
or even to express an opinion on all points, where even the best and
wisest have stumbled, because thev endeavoured to fathom with their
human reason the depths of a Divine mystery. If you read the history
of the Church, you will find that this has been the source of all heresy,
and that all divisions and persecutions in the Church have arisen from


i86 Visit from Fontane [ch. x
the attempts of theologians to substitute their own thoughts and their own expressions for the simple language in which Christianity has been revealed to us in the Bible. And if we know the dangers of religious controversy, if we see how it is opposed to the very spirit of Chris- tianity, how it appeals to the worst passions and destroys every feeling of charity, we ought to pity the priest or theologian who, like a physician, must enter into this pest-house ; but surely we have a right to refuse to follow him, and to be dragged into it against our will. And if he tells us that we are ourselves infected with heresy, it is a serious charge indeed, but we may appeal to our friends and to a higher tribunal, and we may at least remind our accuser of one of the last commandments ; nay, we may tell him that at a time when Christianity was a crime, Roman Emperors who had no scruple in making martyrs of all who professed the name of Christ, thought it fair to pass a law by which informers who could not substantiate their charge of Christianity against a Roman citizen were liable to a severe, even capital, punishment. I must say no more, for I do not wish to offend you by saying anything harsh against one who is your friend, and who may have been induced by a feeling of kindness towards you to disregard a duty which, as Christians, we owe to all men, even to a mere stranger. . . . Whatever our hearts may feel, and whatever our fleeting passions may say against it, there is no true, no lasting love, unless it has its source and life in God. . . . Through my whole life I have learnt this one lesson, that nothing can happen to us unless it be the will of God, and this I believe now more than ever. My life has been a happy one, and seeing that all I wanted, and much more, was given me, I began to think that there could be no disappointment in life. I have learnt better, and yet I feel again that there can be no disappointment in life, if we but learn to submit our will to the will of God. . . . We ought to remember also that our faith is not our faith, but that, like everything else, it is given us. Therefore we should not glory in our faith, or look down upon others whom we think poor in faith, or who may seem to differ from us. Let us wait for a little while — and to those whose eyes are turned to God and eternity the longest life is but a little while — let us wait then in faith, hope, and charity ; these three abide, but the greatest of these is charity.’
Soon after his mother had left him. Max Miiller was cheered by a visit from his old friend Fontane, who had been wandering about England, collecting materials for two works which he afterwards published under the titles, England, Studies in English Art, &c., and Beyond the Tweed. Fontane writes of this visit : —


1856-7] Curator of Bodleian 187
Translation.
‘In the autumn of 1856 I paid a visit to Miiller. I wanted to see the “ heart of England,” the midland counties, . . . and Oxford was to be my first halting-place. I was with him for two days, and count these days among the pleasantest in my memory, for the sake of Miiller and the place itself I have seen a large number of the cities of Western Europe, but none have made so powerful, so enchanting an impression on me. It is difficult to say in what the superiority of Oxford consists. It is not merely its architecture. . . . But in a peculiar mingling ... of beautiful architecture, beautiful landscape, and rich historical recollections it stands alone. Since the day I left Oxford I have not seen Miiller again in England.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. London, December 6.
‘ I cannot write much to-day, as I am not quietly at home, but am staying with Walrond, and I have but a minute to tell you that I have entered my new year well, and of good courage. God has helped me hitherto, and will surely further help me and all of us, and whatever happens to us is always the best for us, even if we do not at once understand and perceive it.’
Max Miiller was appointed a Curator of the Bodleian in this year, and always took great interest in the Curators’ meetings. He was a keen advocate for more liberal arrange- ments in lending out MSS. under proper precautions, a privi- lege accorded by so many of the leading foreign libraries.
Christmas was spent at Calder Park, near Glasgow, with the parents of his friend Walrond. Max Miiller writes from there to thank his mother for her beautiful Christmas gift, the fine bust of Goethe, which his friends will remember always stood on the top of the bookcase opposite the writing- table at which he spent so many hours of his life, and he would often look up at it as if to imbibe fresh courage for his work from the strong and noble features of the mighty master.
The year 1857 was devoted by Max Miiller to the Rig-veda,
and to the preparation of his German Classics. He was far
from well the whole year, and out of spirits, and though
forced to enter into society by his many kind friends, it is
evident from his Diary, resumed this year, that it was mere
weariness to him, and he buried himself as much as possible
in his work. The correspondence with Bunsen was not very


1 88 Bunsen’s God in History [ch. x
constant, and his general correspondence not as voluminous as usual throughout this year.
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. 55, St. John ^tke^t, January 24, 1857.
‘ I have through this week been in such constant intercourse with you, have heard and learnt so much from you, and have so often thought of the happy time when your real presence made a home for me in a strange land, that although I have nothing to tell you, or to complain of, I must at least thank you for the mental enjoyment your book God in History has brought me. Your book is a fact, and as such must produce an effect, if there is any life left in mankind, if the retrospective look does not blind the spirit, and the eyes of the present generation are not obstinately closed to all glimpses into the future. You have said afresh what is old, unveiled what is hidden, and made dead things live. You have placed the Bible within the focus of history, so that men can perceive its real greatness, whilst to most people this book stands so close they cannot see it, or so far they cannot reach it. I can form no judgement on many single points, and I am glad of this for the present, as the whole has therefore a greater effect on me. But if I find that my strength lasts out, I too must enter on this study, when my other work is finished, which I have undertaken, and must carry out. But in that too lies many a problem, which must be solved, and I cannot reconcile it to myself, to draw the limits of God-inspired mankind so narrowly as you do in many passages in your last work. The men in India were not forsaken by God, and if we cannot join in their prayers, the fault is ours. The heart is too narrow, the spirit too proud. I do not yet despair of discovering the chord by which the dissonance of the Veda and Zend-Avesta and the Chinese Kings will be brought into unison with the key-note of the Bible. There can be nothing accidental, nothing inharmonious on earth and in history ; the unresolved discords in the East must find their solution, and we dare not leave off till we have discovered the why and the wherefore. You will come to treat of this in your second volume, where the Greek dissonance resolves itself in the Apostle of the Gentiles, and it is a pity your completed work has not appeared at once. This must at all events be the case in England. I had already read the book before I received the copy you have yourself sent me, and for which I send my warmest thanks. Of my useless life here I have nothing to tell you. I am weary and worn out, perhaps things may yet go better. I remain, in true affection and gratitude, yours ever, ‘ M. IM.’
To this his fatherly friend replied : —


1857] Music 189
Translation. January 29.
• I am not at all easy at what you tell me about yourself and your feelings. But why are you unhappy ? You have gained for yourself a delightful position in life. You are getting on with your gigantic work. You (like me) have won a Fatherland in England without losing your German home, the ever excellent. You have a beautiful future before you. You can at any moment give yourself a comfortable and soul-satisfying family circle. If many around you are philistines, you know that already ; still they are worth something in their own line. Only step boldly forward into life.’

Max Miiller seems to have given more time again to music this year, and he tells his mother early in February, ‘ The two Miss Jelfs are here, and we have had a great deal of music, and have studied and sung Mendelssohn’s Forty-second Psahn with chorus. It went very well, but I had a good deal to do in practising the choir. We were sixteen voices.’ Mrs. Thomson ^ writes of these parties : —
‘ Your husband kindly conducted my concerts in the Hall at Queen’s, where we got up the Lobgesang and the Forty-second Psalm by Mendelssohn, sung by amateurs. Thanks to his kindness, they were a very great success, and sounded so well in the Hall, which was furnished as a drawing-room, with palms and sofas and rugs. He seemed much pleased with the result.’
There is a photograph taken by Professor Maskelyne and Dr. Thomson of Max Miiller and several members of his choir; all gone now, except Mrs. Thomson and one other friend. Max Miiller tells us in the Autobiography that Mendelssohn’s music was still despised by some of the old school, and that one evening Dr. Elwes, the old organist of New College, who had been listening to the Hymn of Praise^ ‘walked up to me — to thank me, as I thought — but no, he burst out into a torrent of real and somewhat coarse abuse of me for venturing to introduce such flimsy music into Oxford.’
It was in the February of this year that Deutsche Liebe was published by Brockhaus in Leipzig. It had been written in the autumn, whilst Max Miiller ‘s mother was still with him. So much has been written
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:53 pm

and said about this prose idyll, so many people have declared it to be autobiographical, that it is perhaps well once for all to say that it is pure fiction ^ Her husband was then Provost of Queen’s.


igo Deutsche Liehe [ch. x
as far as the characters and circumstances are concerned. It was written as a rehef to his own feelings, and Max Miiller thought by making an invalid princess the object of those feelings no one would easily guess the author, or the reason why it was written. That the Schloss and scenery described resemble Dessau was but natural, seeing how little else Max had seen in his own country. The book came out anony- mously, and for two or three editions the secret was well kept. Only to Bunsen did Max Miiller acknowledge himself as author. Of his English friends, Froude alone from the first guessed the authorship, and in a review of the book in the Saturday Reviezv says : —
‘ One of our first impulses on seeing the general character of this work was to turn to the “ Bekenntnisse einer schonen Seele” in Wilhelm Meister, and to refresh our recollection of that remarkable production. It was not without feelings of satisfaction that we laid down the volume of the great master and took up the one before us, reflecting how much half a century had done to elevate and purify the tone of society. ... It is due to the author to say that it is truly gratifying to find, in a book which touches at so many points on the domain of religion, not one expression which can offend, in the slightest degree, any reasonable and right-minded person.’
The book is now in its twelfth edition in Germany, where after forty-five years it still commands a steady sale, whilst an unauthorized translation in America, under the title of Memories, has had an enormous circulation, and continues to be a general favourite there. Miss Winkworth published a translation in English as soon as the book appeared, by leave of the publisher, and twenty years later Max Miiller brought out a translation by his wife, made many years previously, which has been through several editions. One review spoke of Deutsche Liebe as a book ‘full of tender grace, touching sympathy, noble compassion, impressing love. With a delicate hand the author places before us the deeper depths of a true soul. It is a humanizing, refining, chastening volume, and is worthy of the widest circulation.’
Another paper says : ‘ These recollections touch with much
delicacy of feeling upon some of the most sacred emotions
and hopes. Whoever the original author or authors may be,


1857] Buddhist Pilgrims 191
the papers reveal a very deep and sympathetic insight into
man’s nature ; and many notable things are said of happiness,
love, loss, gain, and suffering, as they constantly affect and
impinge upon the human soul.’ It was pronounced by Bunsen
to be one of the most perfect specimens of German writing
he had ever read.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. February 24, 1857.
‘ I wanted a short time ago to send you a book, written by a very intimate friend of mine, and published by Brockhaus. It is called Deutsche Liehe. The author does not wish his name to be known. If you have any spare money, buy a copy, and tell me how you like it, but do not tell any one that I know the author. I was very sorry to hear of Kriiger’s ^ death, though I never really saw much of him. He lived in quite another world, and his art did not appeal much to me. But he had won a good position by his work alone, and that was greatly to his credit, and one always rejoices when merit like his is recognized by a man’s contemporaries. I wish I had a picture of you by him. Find out how much a good oil picture costs in Dresden, but it must be good, by Hiibner or some other good artist.’
Max Miiller’s course of lectures this term was on ‘ Epic
^’ To HIS Mother.
Translation. London, March 26.
‘ I was not at all well : bad colds and toothache had made me quite ill, and I needed a change and amusement I am staying with Walrond, you know where that is, and I visit old friends. I hoped to find Morier, but he has not yet arrived, though he has left Vienna. I must tell you, and Emilie also, that I am quite innocent as to Deutsche Liebe. I know the author, but have promised not to mention his name, as he makes a point of it. He only published the book because he thought that here and there it might do some good, and might cure young people of the epidemic of so-called unfortunate love. The book contains the antidote to Werthers Leiden, and in so far is interesting ; but it ought to have been more fully worked out to have much influence. I entirely agree with the spirit of the book, and am glad you Uke it. I do not care much for the plan of the story ; it is too sketchy, and is wanting in repose and unity.’
It was in the Times of April 17 and 20 of this year that
a review appeared by Max Mliller of Stanislas Julien’s Voyages
des Pelerins Boiiddhistes. It was afterwards published as
^ The artist.


192 Nirvana [ch. x
a pamphlet, together with a letter on Nirvana called forth by a protest printed in the Times of April 24, against Max Muller’sviewof Nirvana as ntter annihilaHoji,\v\\cr&2i5 the writer of the protest maintained that Nirvana meant tinion and commwiion with God. Max Miiller’s opponent appealed to the works of Mander and Creuzer, who were neither of them Oriental scholars, and who wrote before the canonical books of the Buddhists had been brought to Europe. In his answer Max explains the etymology of the word, which means blozving out. * The human soul, when it arrives at its perfection, is blown out, like a lamp, as the Buddhists say, not absorbed, as the Brahmans say, like a drop in the ocean.’
He shows also ‘that Nirvana, as taught in the metaphysics
of Kasyapa, a friend and pupil of Buddha himself, is annihila-
tion, and there is no earlier document from which we can
form an opinion as to Buddha’s original teaching.’ ‘ Buddhism,
therefore, if tested by its own canonical books, cannot be
freed from the charge of Nihilism, whatever may have been
its character in the mind of its founder, and whatever changes
it may have undergone in later times, and among races less
inured to metaphysical discussions than the Hindus.’ ‘ Buddha
himself, however, though perhaps not a Nihilist, was certainly
an Atheist. He does not deny distinctly either the existence
of gods, or that of God ; but he ignores the former, and
is ignorant of the latter. Therefore if Nirvina in his mind
w^as not yet complete annihilation, still less could it have
been absorption into a Divine Essence.’ In 1869 Max
Miiller gave an address at Kiel on Buddhist Nihilism, before
the Association of German Philologists, in which these words
occur : ‘ No person who reads with attention the metaphysical
speculations on the Nirvana contained in the Buddhist Canon,
can arrive at any other conviction than that expressed by
Burnouf, i. e. that Nirvana, the highest aim, the sumimim
bonuin of Buddhism, is the absolute nothing.’ Those among
Max Miiller’s friends who know his own strong convictions
as to the immortality of the soul, may perhaps feel surprised
at the increasing interest he took in Buddhism as years went
on. For at Kiel he declared, ‘ Buddhist Nihilism has always
been much more incomprehensible than Atheism. A kind


1857] Buddhism 193
of religion is still conceivable, when there is something firm somewhere, when a something eternal and self-dependent is recognized, if not luithont and above man, at least witJiin him. But if, as Buddhism teaches, the soul after having passed through all the phases of existence, all the worlds of the gods and the higher spirits, attains finally Nirvana as its highest aim and last reward, i. e. becomes quite extinct, then religion is not any more what it ought to be — a bridge from the finite to the infinite, but a trap-bridge hurling man into the abyss, at the very moment when he thought he had arrived at the stronghold of the Eternal.’ But even from his address at Kiel, it may be gathered that by that time Max Muller had convinced himself that the third part of the Buddhist Canon, in which alone the doctrine of Nirvana in its crude form is to be found, was not ‘ pronounced by Buddha,’ and that passages are to be found in the first and second parts of the Canon which contradict this crude Nihilism. Max Muller asks pertinently, ‘ Where Buddha speaks of Nirvana as the highest happiness, can he mean annihilation?’ It was when preparing a translation of the Dhammapada in 1870, afterwards revised and published as Volume X of the Sacred Books of the East, that the extreme moral beauty of Buddha’s teaching powerfully attracted Max M tiller’s sympathy for Buddhism, and this was further increased when two years later he came in contact with living Buddhists, his pupils Bunyiu Nanjio and Kenjiu Kasawara, and still later Professor Takakusu, and saw the purity of their character, their true and gentle dispositions, and entire devotion to duty. The article on Stanislas Julien’s book was almost Max Miiller’s first introduction to Buddhism. Pali he had studied at Berlin.
After several months of silence Max Muller writes again to his old friend Chevalier Bunsen : —
Translation. 55, St. John Street, May i.
‘ One may fight against physical illness, though it is difficult with
persistent colds, which attack the head to-day, the teeth to-morrow, to
keep up one’s good-natured warmth and communicativeness ; but if the
cold once takes possession of the mind and the spirits, it is really the
best thing to shut oneself up for a time. I have felt like this this
I O


194 Frondes History [ch. x
winter. I felt I was not myself, and I did not wish to be a burden to others with my worries and blue devils. You will laugh at me and scold me, for no one has any sympathy with mental illness till it takes the worst form. But I can assure you that I have suffered a great deal, and am still suffering in spite of the approach of spring. I cannot sympathize with the fancy of most people always to appear happy.
But when I feel miserable, I will at all events not be a burden to
others, and so I shut myself up, and write no letters. So forgive my
long silence, and have patience with me, who have so much that I
must bear patiently. I received the three volumes of Egypt but
recently, and I cannot find that you wrote to me that you wished for
any supplement or remarks for your English edition. I have read
your work here and there, and have followed with great delight
your Herculean labours in the Augean stable of Indian history. But
as my present work lies in quite a different direction, I have postponed
the careful reading of your book to Long Vacation, and hope then to
be able to say something more definite about it. It will interest you
to find in the journal of the Chinese traveller Hiouen-thsang, therefore
in the seventh century a.d,, quotations in several places from native
Indian historical works, of which we till now knew nothing, and whose
existence even in the seventh century appeared to me till now very
problematical. The work is full of interest, and I have written a long
review on it in the Times of April 17 and 20. I have also given there
the translation of a Vedic hymn, which would interest you. I have
had to give up and waste my time lately on German literature. The
University raised my salary, and I felt I must work for it, and so I am
printing a chronologically arranged Reading Book, extracted from
Wackernagel, &c. It is a sad waste of my time, for I could do better
and more important work, but I cannot help myself. ... I consider
Roth’s conception of Yama as entirely mistaken. Yama is the setting,
dying sun, thus the Beyond, the eternal life, or personified, the Lord
of those who are gone, of the kingdom of death. What we call death
was to the Hindus always a passage ; later they called it a setting free,
a word that suits us better than death. . . . You are really unjust to
Froude. Even if his idea of Henry VIII is mistaken, his picture of
English life is not affected by that. There are chapters in his work
that are really masterly — the Irish rebellion, the Charterhouse monks;
and he has described the secret workings of the Reformation among
the common people with genuine feeling and sympathy. Froude’s
idea of Henry VIII seems to me too problematical. But at all events
Henry was one of the most popular of kings, and has his admirers not
only in Froude but in his people, and in such historians as Sharon
Turner, and such philosophers as Carlyle. I have a great aliection


Ji


1857] Friends in Oxford 195
for Froude, for I know him with all his faults, and know that he prays
and works. Kingsley is a more brilliant nature, but his. relation to
Froude has never been that of a teacher; on the contrary, that of an
admirer. Le roinan ne vaut pas thistoire. How people came to
look on the Saturday as Kingsley’s and my organ I cannot imagine.
I met the editor once in London, and have sent him a few articles.
The paper is politically in the hands of decayed Peelites ; in literature
it is independent and active. I remember one gross attack on you in
the political part of the paper, but I should have felt it unworthy of
your name to take any notice of such an attack. Woe to the man
who has no enemies in England — you will never want for them, but
they help far more than they hurt. I have to fight my way bravely,
and here in Oxford the battle never ceases. I sit on the same board
with Pusey, and know the man. He will soon attack me, but I am
armed. Stanley is now coming to Oxford. Liddell is better, and
comes back next month from ]\Iadeira. Jowett is indefatigable, and
they have not conquered him. He is printing his second edition ^
Vaughan is married, and comes very seldom to Oxford. Pattison is
as reserved as ever, and trusts no one. It is a deep secret that he
writes the article in the Westminster’^. I live chiefly alone, and see
no one but Jowett. My mother left me in October. She was not
strong enough to stand an English November ; but I hope to have her
here again this summer. And now I have written really too much,
and must again beg you to have patience with a poor melancholy
invalid. Begging you to remember me most heartily to all your
party, I remain as ever, yours in true reverence and devotion.’
With this letter Max Muller sent his pamphlet on Buddhist Pilgrims to Bunsen.
On May 8 Bunsen writes : —
Translation.
‘I must thank you, and express my delight at your letter and article. The letter confirms my fears in the highest degree, namely \h2Xy0u are riot well, not to say that you begin to be a hypochondriacal old bachelor. But that is such a natural consequence of your retired sulky Don’s life, and of your spleen, that I can only wonder how you fight so bravely against it. . . . You will soon see how nearly we agree together, although I cannot say so much of the humanizing influence of Buddhism. . . . You have represented the whole as with a magic wand. We really edified ourselves yesterday evening with it, Francis read aloud and we listened.’
^ Commentary on Thessalonians.
^ On Bunsen’s God in History.

o a


196 Dr. W. Wright [ch. x
This term Max Muller read the Nibelimgen with his class.
To HIS Mother.
Tratislaiion. Oxford, May 24.
‘ How beautiful it must be in Carlsbad . . . how gladly would I find myself there for a couple of weeks 1 But I am up to my ears in work, and then just now I have so many interruptions — parties, picnics, business in London, examinations, &c. We have just begun our musical practisings again. The Jelfs are here, and other ladies who sing very well, and this time we are studying Mendelssohn’s Lohgesang. There are difficulties, and it is not easy to keep twenty voices together and conduct them. And I must not swear like old Schneider ! I have so much to do I shall probably take no holiday. If I do get to Germany I must go to Leipzig, where I have to print a book. But it must first be written. . . . The gardens are so lovely here now — even my little garden looks nice, and your ivy begins to grow. The heat is beginning, and what that is in these small rooms you know. In about three weeks I am going to Froude to the seaside, and to another friend who lives near Exeter, a brother of Dr. Acland.’
To Chevalier Bunsen.
Translatmi. 55, St. John Street, May 24.
‘ It really does one good to be thoroughly scolded and abused. Here no one takes the trouble to do it, and I have done it myself so long without any result that I give the Oxford Don his own way, till at last of his own accord he becomes German a2:ain. But I cannot tell you how much one has to bear in this promised land. Here in Oxford everlasting quarrels and squabbles, and lies and slander, and nowhere courage and faith, and no one can speak the truth, and any one who tries to do it brings a perfect hornet’s nest about his ears. Can you believe that they have refused an excellent Orientalist, Dr. W. Wright, for the place of Under-Librarian at the Bodleian, because he has dared to afllirm that the language of the Phoenician inscriptions is Semitic and not Hamitic, because he doubts that Ham was the father of the Canaanites and denies that Moses wrote the account of his own death ? The man is a thorough Christian, is ready to sign the Articles ; but it is no good — away with him. And no one moves a finger. Peace at any price ! is the watchword. I carried my skin to market, but have been thoroughly beaten, and my friends began to be very much alarmed about me. And then these affairs waste one’s time, and destroy all wish for work, so at last I shut myself in, and for weeks saw no one, and heard no one.
Happily the Long Vacation will soon begin; if it only lasted the
whole year, Oxford would be a real paradise. I have tried my best


1857] Local Examinations 197
with the two hymns \ but they are very difficult to translate, as our words mean so much which was not yet in the old words. The first hymn contains many Manichean thoughts, as, the ray of light which falls from the realm of light into the realm of darkness, and gives the first impetus to creation. And yet I cannot consider the hymn as modern. It belonged to the collection long before the Brahmanas were written, and at the time of Panini its syllables were already counted in the sum total of the syllables of the Rig-veda. I must stay this summer in England. I must finish some work to satisfy my conscience. If I can get it done early, I may cross the water in September. With hearty thanks for your friendly and unfriendly words, I remain as ever, your truly devoted.’
In June, Max Miiller took part as representing Oxford in the examination arranged at Exeter by the late Sir Thomas, then Mr. Acland, for middle class and commercial schools, which was the first practical example of the system of Local Examinations since developed and carried out by our Universities. It was the first public speech in any language Max Miiller ever made. His first public speech in German was made eight years later at a Philological Con- ference at Kiel.
From Exeter he went to Bideford to the Frondes’, to get a little rest in fine air before hurrying to London for the annual Indian Civil Service Examination. After finishing up some necessary work in Oxford he started in August for Germany, his mother joining him at Leipzig, where he spent some weeks, seeing his Reading Book {German Classics) through the Press. From there he wrote to his friend Kingsley, who was uncle to his future wife : —
Leipzig, August lo, 1857.
‘ My dear Kingsley, — How I long to be with you at Eversley,
but my work here will keep me longer than I expected, though I have
little to say in reply to your letter — nothing in fact but “you are
quite right.” Yet I must write to you to tell you that your clear and
decisive words have brought me more comfort than pain ; they have
driven away a swarm of vain hopes and plans, and the sooner these
are scattered the better I can wait and work ; and sooner or later all
this waiting and working will come to an end, for this life cannot
^ From the Rig-veda, of which a prose translation had been made in Germany for Bunsen.


198 Letter from Humboldt [ch. x
last for ever, and it will last no longer than we can bear it. I have
no right to complain. I have all I wanted — more than I ever hoped
for, more than I ever deserved. A disappointment in love is hard
to bear because it destroys our faith in ourselves and in everything
else ; a disappointment in marriage may be a life-long trial, but it need
not destroy our faith in our own nature, in the truth of others, or
in the wisdom of God. Life may grow more strange and awful every
day, but the more strange and awful it grows, the more it reveals
to us its truest meaning and reality, and the deepest depth of its
divinity. “ And God saw everything that He had made, and, behold,
it was very good.” And so far, I believe, we both agree, and if
there are a few words in your letter where we differ, it is better to
leave them alone till we smoke our next pipe at Eversley. What you say
about my going back to Germany is imaginary. It is as unlikely that
I should go to Germany as that you should go to India. But if your
duty should ever call you to India, would you like to find yourself
fettered by a promise which no man has any right to make ? — for His
ways are not our ways. All I can say is that after an absence of ten
years during the most critical time of life, everything is against my ever
returning or settling in Germany. I am not wanted here ; other
people have taken the places I might have had. You will not easily
get rid of me, unless you give me notice to quit. Auf Wiedersehn 1 ‘
To Professor Max Muller.
Translation. Potsdam, August 28.
‘ I am much touched, my honoured clever friend, by your amiable desire to see my hoary head once more. My physical powers have been steadily declining for the last nine months, but not my powers of work, nor the mental interest which I take in your creative far- reaching thoughts. I shall stay at home on Tuesday from eleven to two, and gladly expect you. With true friendship, your Vecchio della Montagna, ‘ A. von Humboldt.’
From Chevalier Bunsen.
Translation. Charlottenburg, August 28.
‘ So there he remains in the centre of Germany a whole month, and
lets one hear and see nothing of him. Your last letter was a great
dehght to me. The snail had there crept out of his shell and spoke
to me as the friend ; but now “Your Excellency” appears again, so the
snail has drawn in his head again. Now, my dear friend, you ought
to be thanked for the friendly thought of paying me a visit and
writing to me. . . . That the Oxford Don should ask if I can “ aiford
him a few hours “ shows again the English leaven. . . . What have we


1857] Visit to Heidelberg 199
not to talk over ? The hours belong to the Don’s gown, for you
know very well that we could in a few hours only figure to ourselves
what we have to discuss by turns. So come as soon as you can, and
stay at least a week here. You will find my house, to be sure, rather
lonely We two old people are here, however, and full of life. . . .
I must tell you with what deep sympathy and melancholy pleasure your touching idyll has filled me. You will easily believe that after the first five minutes I saw you vividly behind the mask. I thank you very much for having ordered it to be sent to me. I am very glad that you have written it, for I would far rather see you mixing in the life of the present and future, with your innate freshness and energy.’
To this Max Muller replied :—
Translation.
‘ I was glad to hear that you liked Deutsche Liebe. The story itself is only a frame. What I wished to make clear to myself and others was, why with the inborn love to our fellow creatures, we could show that love to so very few of them only; why love had to be confined almost entirely to the members of our family, to our parents, our wife, our children, and why any attempt to go beyond generally ended in sorrow. It is so, and we know not why, except again to show us that this life was not meant to be perfect, but only to give us by its very imperfections a faith in and a longing for a better life.’
Early in September Max Miiller went to Heidelberg, and the following letter to his mother from Bunsen’s tells her of his after proceedings. The visit to Weimar was to attend the inauguration of the great Goethe-Schiller Monument there.
Translation. HEmELBERG, September 9.
‘ How much one can get through in a week, and how fast life runs
on from one thing to another. A week ago I was still with you, and
here I am in Heidelberg, and ready to rush off to England, and
meantime I have seen lots of people, and had a good deal of
enjoyment. I suppose you are now in Dresden, where you found
so much to do that you are getting over our parting, about which
you again made yourself so miserable. If you only knew how you
pain me by such excessive grief, you would try and bear more quietly
what cannot be helped. Our being so long together this year was
quite an unexpected treat, and we ought to thank God that we had
such enjoyment. Think how few, even of those who live in Germany,
can see each other so often and for so long a time as we do, and


200 Weimar — Manchester Exhibition [ch. x
then do not spoil the joy of meeting by brooding over the parting. Weimar was more than I expected, and through Brockhaus I made acquaintance with many interesting people — Auerbach, Gerstacker, Rietschl, Devrient, Andersen and many others, and we met and talked together every night till one or two o’clock. I had no head- aches, and all went well. The statues were very fine, and Weimar itself most interesting. I could not pay visits, for theatres, parties, and drives took up the whole day. We saw everything, and very well too. Brockhaus and his pleasant wife stayed till Monday. The Wartburg festival was beautiful and the weather was fine. The representations in the theatre were splendid. I found many old University friends, and it will always be a pleasant memory. Monday I went to Frankfort, and came on here Tuesday. I arrived after tea, and Bunsen had just received an affectionate letter from the King, asking him to go to Berlin and stay with him at the Palace. So I really only saw him yesterday, and to-day he started. I stay till to-morrow, and then go direct to Oxford, for I am longing for my work and quiet. Dr. Meyer is here and Dr. Bernays, so I stayed another day, and have seen Heidelberg again, where we once spent such a happy time together. I am very tired, such incessant excite- ment is too much. I could not hold out much longer.’


‘o^


To THE Same.
Translation. Oxford, October 7.
‘ Oxford does not feel like home this time, and even my work will not please me. So out of sheer ennui I went last week to Manchester with Thomson to the Exhibition. There was not a bed to be had in any hotel, and so there was nothing for it but to go on to Liverpool and sleep there, and come back next morning early to Manchester. Sir Charles Napier was in the same hotel. The Exhibition was magnificent, but much too much to see in so short a time. We were there from Wednesday to Saturday, and were dead beat when we left. So that pleasure was got through ! To-morrow I am going to the country for a few days (to Kingsley’s), but take my work with me. I hope to get some riding, which always agrees with me. What you write about Bunsen’s Gott in der Geschichte delights me.
‘ Don’t trouble yourself about Jacob. He had not a very successful
life, and we learn from it that we must not measure God’s wisdom
in the ruling of human life according to our ideas. Then the
idea of a “ people of God “ is purely Jewish. There is only one
people of God, that is all mankind, Jews as well as heathen To-day
is a day of prayer for India : there is hardly a family that has not


1857] His Horse ‘Folly* 201
friends and relations among the victims, and the feeling throughout England is very great.’
Max Miiller undertook two courses of lectures this term, continuing those on the Nibelwigen, and beginning a course on ‘ German Literature.’
To Professor Bernays.
Translation. 55, St. John Street, October 26.
‘ I suppose you are back at Breslau, and at your work again in the treadmill. It is the same with me in Oxford, and I think with regret of the beautiful summer days that are no more. I feel like Castor and Pollux in one, half day and half night, and I shudder at the thought of the winter in England, and begin already to hope again for the summer in Germany.
‘ I revel in Meldon’s Mythology ; it has helped me to see so many things more clearly now, especially about the Zeus Monotheism, which nobody has ever yet treated so simply. And what are you doing.? I have not yet received your Aristotelicum. Keep your heart warm !
‘ I had finished the above when your kind lines reached me. I see now your heart is quite the same. Yes, if I could have you here ! The fresh air would do you much good ! In Germany I am useless, here to be sure, too — but the air here is freer and purer. I have not heard from Bunsen. I believe in no improvement from above, it must come from below ! The Prince of Prussia (who is Regent) will soon make everything so tedious that people will go to sleep. I have neither heard nor seen anything of Pattison, and therefore know nothing of Scaliger and his regeneration. Farewell, rejoice in life and in human beings, who are far better than we think — they are only ashamed of their good souls.’
Early in November Max Miiller tells his mother he has bought a horse, and rides almost every day. His little ‘Folly’ soon became great friends with its master, and was happily for him a quiet creature, for unless with friends Max Miiller was apt to sink into a brown study when riding, and many were the humorous stories he told against himself, and the falls and escapes he had. He parted with his little friend when he married.
To HIS Mother.
Translation, December 6, 1857.

‘ Thirty-four years old. IMy birthdays here are always quiet and
lonely, and when one is as old as I am, one passes willingly over the


202 Thinks of visiting India [ch. x
new step towards the grave without marking it. I often can hardly believe that I am already so old, and you are quite right when you say that I must no longer think of marrying. Well, many have passed through life like me, and if one loses a great deal of happiness by it, I am satisfied with what God has given me. I often long for a larger sphere of usefulness, and my wish to go to India has revived strongly of late. It is quite possible the East India Company may be done away with, and that Government will undertake to rule the country. Whether my Veda will be ruined by this I don’t know, but I would willingly exchange this work for a few years, for a scientific mission to India
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:55 pm

But these are only ideas and we will await quietly what God sends. My little horse “ Folly “ is a constant pleasure, but it costs a good deal, and like every one else I expect to be bankrupt !
I shall stay here for Christmas, though I have many invitations. But
I cannot spare the time ; if I dawdle away the summer, I must spend
the winter in working hard,’
To THE Same.
Translation. Oxford, December 21.
‘ You need not begin to frighten yourself about India. If I were to find a chance of visiting it, you would be as pleased as me. It is not out of the world, still less beyond God’s hand. It would be of the greatest use and interest to me. But you see how difficult it is to discuss any plans with you; you make life so difficult for yourself and for others by such incessant fears, and it is so much easier only to find out and dwell on the good and bright side of things. I have had a very bad cold for above a week and am heartily tired of it. My Christmas will be very quiet and lonely whilst you are all eating your StoUe ^ joyfully. The children no doubt are rejoicing not a little at the prospect of Christmas. I wish one could look forward with delight, as one once did. Now one is only glad when something has passed by and is done wilh. The book Brockhaus is bringing out for me is finished at last, the extracts from German authors, from the fifth century to Goethe, with translations of the old German things and notes; but it will not be published till Easter. Then you shall have a copy and read Ulfilas and the Minnesinger. It was a hard bit of work, and I am glad to have done with it. Now I am busy on a book on Indian Religion, and the Veda too is getting on.’
To A Friend.
55, St. John Street, Christmas Eve, 1857.
‘ As one is getting old and looks forward with fear rather than with
hope to what is still in store for us, one learns to appreciate more
^ Christmas cake.


1857] Memory 203
and more the never-failing pleasure of recalling all the bright and happy days that are gone. Gone they are, but they are not lost. Ever present to our calling and recalling, they assume at last a vivid- ness such as they hardly had when present, and when we poor souls were trembling for every day and hour and minute that was going and ever going and would not, and could not, abide.’


CHAPTER XI
1858-1859
Letters of Philindus. Canterbury. German Classics. Fellow of All Souls. Jenny Lind. Birmingham Festival. Correspondent of French Institute. Death of Manuel Johnson. Ancient Sanskrit Literature. Marriage. Germany. Life at Oxford. Mother’s illness. Correspondent of Turin Academy.
In the late autumn of 1857, when England was under the influence of the horrors of the Indian Mutiny, a series of papers appeared in the Times signed Indophilus and Philindus. It was soon known that they were by Sir Charles Trevelyan and Max Miiller respectively. Sir Charles traced the Mutiny solely to the issue of the famous greased cartridges. The first letter by Philindus was entitled ‘The neglect of the study of Indian Languages considered as a cause of the Indian Mutiny.’ It points out that ignorance of the languages pre- vented any real intercourse with the natives, and created a feeling of estrangement, mistrust, and contempt on both sides, and mentions that in the examinations for the Indian Civil Service as many marks could be gained for Italian as for Sanskrit or Arabic. In his second letter Indophilus con- firmed all that Philindus had said, and he advocated the establishment of an institution in London for the teaching of Oriental languages. In his reply Philindus repeated what he had already said on this subject in 1854, and anticipated the speech made thirty-two years later in the presence of the Prince of Wales, our present King. More letters followed from both Indophilus and Philindus, from Mr. Monier Williams and Professor Syed Abdoolah.
These letters were collected and published together as
a small pamphlet, and diligently circulated ; but, as is well


1858] Indophillis and Philindiis 205
known, no arrangements were made by Government to assist their candidates for the Civil Service of India in acquiring the various subjects for examinations ; and when the East India Company ceased to exist their college at Haileybury, where so many eminent Indian civil servants had been educated, came to an end also, and it was left to the private unaided efforts of the English Universities to provide the special teaching required.
The lectures announced by the Professor for this term were on ‘ The Principles of Comparative Philology,’ and he was also reading Faust with a class.
During January Max Miiller paid a visit of some days to his friend Dr. Stanley, then Canon of Canterbury, where he met Whewell, Sir John Herschell, and others. He tells his mother, ‘ We were in all a party of twelve, women as well as men, guests of a young, unmarried man.’ He adds that he had seen nothing of the wedding of the Princess Royal, and had always hoped it might bring Bunsen over, but he did not come. Max adds : —
‘ He has been made Baron without his knowledge or will, and the Prussian nobility may be proud that Bunsen has done them the honour of taking such a title. . . . Things still look bad in India ; and in France they begin to laugh at England — it is only to bring down the Funds, that JMorny may do a little business. But it is splendid when one sees how a small country like England can carry on war with India and China, and quarrel with America, Russia, and France, and yet is always cheerful and never loses her head.’
Truly Max Miiller loved his adopted country, though he could see her faults as well as her virtues. He had been naturalized in October, 1855.
Bunsen writes in February : —
Translatioji.
‘I have read your brilliant article on Welcker in the Saturday
Review with great delight. In fact everything would give me undis-
turbed pleasure did I not see (even without your telling me, which
however you have done, as a sacred duty between friends) that
you are not happy in yourself. Of one thing I am convinced, you
would be just as litde so, even less, in Germany, and least of all among
the sons of the Brahmans. If you continue to live as you do now,
you would everywhere miss England — perhaps also Oxford, if you
w^ent to London. . . . Unfortunately I have neither read Indophilus, nor


2o6 Translations of Greek Classics [ch. xi
Philindus ; please tell me the numbers of the Times. ... I am curious about your German Reading Book. I maintain one thing — you are not happy, and that comes from your bachelor life.’
To A Friend.
55, St. John Street, February 14.
‘ I hear you want some translations of the Greek Classics. Oh that I could read some of them with you ! They ought not to be read as if they were very wise and learned and unintelligible books, but as if they were written by a man whom we know and like. Those ancients were exactly like our modern poets and philosophers. In their time they were read and criticized by men and women not a whit wiser than we are. It is mere pedantry if, instead of reading and enjoying their writings, we sit down to interpret them, and to look grave and wise over their volumes. If Plato and Aristotle came to stay at our house, most of our young ladies, to say nothing of how shocked they would be by their manners, would converse with them as they do with Maurice, or Kingsley. They would tell them where they could not quite agree with the views of those wise philosophers, they would think now and then that they talked nonsense, and might speak more like other gentlemen, and they would thank them for anything really good and sensible they had to say. The real charm of the Classics is the simplicity with which they say things which in our modern writers would be commonplace. They had nobody to imitate, nor had they to avoid saying what others had said before. There is no effort, nothing far-fetched in their prose and poetry. And then they did not write merely because they wished to pubHsh a book. They generally wrote because they felt they had something really important to say. They wrote with their whole heart and soul, and if we read them carefully we sometimes imagine they knew that they would be read for thousands of years, and that they wrote for mankind rather than for the drawing-rooms of Athens.
‘You were right about my article on Welcker in the Saturday Review. I had lately written a good deal for that journal, and had just told the editor that for the present I could write no more, because I wanted to finish some other w’ork. Now that I find you read the paper, I shall write again, and I daresay you will find me out, although my horrid German handwriting is changed into decent English print. There was a short time ago an article on German Mystics ; I sometimes thought of you whilst I was writing it.
I have not yet given up my intention of going to India ; I might have
had an appointment last year, but I found that my mother, though
she wrote she would not dissuade me from going, was so much grieved


1858] Eversley 207
at the thought of never seeing me again, that I felt I ought not to go as long as she lives. I do not know whether it was right, and yet I cannot bring myself to believe it was wrong.’
To Mrs. Kingsley.
55, St. John Street, February 28, 1858.
‘ I received your kind message and I must thank you for it myself, and tell you that I have been longing to spend a few warm and bright days at Eversley. But the spring will not come, and I am busy and have to lecture, and to write, and cannot get away. As soon as the sun comes back, and as soon as I hear from you or Mr. Kingsley that I may come, I shall be delighted. I want to lay in a new stock of happiness, though what I carried away from you last Christmas is by no means exhausted.
‘ I had a letter from Bunsen — he tells me he is pouring out his heart about Hypatia in a preface. Does Mr. Kingsley know of it? Please to tell him also, that my little horse is the most delightful creature, and quite a pet among the Dons and Donnas of Oxford.’
His mother writes early in March that she had been to a ball, to which Max Miiller replies : —
Translation.
‘ There is nothing of that sort for me. Giving lectures and correct-
ing proof-sheets, those are my amusements late and early. Then it is so
cold one is quite shrivelled up, and one cannot ride in such weather,
and the horse eats his head off and has nothing to do ! Froude has
been staying with me. I have already told you my salary is raised to
£500 ; I hoped it would be £600, and that is cheap for all the work ! *
To A Friend.
55, St. John Street, March 7, 1858.
‘ Your letter written with the accompaniment of Beethoven’s Septette
was all music to me. What is time and space, and earth and life, and
all that people call stern reality } While I was reading your letter
I was sitting in a quiet corner of your room — watching the dark cedar
tree that stretches out its broad branches to bless you and your house,
and I listened to every note, and I thought of the happy days when
I drank in the same strange melodies as a child, six years old, and
my mother told me it was so beautiful, and I believed it because she
told me so, and have believed it ever since. And why ? Who can
tell us the meaning of those sounds .? and whence do they come, and
whither do they go ? I once asked my old music-master who had
taught him music, and he told me that he had a master; and then



2o8 Music [cH. XI
I went on asking who had taught his master, and he did not under- stand what I meant, and I remember how his eyes grew bright when I told him, with all the authority of a child, that I was certain that God must have been our first music-master. And now I am thinking ■what he wrote in my album when I left him in 1836 — I was then sent to school at Leipzig. I shall try to translate it for you. “ Music, echo of a distant, harmonious world — sign of the angel within us ; when the word is speechless, and the eye, and the tear, and when our silent hearts lie lonely behind the bars of our breast, it is thou. Music, through whom they call to each other and mingle their distant sighs.” He was a good old man. I hardly know whether he could have written those lines himself, and, as I am writing them down, I think he must have taken them from Jean Paul ; but he must have been a true musician whoever wrote them. Poetry is like poverty — the true poet and the truly poor are ashamed to show what they suffer, and what they are longing for. It is not so with music, and you sometimes find men, who would be ashamed to indulge in any poetical sentiment, plunging with their whole soul into the Unknown, the Infinite, the Beautiful, and the Divine, when it appeals to their hardened hearts with the sounds of music. There is a blessing for every one, and even the cold man of the world has somewhere or other his happy valley and his quiet cottage, where he sees his old friends, his old thoughts, his old feelings, which, if they meet him in the drawing-room, he dismisses with a haughty sneer, as if he had never known them. Excuse my wandering. I must say like you — there is the music, it is all that Septette of Beethoven, which they are playing in the other room.’
The following letter was sent to Max Miiller about this time, from a man who had been long in India, confirming the views advocated by Philindus : —
‘ There seems to be a greater stir than ever in India about education for the natives, and yet in this country young men who obtain direct commissions in the Company’s service are not even obliged to have the slightest knowledge of any vernacular before starting. To such an extent is this carried, that I understand from various pupils who were educated here, that a candidate taking up Hindiastani is looked upon as rather a fool for his pains. I was extremely glad to see from certain letters in the Times that the attention of the future rulers will be directed to this point. The two schemes ought undoubtedly to proceed hand in hand. The poor native ought not to be expected to make every eff”ort to acquire a knowledge of English, without there being also a corresponding efibrt made by his rulers to acquire the native language.’


1858] German Classics 209
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, April 5.
‘ To-day is Easter Monday, but the Hare has laid no t%g for me, as he used to do in the grandfather’s garden. Instead of that, I have sat the whole day at work, except that this afternoon I had a visit from Sir Charles Trevelyan, and also saw Lord Macaulay, whose sister Trevelyan married. The Jelfs are here . . . and I dine there on Tuesday, and we shall have some music. A little boy was born at the Thomsons’ a few days ago, and one is soon expected at the Kingsleys’, or I should have spent Easter there. I have been several times in London for a couple of days. I had to examine. One evening I heard a fine concert in the new St. James’s Hall. I have such a bad cold that every limb aches, and yet I have to sit and slave from morning till evening. I have had a great deal of writing about an Oriental Institute in London, to be founded by Govern- ment, and then came a change of Ministry, so now we must wait for a new Ministry. My little horse is my best friend. I must spend the summer in my furnace of a room. I am printing an English book on the Veda, and that must be finished off, if I am not first finished off myself, as you very truly remark.’
During this year Max Miiller became more and more intimate with Dr. Thomson, Provost of Queen’s, whose house was always a pleasant change for him from the loneliness and hard work of his own bachelor menage. Mrs. Thomson writes : —
‘I know the Archbishop was more devoted to Mr. Max Miiller than to any of his Oxford friends, and they met almost daily before his marriage. He retained the same warm affection for Mr. Max Miiller to the end of his life, and did so enjoy having him at Bishop- thorpe. The Archbishop sympathized in all the difficulties about his marriage, which were confided to him, as Mr. Max Miiller had helped him in all the difficulties of his own marriage a few years before.’
At Easter Max Miiller’s German Classics was published, and was welcomed in Germany as warmly as in England. The Times reviewed it later in the year most favourably : —
‘ Unlike all other books of extracts we know, it is compiled with
a view of systematizing its contents. The extracts are not thrown
together at the capricious suggestion of personal taste, but the
Professor has chosen only characteristic specimens, and has so ar-
ranged them in their relative sequence that they suggest, as it were,
a history of the literature of his country. His brief preface shows the
I P


2IO All Souls Fellowship [ch. xi
scope of his design, and, brief as it is, is the best History of German Literature, in its relation of social changes, with which we are acquainted. . . . We can accept this as an English class-book, peculiarly adapted for our own special purposes.’
On May 9 Max writes to his mother that he cannot ask her to visit him this year ; he is so overwhelmed with work, both in Oxford and elsewhere, that she would have to be much alone. Probably the whole summer must be spent at work, but if he can find time for a week or two in Germany, he comforts her with the assurance that he will go to her. The same letter mentions the death of his old friend Gathy. ‘ I felt it very much. ... I had so often seen him of late years ; he was a thoroughly brave and honest man. The old friends are gather- ing on the other side, and he must be happier there than here.’ A very few days after writing the above Max Miiller was asked whether he would accept a Fellowship at All Souls if it were offered to him. It was the very thing needed at that time to make his life happier and less lonely ; the offer was entirely unexpected, and was accepted with great thankfulness. He often mentioned in later years that, as he entered the College after his election, he said to himself, * My home for the rest of my life. I shall not leave this till I am carried out.’
Letter from Sir Robert Herbert.
March 3, 1902.
‘To Mrs. Max Mijller, — Mr. Robarts has told me that you
would like to hear from me anything I can tell you about the
circumstances connected with your husband’s election to a fellowship
at All Souls. The story is a very simple one. The person to whom
credit is principally due for a step unprecedented at that time — the
election of a foreign gendeman to an Oxford fellowship — was the late
Henry Coxe, the Librarian of the Bodleian. He and his wife were
intimate friends of my family and myself, and I used often to pass
a quiet evening with them in Beaumont Street, and meet there
Max Miiller, for whom Mr. Coxe from the first entertained a warm
friendship. I thus became aware that while the status and home
afforded by a College fellowship would be an advantage and con-
venience to your husband, he would, on his part, contribute much
honour and pleasure to the College that might secure him as a fellow,
and I cordially joined with Mr. Coxe in pressing upon the Fellows of
All Souls the advisability of electing him under the special power


i8=i8 All Souls


211


of doing so conferred by the new statutes. Max Miiller could not have failed to find in Oxford a great number of warm friends and admirers, but in the earlier days of his residence there, it must have been a comfort to him to have a home in the College which was so proud of him. — Yours very sincerely, ‘ Robert G. M. Herbert.’
Max Miiller’s large sitting-room on the ground floor next the Library, in the corner of the great Quad, commanded a beauti- ful view of the spire of St. Mary’s and the dome of the Rad- cliffe Library, a view that was a constant delight to him, and was always pointed out to his visitors with loving appreciation.
To Dr. Acland.
St. John Street, May 26, 1858.
‘ My dear Acland, — I never thought that anything would happen to me again on which I should be congratulated, but I certainly do appreciate the very kind feeling which prompted the Fellows of All Souls to elect me, and in a dark night even the smallest light is welcome. I am looking forward with great pleasure to living in College, but at present there is no set of rooms where I could put up all my books, &c. I am confident I shall feel quite at home at All Souls for the rest of my life. Wherever our Father leads us, there is our Fatherland.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls College, y««^ 7, 1858.
‘ You will wonder when you see my new address. The bells have been rung again for me in Oxford, for I have, quite unexpectedly, received a fellowship in All Souls College. I have very nice rooms, but I only begin really moving to-morrow, and therefore write to-day, as I shall at first have no time for letters. I had no idea of it, and the thing has excited great surprise. A fortnight ago I was asked if I should have any objection if I were elected, and the next day I was elected. Why they elected me I have no idea : it is a great distinction. What I like best is being free from the trouble of housekeeping. My house will be let ; my furniture I bring to my rooms here. The rooms are larger, three of them. But now I can’t marry, or receive you as a guest. The Jelfs are here, and are very sorry that I have joined the Monks. Nearly all our fellows belong to the best families in England, several are members of Parliament, some in the IMinistry. So you see monkhood is bearable, and I need not have a tonsure ! The lectures are nearly over, and in a fortnight I think of going to the seaside.’
P %


212 M. M. at All Souls [ch. xi
From the Dean of Ripon.
• My dear Mrs. Max Muller, — You ask me to tell you some of my recollections of your husband in the early days before you were married. I fear they are scanty ; but it is pleasant, as he found it, to make an excursion into Aiild Lang Syne.

‘When I went up to Balliol in 1850, he had just begun to give lectures on what was then a new subject, Comparative Philology. I think he had been so immersed in the Rig-veda during the two previous years, that his powers as a lecturer had hardly been tested ; but his delight in his subject, his clearness of exposition, and his excellent English, not the worse for the slight foreign accent which he always retained, carried us all away. And the ease with which he traced the starding changes of words, such as that which derived the French word mane from se77iet tpsissimum, came like a series of dissolving views. All such things have become common property long ago, chiefly owing to his very readable books on the science of language and kindred subjects.
‘I met him only occasionally during my undergraduate course.
Eight years make a great difference at that time of life. But while
I was a curate at Claydon I had the happiness to come across his
memorable Essay on Comparative Mythology. It was the best
counteraction that could be to the narrowness which sometimes besets
an earnest pastorate, and carried one into regions before undreamed
of both of history and of thought. I was then a fellow of All Souls,
and I went back there in 1857 to read under Stanley, who had just
become Professor of Ecclesiastical History. It was then that the
happy thought occurred to some of our fellows, first, I think, to my
old friend Robert Herbert, to invite Max Miiller to become a fellow of
the College. This was done under the new Ordinance of the Com-
missioners for giving effect to the Oxford Reform Act of 1854, which
allowed us to elect a Professor, a man of literary distinction, to an
“ Exceptional Fellowship,” one which bound him neither to residence,
nor to celibacy. He was elected in the beginning of 1858; and,
though I was at that time appointed to a College living sixteen miles
from Oxford, I saw him every time I drove into the city. I remember
especially one such time in the summer of 1858, which (all my
parishioners being in the harvest field) I spent in my College rooms,
having arranged to meet one of our fellows, Godfrey Lushington, to read
German together. We were puzzling over some difficult expressions
in Lessing’s great “ Essay on the Education of Mankind,” when Max
came to our rescue, and devoted a large part of two days to our
benefit. It was delightful to see his enthusiasm in drawing out the


1858] Cartoon of the Carita 213
thoughts of one of the greatest of his countrymen, and one hardly realized — he was so simple and genial — that one was being taught by one of the leading philologists in Europe.
‘ The Ordinance under which we elected him demanded, though in language not perfectly clear, that we should choose our fellows according to their merits as shown by the examination ; but the old custom still remained of choosing them as one would the members of a social club, and I was one of three who had appealed to the Visitor against this practice. The dispute lasted some five or six years, and I am afraid must have given Max some days of discomfort, though his lot was otherwise enviable. He tried to mediate, and asked, but in vain, that the examiners should report a small list of fit candidates between whom the choice should be made. The decision was eventually given according to our contention: but Max, though mainly on our side, had, I think, what is called a “ sneaking kindness “ for the old system — had he not been elected by the College as it was ? — and maintained that those who, as the Saturday Revietv said, were chosen for “ what are vaguely called social considerations,” formed a pleasing variety in the monotony of Oxford residents. But though he used to complain that he sometimes suffered from being identified with us, who were spoken of as the Sepoys in allusion to the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8, I am sure he never had an enemy in the College. He was always genial, and had nothing of the mere Don in him. On occasions such as the annual Gaudy on All Souls’ Day, he would become the German student again, and join with the somewhat tumultuous merriment of the younger fellows, and be induced to sing “ Gaudeamus igitur.” If ever there was a cloud upon his brow, it was from a cause unknown to us, and was happily dissipated by the event so full of blessing to you and to him in the following year, 1859. It has always been a dark spot of disappoint- ment to me in the retrospect, that I was prevented by a sharp touch of fever from being present at your wedding.
‘ Of all that came after that event no one can speak so well as
yourself. But I do not like to close this letter without a word
expressive of the value that I entertained for his friendship and for his
teaching. I never knew him other than a kind and generous friend,
and a delightful companion. He would frankly give one of his best
on any subject, grave or gay. I remember, w’hen he brought home
from Italy the cartoon of the Carita, that he asked me to look at it in
his library, and to say whose work I thought it to be; and when
I said that, though I was not much of a judge, I should have assigned
it to Andrea del Sarto, he showed as much pleasure as if it had been
the testimony of a connoisseur. But I think that his mind turned


214 Saturday Review [ch. xi
more and more to the problems of religion ; and it is my belief that his researches and his teaching have done as much as those of any man of his generation to enlarge the horizon of men’s views, and to win for Christian faith a truer and a wider basis.
‘ Believe me, yours sincerely and affectionately,
‘ W. H. Fremantle.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls College, y«/y ii.

‘ When I was in London I made the acquaintance of Jenny Lind. She has a very nice house near Richmond. I called on her twice, and heard the Swedish singers at her house. But she will not sing herself any more, and that is a great mistake. I went too to a great gathering at Harrow ; Lord Palmerston was there, and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, and all the beau monde of London, and when my name was mentioned there were great cheers. Then I went to a great whitebait dinner at Greenwich, but all this was very tiring. I went too to a concert at the Crystal Palace, 2,500 people in the chorus and orchestra, and yet it was not powerful enough, unless one was quite near.’
In July Bunsen writes to congratulate : —
Translation. Charlottenberc/w/j^ 31.
‘ Nothing could be more agreeable and suitable ; it is personally and nationally an honour, and a unique acknowledgement. I can only add the wish that you may enjoy the dignity itself as short a time as possible, and take leave as soon as possible of the Fellow celibates of All Souls. Your career in England wants nothing but this crowning-point. How prosperous and full of results has it been ! Without ceasing to be a German you have appropriated all that is excellent and superior in English life, and of that there is so much, and it will last for life.’
For several years Max MUller had been a regular contributor
to the Satw’day Review^ and the titles of his articles show
the variety of questions that interested him: — The Transactions
of the Philological Society, Dialects of Algeria, Chinese
Buddhist Pilgrims, Hindustani Literature and the King of
Oude, The Origin of Goethe’s Fmist^ Renan’s Essays on the
History of Religion, The English Alphabet applied to the
Languages of Lidia, German Mystics, Anglo-Indian Phraseo-
logy, and Latham’s Celtic Philology, were among the topics
treated by his facile pen. He looked on these writings as


1858] Jenny Lind 215
a recreation, as a change from Indian Civil Service and Mili- tary examinations, from lectures, and from collating and editing the Rig-veda. He had already in 1 857 begun to put together the materials for his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, which required considerable research in works which at that time only existed in manuscript. The Bodleian meetings also made constant demands on his time. No wonder that he complains so often of being worn and weary, and longing for rest.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls, August 6.

‘ I returned yesterday from London, where I had to examine for a whole week from ten till six. My head at last began to buzz, and I am glad that it is over and my holidays at last begin. The summer here is delicious and my monk’s life very pleasant. The front view from my windows is beautiful, and I have the whole College to myself, ten servants, &c. ; who can want more ? I invite my friends to dinner, and nothing is wanting but that you could visit me in my new home, and it is sad that that cannot be. I can only invite ladies for great festivities. Did I tell you that I paid Jenny Lind a visit lately and she sang to me nearly the whole of the Sclmie Mullerin, and so perfectly ? She loves the poems, and she said to me, “ I felt I mtist sing them to you.” She sang them with so much expression that it was like a real opera ; I hardly recognized the songs. Then she sang Schumann and Mendelssohn. It went on from four in the afternoon till one in the night, and then she sent us in her carriage back to London — Benedict, Joachim, and Piatti. Joachim played very well, and Piatti’s cello was splendid. In fact it was perfection, and she is a most interesting woman, and when she likes very agreeable. I heard lately from Bunsen ... he invited me to Heidelberg for his birthday, August 26, but I had to write that I could not come, and I must tell you now, I must stay this summer in England. I have had too many interruptions in my work, and must use the holidays to make the time good. You know how gladly I would go to you, but I should not feel it right, for I am quite well, and do not want rest. I have been riding a great deal, which is always good for me.’
To a friend, to whom he had sent a little novel, very popular just then, A Lost Love^ he writes : —
All Souls, September 10.
‘ Is there such a thing as a Lost Love ? I do not believe it.
Nothing that is true and great is ever lost on earth, though its


2i6 Binningham Festival [ch...^i
fulfilment may be deferred beyond this short life. Marriage is meant for this life only, but love is eternal, and all the more so, if it does not meet with its fulfilment on earth. If once we know that our lives are in the hands of God, and that nothing can happen to us without His will, we are thankful for the trials which He sends us. Is there any one who loves us more than God ? any one who knows better what is for our real good than God ? This little artificial and complicated society of ours may sometimes seem to be outside His control, but if we think so, it is our own fault, and we have to suffer for it. We blame our friends, we mistrust ourselves, and all this because our wild hearts will not be quiet in that narrow cage in which they must be kept to prevent mischief.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation, Septemher 15.

‘I have just lately had a good deal of enjoyment from the Bir- mingham Festival, where I went to hear the Elijah and Messiah, &c. It was splendid. I was on a visit to the Minister of Education near Birmingham, and we drove in each day. English country life is so pleasant; nowhere else is there anything like it. Then I spent a couple of days at Rugby with the head master. Will you send me the book of Weber’s songs with “ Mein Schatz, der ist auf der Wander- schaft “ ? I have played it to a very dear friend of mine, and she wishes to have it. She is the daughter of Lord Denbigh, where I often go to stay ; she sings well, and you would like her.’
Max MUller had carried through his resolution of spending the chief part of Long Vacation in College. He often said later he was looked at with very dubious eyes by the College servants, who were in general completely their own masters in ‘ the Long,’ but were obliged to stay in College if a Fellovv^ was in residence.
It is evident from the following letter that the feeling of
soreness between Max Miiller and M. Renan had quite passed
away. The article translated by M. Renan was the one
which originally appeared in the first number of Oxford
Essays, and was afterwards reprinted in all the editions of
Chips. - ...
To M. Renan. i j,’
All Souls, October 27.
‘ I have looked over the translation of my Comparative Mythology
and I think it is excellent. I am extremely obliged to you, and still
more to Madame Renan, for the trouble you have taken in making


1858] Jenny Lind at All Souls 217
my English language and my German thought palatable to the French public. The corrections I have made bear chiefly on Sanskrit words. ... In a few passages which I have marked, the chain of the argu- ment seems to me somewhat broken by omitting some of my illustra- tions. But I leave this entirely to your judgement, as you know how far one may try the patience of the French public.
‘ I should be glad to have your name on the title-page, as intro- ducing my essay — as you have so kindly done — in the Revue Ger7Jia- nique. It might perhaps be as well to add to my name, “ Professeur a rUniversitd d’Oxford” or Fellow of All Souls College at Oxford, only I do not know how the latter can be rendered in French. . . .
‘ I have received the second edition of your Granimaire Co?npar^e, and I have to thank you for it in more than one sense. No doubt we shall always differ on some points in the early history of language, and I shall have to oppose some of your views with all my power.
But I feel confident that no diff”erence of opinion with regard to
scientific questions will ever lead again to any personal misunder-
standing between you and me, and I beg to assure you of my sincere
respect and gratitude,’
The lectures this term were on ‘ The Parts of Speech.’ In the Summer Term Max Muller had given a course on ‘The Origin and Formation of the French Language,’ continuing also his class for reading Fattst.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Oxford, Novejnher ii.

‘ I had a large dinner of 1 4 and an evening party the other day. Jenny Lind was here, and would sing nowhere but at my party. It was wonderfully beautiful. You can imagine that people were very anxious for invitations and it all went very well. She came first in the morning to practise a little, then in the evening she sang Mozart’s “Batti, batti,” Mendelssohn’s “Auf Fliigel der Gesanges,” Swedish songs, Schumann, and Weber’s “Mein Schatz, der ist auf der Wander- schaft.” She came again the next day and sang Schumann and Schubert: it was a great treat, but really almost exhausting.’
To THE Same.
Translaiion. Blenheim Palace, December 6.
‘ You would be surprised to -see me sitting here on my birthday,
not at All Souls, but on a visit to the Duke of Marlborough, Last
week I spent a few days in the country in the house of Lord Lovelace,
who married Byron’s daughter. It is now inhabited by one of the


2i8 Oriental Studies in England [ch. xi
Judges, the same who managed the divorce of Lord and Lady Byron, a most interesting old man. Yes, you are right when you say I cannot be grateful enough to God for all the goodness He has shown me, my whole life long. My present position is really, of its kind, quite perfect, and if I only keep well I am thoroughly satisfied. Here I was called away to dinner, which was splendid ; we dined in the Rubens room, and opposite me hung Rubens and his wife, Andromeda, and Phillip of Spain. We were twenty-four at dinner.
After dinner we wandered about the rooms. There was a splendid
Erard in one room, and we had some music; the next day I saw
the pictures in the private rooms, which one cannot see otherwise,
the gems, the sketches, then more music. The Duchess is musical
and very friendly. They asked me to stay another day, but I could
not. Two days later I had a party from Blenheim to luncheon — Lord
Denbigh’s family, &c. It went off very well. The Jelfs are here,
and we have a great deal of music’
To M. Kenan.
All Souls, December 15.
‘I have just read your severe remarks on Oriental St^dies in
England, in one of the recent numbers of the De’bals. You are partly
right, and I was delighted to see how well you perceived the real and
true value of the discovery of the Vedas for the reconstruction of the
annals of the human mind, and the right appreciation of the earliest
efforts of man in his search for his true home in God. But how few
perceive this importance of ancient Sanskrit literature even now. How
few of our best Sanskrit scholars are aware that the stones which they
bring to light are the relics of a real temple, and the object of
philology is not only to cut stones and collect rubbish, but to find
the foundations and ground-plan of that lost Sanctuary. We are
all progressing, and the importance of our studies dawns upon us by
degrees. To the early Greek refugees, the Greek which they taught
in Italy was not the key to a lost civilization, not the lever, as it
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Re: ஆரியர்கள் இந்தியர்களே அது பற்றி சில கருத்துக்கள்

Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Thu Mar 10, 2011 9:56 pm

turned out to be, that was to lift the dead weight of the Middle Ages ;
it was simply an accompHshment, the mark of a cultivated mind
and curiosity. Surely there was something grand in the enthusiasm
of the faith with which men like Sir W. Jones and Colebrooke
pierced into the jungle of Sanskrit, and where should we be if Wilson
had not opened to us many a smooth road into that enchanted
forest ? However, I know what you mean, only the absence of a
bold critical spirit is not to be ascribed to the English nation as
a whole, it is the languid temper of the present generation. But then


1858] Christmas at All Souls 219
there was a time when England had giants in thought, and Davids in boldness and faith. It will come again, and even now what you take for indolence and cowardice is more truly a feeling of awe at the greatness of the questions which now occupy the best minds in France, in Germany, and in England. You and your friends in Paris do much service by recognizing and patronizing what is good and genuine in the literary life of Germany. You might do the same for England, and thus raise your Revue Germanique to a Revue Teuio7iique, including Scandinavia, England, and America. I also read another article of yours, or rather an extract from your forth- coming translation of the Book of Job, with great interest. Might I ask you whether anything has been done to carry your reprint of your translation of my Essay on Mythology through the Press? I sent you the proof-sheets some time ago, but have not heard of it since. I have been very busy, as I am printing a book on the Vedic Age. I hoped it would have been out before now, but I have so many things to read, as I am going on with my work, that it will hardly be published before Easter. In the summer the fourth volume of the Veda will be finished, if my health allows me to work hard. As soon as I have brought out my book, I have promised to write several reviews, among the rest one on your Origine de la langice, but at present I have not a single moment to spare for anything but the Veda!
Christmas was passed by Max Miiller in All Souls — the only Christmas he was destined to pass inside the College walls — and the wish expressed in the following letter was to be fulfilled in a way he little imagined as he wrote it : —
To Miss Grenfell^
All Souls, December 30.
‘ I cannot let this old year pass away without once more writing to you. It seems such a long time since I heard from you. If I had followed my inclination you would have received many a letter from me. ... I felt convinced that even without hearing from you, I might always trust in the continuance of that friendship which has been to me a rich source of blessing for many years. I hear about you now and then from our common friend Mr. Walrond, and it is always a pleasure to listen to the cheerful account he gives of you, and all your party. I am glad you appreciate him, and the longer you know him the more you will find how well he deserves your con- fidence and esteem. This has been a very important year to me, ^ The aunt who had educated his future wife.


220 Foreign Member of French Institute [ch. xi
and I know not whether I should be more thankful for the trials I have had to go through, or for the blessings which God has showered upon me. Much more has been given me than I ever asked for, and I feel as if I had no more to wish for in this life. I have found a home, and a very pleasant home, as you will see when you come to Oxford. I have no cares, and if my health continues there is plenty of work for me to do. It is not such a life as I thought mine would be; you know what I have lost. I wish you all a very happy New Year, and I hope that this coming year may sometimes lead us together ! ‘
The early days of the year 1859 brought Max MUller a
great distinction ; he was made a Corresponding Member
of the French Institute, the youngest man ever elected to
this honour.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All ^omis., January 23, 1859.
‘ Your wishes for the New Year have brought me a good beginning.
. . . This is really the only distinction that I have always wished for,
and I have been not a little pleased at it. It is better than Orders,
and I don’t think that Tischendorf with all his hangings has been
chosen a Corresponding Member of the French Institute. Here in
Oxford and London it has been much talked about. It is so peaceful
here in the holidays that I cannot make up my mind to go away,
though I have a number of invitations, often from people I hardly
know. But I prefer sitting quietly at my work, which is getting on.
George Bunsen has been with me, and told me many things. Let us
hope there will be no rising in Berlin. Then your papers would go
down again, but never mind, my Sanskrit papers never go down !
My life here is really perfect of its kind, and I say always, things go
too well with me.’
To M. Renan.
All ‘&OVLS, January 3.
‘ Though I cannot say with Goethe I believe that I am of the religion of Job, yet I thank you most heartily for your Livre de Job. Your introduction is excellent, but now and then one feels like a cat stroked the wrong way. I shall hardly be able to resist the temptation of saying something about it in the Saturday Revieiv, though I have made a vow not to write any reviews till I have finished my own book. I like very much that little hint you give about Aurora, and your reasons why Hebrew remains so barren in myths.
Is it not owing also to the strongly marked radical features of every
Semitic word, every one telling its own tale by its three letters, and


1859] Manuel Johnson 221
retaining its appellative power against all equivocation? How can you have pantomimes if every person as soon as he comes on the stage tells you that he is not the Lion, but Smug the Joiner ? But the Aryan nations have had their revenge. When language had played all her tricks on them, they let her go, and made themselves a new language, and called it Philosophy, and that language the Semites have never learnt. I was delighted, as I need not tell you, at my election at the “ Institut,” and I thank you for your kind and active support. I wish I could do it in person, but till July I must slave at Oxford.’
The lectures announced for this term were on ‘The Principles of Etymology,’ with a catechetical class on German Classics, Max Miiller’s own work being used as the text-book.
Early in March, Max experienced a great sorrow in the sudden death of Mr. Manuel Johnson, the Radcliffe Observer, one of his earliest friends in Oxford, at whose house when he first arrived in 1848 he met many of the leaders of the High Church party, men of true piety, and many of them really learned, and yet, to the great surprise of the young scholar, almost entirely interested in purely ecclesiastical questions — the validity of Anglican orders, whether gowns or surplices should be worn in the pulpit, whether the candles on the altar should be lighted or not — all trifles that made Max MUller ask Manuel Johnson, ‘ What has all this to do with true religion ? ‘ But though Johnson told Max Muller he ‘ did not understand,’ he remained his faithful friend to the last. Max dined almost every Sunday at the Observatory, and when his mother stayed with him she met with much kindness from Manuel Johnson and his wife. He married late in life, and in his bachelor days the large garden at the Observatory was the constant resort of men like Church, Mozley, Palgrave, Pollen, Burgon, &c. His collection of artistic treasures was a never-failing source of delight, and Max Miiller tells us he ‘ learned much from his Italian engravings and Dutch etchings, which he delighted in showing.’
To Dr. Pauli.
Translation. All Souls, March 13.

• The sudden death of Johnson has been a great shock. For many years I have not lost any more intimate friend, and one often forgets



222 Ancient Sanskrit Literature [ch. xi
where one really lives, and what a little step it is which divides us from those who have gone before us. The death of our friends is an earnest warning, and as such, in spite of the sorrow, is rich in blessing. You must have experienced this in the fearful trial God laid on you. I need not say that I shared your sorrow, but I would not intrude on your grief, and did not write, though I knew you were in London. I know from experience that one would rather get through the hard struggles of life in silence and alone, and when one has done so, one can turn again slowly towards life, and to one’s friends round one, without having to talk over what is past. Work is a great help and comfort, and I rejoice that you have taken up your great work again. Johnson often spoke of you to me, and especially lately. He would so gladly have seen you here as Professor of Anglo- Saxon. For an Englishman he was wonderfully liberal, and I owe my position in Oxford chiefly to his influence. I shall long miss him. He was always the same, open, hearty and joyous. Well, the sorrows of life, like all other things, pass away, and the larger the number who await us beyond, the easier the parting from those we leave behind. I wish you would come to Oxford . . . but write beforehand, as I am feeling so shaken, I may go to the seaside for change.’
This spring his sister was again in great anxiety about one of her children, and Max Miiller always felt his distance from all his own people keenly when they were in sorrow. He writes : —
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls, March 26.
‘ I often wish I could help in bearing some of your anxieties, for I have little here to make me anxious ; however, you would say little pleasure either. But I am satisfied as it is, and thankful for the peace in which my life passes. You have little idea how comfortable the life in College is, and how one lives all day only for oneself and one’s work, without being disturbed by anything. I am printing my book on Ancient Sanskrit Literature, and hope it will be ready by Whitsun- tide. A French translation of my article on Comparative Mytho- logy is just out, by Renan. I suppose I shall have to go to Paris to thank them for my election. I was elected with Lepsius, and am the youngest member.’
He finishes the letter in London, where he was examining. ‘ I am staying with Walrond, who is still unmarried ; so you see there are other people who are as sensible as I am.’
All through this spring Max MUller worked hard at his


1859] J^^’ Buhler 223
Ancient Sanskrit Literahtrc, in which he had embodied the
Prolegomena to the Rig-vcda, written ten years before, which
had at the time called forth Professor Wilson’s wrath. Though,
through Bunsen’s influence, the East India Company gave it
their patronage, and promised the money for its publication,
it never was published. The reason for this is explained in
the preface to this new work. Ten sheets had been printed,
vi^hen Max Muller’s election to the Professorship of Modern
European Languages, and the three courses of lectures each
year which this election involved, obliged him to lay aside his
general Sanskrit studies, and confine the time not needed by
the duties of his Professorship, exclusively to the editing of the
text and Commentary of the Rig-veda. But though ten years
had elapsed since the Prolegomena had been written, Max
Muller found that his original views had not been proved
erroneous, either by his own later researches, or by the works
of other Vedic scholars, and that the greater part of the
original manuscript could have been printed as it was. In
these ten years many new and young Vedic scholars had
arisen, and their works were carefully examined and frequent
reference is made to them throughout the book. It is in his
preface to this work that Max Muller first mentions a young scholar, Dr. Buhler, then copying and collating Vedic MSS. in London and Oxford. They soon became fast friends, and it was Max Muller who obtained for Dr. Buhler the appoint- ment in India which he filled with such distinction for nearly twenty years. During all that time the friends corresponded on literary questions, and though they often differed, their friendship was close and unbroken. After Dr. Biihler’s return from India they met from time to time, and always with a feeline of warm attachment. Max Muller after Dr. Biihler’s untimely death in 1898, which affected him deeply, wrote :
‘We always exchanged our books and our views on every subject that occupied our interest in Sanskrit scholarship, and though we sometimes differed, we always kept in touch.
We agreed thoroughly on one point — that it did not matter
wJio was right, but only what was right.’ Ancient Sanskrit
Literature was carefully reviewed by the venerable scholar
Barthelemy-St.-Hilaire, in five articles in the Jotirnal des


224 Ancient Sanskrit Literature [ch. xi
Savants^ that famous periodical, now nearly 1^0 years old, the contributors to which must all be members of the Institute of France. ‘ This new work of M. Max MuUer,’ says the reviewer, ‘ shows considerable progress in Vedic studies ; it answers and explains a number of interesting and doubtful questions, and it traces for Vedic literature a limit which according to our view is definite. It has brought order and light into the huge and confused treasure-house of the primi- tive monuments of the Brahmanic religion, and this systematic arrangement rests on a basis which appears well founded.’
‘ The History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature will add greatly to
the distinction with which the name of M. Max Miiller is already
so justly marked. The book of which I am writing is of so high
an order that one may well doubt whether any one for a long time to
come will surpass, or even equal it/
Professor H. H. Wilson also wrote an elaborate review of
the work, which appeared in the Edinburgh Review, October,
i860, being the last thing Professor Wilson ever wrote ; in fact
the ink of the last words was scarcely dry before the fine old
scholar passed away. ‘ It is not possible,’ he says, * in a brief
survey like the present, to render justice to a work every page
of which teems with information that no other scholar ever
has, or could have, placed before the public’
A second edition was called for within a year, but so rapid was the progress of Vedic studies at that time, that Max Miiller, though often urged to do so, would not publish a third edition, being compelled, after his rejection for the Chair of Sanskrit, to turn his attention mainly to other studies.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls, Easter Sunday, 1859,
‘ I am overwhelmed with work, but I have found time to read that
book of Schleiermacher of which you wrote to me, and I read it with
great interest. It is an important book, more important than his
writings. Whether the publication was right it is difficult to say. It is
like a post mortem. Many would shrink from it, and yet one learns
much from it and it may be of use. Men are so made that they
seem ashamed of what is best in themselves, and then it is well to
have such books to show us that men are all much better than they


1859] Mokslia Mulara 2.2.^
seem to be. I am now reading Perthes Life, which holds much that is important, but without the poetry of Schleiermacher’s surroundings, I can well understand that after reading these books you long for some of the Greek Classics, but it is difficult to enter into the old simple life and thoughts ; and to enjoy the beautiful and true as they were then felt and thought of, requires longer and more gradual study. You know Schleiermacher’s Plato, but it is not easy to enjoy ;
Phaedrus is understandable, also the Symposium and Phaedon, and these are enough to give you an idea of Plato as a man. I can settle nothing about my summer plans. To begin with, war is sure to break out in Italy, and it may be that powder and shot will be seen on the Rhine.’
It was about this period that the natives of India began to speak of Max Miiller as ‘ Moksha Mulara,’ which was thus ex- plained by one of their Pundits : ‘ He who by publishing the Veda for the first time in a printed form gave {ra) the root, {inilla) the foundation, the knowledge of final beatitude {moksha)^ he is called Moksha Mulara.’ At the present day this Indianized form of his name is in common use amonsf those who know his works.


*iD


To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls, May 29.

‘ I am very tired, and yet I have still so much to do before I can get away. Now there are the lectures, and I am printing and writing away at my book. Then I have four examinations before me, and then, please God, I shall start. Here in England things are quiet, but they begin to form volunteer corps. The undergraduates drill and shoot, and we are making ready for whatever comes. My horse costs a lot of money, but not so much as a wife. I have been again in London to hear Jenny Lind and Joachim — beautiful. I sat by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Then I had Deichmann the violinist here, and a party to which Mrs. Gaskell (Mary Barton) came. And so one fights one’s way through life, and receives many a black eye ! I am very sorry not to have seen old Humboldt again, and indeed for him it was time to rest — he has done his day’s work.’
And now, after three years of silence and separation, borne
submissively as the will of God, bright prospects suddenly
opened, and within a fortnight of the last letter to his mother,
Max Miiller was asked to Ray Lodge as the future husband
of her he had loved for nearly six years. His friend Walrond
I Q


226 Engagement [ch. xi
was engaged to her younger sister, and life appeared one dream of happiness to the two sisters. The day after his arrival at Ray Lodge. Max IMiiller wrote to her uncle, his friend Charles Kingsley : —
Ray Lodge. Uliil-Sunday, 1859.
‘ Can you believe it ? I cannot. I knew not that the world con- tained such happiness. You know what we have suffered, and now think of us, and pray for us to God. that He may help and teach us how to bear such joy and blessing. The past was so dark and awful, and the world now is so happy and bright. We shall meet on Tuesday. I long to see my new dear aunt, my old dear friend j\Irs. Kingsley. Oh, this world of God is full of wonders, but the greatest of all wonders is love.’
Baron Bunsen wrote on July 23 : —
Translaiicm.
‘ My sons knew too well what delight they would give me by their communication, which has already given us all a foretaste of the delight of your \isit with your bride, and meanwhile has brought me yoiu- aflfecdonate letter. I have felt all these years what was the matter with you. and I sympathize with your happiness as though it concerned one of my own children. I therefore now, my loved friend, wish you all the more happiness and blessing in the acquisition of the highest of life’s prizes, because your love has already shown the right effect and strength, in that you have acquired courage for finishing at this present time your diflBcult and great work on the Veda. The work will also give vou further refi’eshment for the future, whilst the editing of the Veda still hangs on vour hands. Therefore let us all -R-ish you joy most heartily (my wife has received the joyful news in Wildbad), and accept our united thanks beforehand for your kind intention of visiting us shortly with your yotmg wife. By that time we shall all be united here. Beg your bride beforehand to feel friendly towards me and towards us all. You know how highly I esteem her two aunts, though ■without personal acquaintance with them, and how dear to me is the cultivated, noble, Christian circle in which the whole family moves.’
His devoted mother wrote, on receiving tlie news of his engagement from her son : —
Translation. Carlsbad, June 16, 1859.
‘ My dear, my happy Max, — I write to you a few lines in the greatest
excitement of body and mind, so that my most ardent wishes and


1859] Engagement 227
blessings may reach you even before I seem to be able to take in all the happiness. Yes, I thank God with all my heart for my son, who is the pride and happiness and blessing of my life ! I thank God with all my heart for my son, to whom He has given his heart’s desire, and I ask God that it may be for His children’s blessing !
‘ A being whom you have chosen and whom you have known and loved for such a long time, must be worthy of you, and I will love her with you, as long as I live. My dear, dear Max, if I could but throw my arms round you and press you to my heart! Here I am all alone, so far from you, and I have nobody near who could calm and understand my over-full heart.
‘ Think what all those who love you so will say to it ! And soon you will have a wife, and the happy time of your engagement will be very short, and I am to see you in your great happiness with your wife !
‘I cannot write any more, my dear, good Max, the excitement has been too much for me ; and you know all I should like to say to you, you know how I love you ! And for this my love’s sake youi* wife will love me a little ! God’s richest blessings be on you both ! I press you to my full heart in deepest love, and I thank God with you.
‘ If you can, write to me soon again. You can imagine how much
I should like to know ever}lhing. Farewell, my dear, good Max, and
bring your G. to see me as soon as possible. With truest love,
‘ Your faithful ^Mother.’
Extracts from letters written during June and July : —
‘A soul to which I cling with my soul. What is it? What is that
soul ? Who made it ? Who sent it here ? Who led it on by slow
degrees till it should meet that other soul which belonged to it from
the very beginning, and longed for it as for its better Self.? These
are awful mysteries, we cannot look into them without feeling giddy and
appalled, and yet we ought to know of them, and then we can throw
ourselves into the arms of God like children, utterly helpless and
destitute, and yet full of faith in His love and wisdom. “ Dies Leben
ist doch schon, o Konigin.” ‘
‘ Think of us two in old Oxford again, and now it will be our home ;
here we shall live together under God’s blessing for many years, here
we shall grow old together, and from here we shall pass one day into
a new and better life. There will be sorrows too waiting for you when
you come here, sorrows such as no life is free from. And we shall
bear them together, and remember that the same Father who now sends
us so much joy, sends us grief also, and all for our real good, though
we do not always see it, and though we cannot venture to fathom His
Q2


228 Marriage [ch. xi
wisdom in guiding our steps through this life. If we trust in Him, our life will not have been in vain, and in spite of suffering we shall be more happy than many whose outward life seems so easy and bright.’
To HIS Mother.
Translation. All Souls, August 2.

‘ This is the last letter I shall write to-night, and it is for you, to thank you for all your love and goodness, and to say that my love for you cannot be lessened or disturbed by any other love : that you know, and I need not say it. And when you see my wife, you will feel how she has given me a new life, and has only increased and raised my love for you and all who are so good to me. I know how you will love her, and I look forward to our life all together with joyous hope. No discord must disturb our happiness, no littlenesses dim our great joy. I will write again from Heidelberg as soon as I can fix the day we shall meet. To-morrow early I start : our wedding is at 1 1.30. Morier is here ; he came all the way from Naples. I call that friendship.’
On August 3 Max Miiller was married at Bray Church to Georgina, elder daughter of Riversdale Grenfell and Charlotte Elliot, his wife.
A week was spent at Eversley Rectory, lent by the Kingsleys, a spot that was very dear to both of them. On the Sunday Charles Kingsley came over for his services, and administered the Communion to the newly-married pair, being their guest afterwards at luncheon in his own dining-room.
The week was spent in wandering about the lovely moors or
beautiful Bramshill, when they were not occupied with the
papers of the examinations on which Max Miiller had been
busy almost up to his wedding-day. Then two or three days
were given to Heidelberg, to the fatherly friend whose affec-
tion for her husband made a deep impression on the young
wife. From there they went on to Dresden, where the meet-
ing with the mother took place, and the three went together
to Chemnitz to the sister, and then to Dessau. Later on, Max
Miiller and his wife secured a fortnight alone in Prague and
Saxon Switzerland, where they had what was a most dangerous
experience. They had climbed the Papststein, opposite
Schandau, one sultry evening, and whilst at the top, a bare
rock without any shelter, an appalling thunderstorm suddenly


1859] Mother’s Illness 229
burst over and all round them. The play of the lightning was terrific, and the crash of the thunder such that they could not hear each other speak, and they felt that any moment might be their last. They hurried down, but it was some time before they were off the bare rocks, and then only to find themselves in a thick wood, which was no safe refuge, and thankful they were when the torrents of rain showed that the danger was passing away.
On the return journey to England, Leipzig, Halle, Brussels, and Ghent were visited. At Leipzig, Max Miiller and his friend, Victor Carus, met and played together, piano and violin, as in days gone by ; and at Halle he had the interest of a long visit to Professor Pott, the eminent philologist. Oxford was reached on October 24, and Max Miiller and his wife settled themselves in a small furnished house in New College Lane for a few months, till they could find something more suitable.
Pending a better house, Max had to keep his books and do his work at All Souls.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Ghent, October 20.

‘ We both long for a litde quiet, and I for my work. I have had nothing but pleasure and enjoyment these last months, and I am longing for my usual occupations. The time we spent with you was delightful ; how few enjoy such happiness as we had together ! Take care of your health, that you may not make us anxious this winter.’
Early in November Max MUller’s mother was suddenly taken dangerously ill, and his anxiety was very great. It was happily relieved before November 17, on which day his old friend Theodore Walrond was married at Bray Church to his wife’s younger sister. Max Miiller and his wife were present, and stayed on a few days. ‘ They would like to keep us here altogether,’ he writes to his mother, ‘ but that cannot be during the lectures, and I am so happy in my own home.’
The committee of the Athenaeum Club had this year offered
to elect Max Miiller without a ballot, but as he was just going
to be married, he felt he could not afford it at that time. He
never joined any London club, as he was not constantly in


230 Correspondent of Turin Academy
London, and used to say ;iCio a year was too much to pay for a biscuit, or even a glass of wine !
This year being the centenary of Schiller’s birth, Max M tiller gave a public lecture on Schiller, which was very well attended. ‘All Oxford went to hear him,’ wrote a friend. This lecture was published as an article on Schiller in the Times, and afterwards expanded into a longer paper, pub- lished in Chips.
Christmas was spent at Ray Lodge with a large family party — Walronds, Froudes, and others ; and on December 30 Max Muller tells his mother he had that morning received a diploma from Turin, as Corresponding Member of the Royal Sardinian Academy ; and the same day there was a very flattering review in the Times of his Ancient Sanskrit Literat2ire, of which the first edition was already sold out.
It was during this winter that our King was resident in Oxford, as a Gentleman Commoner of Christ Church. Max Muller was often invited to dine at Frewin Hall, the Prince’s residence, and the foundation was then laid of that kindly feeling which the Prince ever after evinced for Max MUller, and to which he alluded in such gracious terms in his speech at the opening of the School of Oriental Studies in 1890, speaking of Max Muller ‘ as one whom ever since my under- graduate days at the University I have had the advantage and privilege of knowing.’


CHAPTER XII
1860-1861
Mother’s illness. Death of Wilson. Move to High Street. Sanskrit election. Birth of first child. Wife’s illness. Spring at Ray Lodge. Lectures on ‘ Science of Language.’ Visit from his mother. Death of Prince Consort.
The early days of this year found Max Miiller again in deep anxiety about his mother, who had gone to her daughter at Chemnitz for Christmas, where she was taken suddenly and alarmingly ill, and for a day or two there seemed but small hope that her life would be spared. Her son’s anxiety was piteous, so far away from her, and unable to do anything for her, or go to her for fear of exciting her. On February i:^ he writes to her : —
Translation.
‘ It was a serious warning, and the years God has added to your life should be all the more valuable and blest. How we suffered with you I need not say. The loss of our parents is the heaviest sorrow we have to bear in life, and nothing can ever blot it out. The separation must come sooner or later, but when it comes something breaks in the heart which can never be the same again.’
To Bryan Hodgson, Esq. (formerly Resident in Nepal).
New College Lane, Oxford, February 6, i860.
‘ My dear Sir, — I have to thank you for your valuable papers on
the Vayu and Kiranti languages. They arrived here during my
absence. I was obliged to stay away from Oxford as my wife
was very unwell, and I am only just beginning to resume my
work. When I shall be able to go through the results of your
immense labours I cannot tell at present. My time is so much
taken up with necessary work that I cannot allow myself much leisure


232 Lectures [ch. xn
for my favourite studies, I have to print text and commentary of the Ri’g-veda, and a second edition of my History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. Then I have to prepare lectures on the Literature of Modern Europe for my Chair here, not to mention a Sanskrit Grammar, which I promised to finish before the summer. Add to all this the duties of a newly-married man, and you will believe me if I tell you that I have but few moments left for following up my researches into the history of the numberless Turanian languages. I am very glad, however, to know that your important labours, though interrupted, were not left incomplete, and I trust you will find leisure in England for writing a resume’ of all your discoveries in the Himalayan Babel. A linguistic map of that country would be very useful, and no one could do this as well as you. Some day or other I hope to return to those steep regions of philology, and nothing could be a better guide than a physical and ethnological map drawn by you.’
The lectures for this term were called ‘Principles of Etymology,’ but were really on the English language traced back through Anglo-Saxon to Gothic. They were a very popular course, and though attendance at Professors’ lectures was no longer compulsory, Max Miiller had a large audience. He had talked over these lectures with his wife, and explained them to her, as they walked together in the beautiful Taplow Woods in the clear winter weather, and on their return to Oxford he dictated the whole course to her. It was like the unfolding of a new world, ever reaching back and back, till lost in the hoary distance, where the forefathers of the European nations still dwelt together with the forefathers of the Persians and Hindus, before the great dispersion west and south.
To Professor Bernays.
Translation. New College Lane, Felruary 6, i860.
‘ Oh yes, a sign of life is always good, and so I thank you, my best friend, for your Child of Care. But I should like to know still more how you are, body and soul, and I should also like to know what you think of me and of my happiness. Our missing each other at Heidelberg was a fatality, for I so wished to show you my wife. I really am as happy as a “ Child of Care “ can be and may be ;
I often fear the envious Nemesis. What is beautiful is that I have
to labour for my bread again, and that also succeeds fairiy. I am


i86o] Humboldfs Correspondence 233
just printing the second edition of my History of Ancie7it Sanskrit Literature. Have you received it ? I sent two copies to Bunsen, one of them was meant for you. The Veda proceeds slowly, and other things ripen. Tell me what you are doing and planning. I have not heard from Bunsen for a very long time. George is in London, and I hope to meet him there the day after to-morrow. Nothing new happens here. As a married man I can but tell you one thing, stop being a “ single “ and become a “ double “ {^Einsiedlcr and Zweisiedler). You can find in all women what is worthy of love, and the one who finds it in you is sure to be worthy of your love.
‘ I am reading Phaedrus with my wife, and we often think of you in our readings.’
To THE Same.
Translation. New College Lane, March 29.
‘As far as I can see, we have no MS. of the Historia Sacra of Sulpicius Severus ; something by him about Saint Martin, but nothing else. If I knew that you would come over here, if such a MS. existed, I should write to Simonides^ but I am afraid nothing will induce you to come over again. It is tiresome that you have not received my History of Sanskrit Literature, the more so as it is my fault. Now the edition is out of print and I am printing a second one. My enemies praise the book, and go so far as to say that it did not come up to their expectations ; what ideas people must have of me ! Well, something better is sure to come, when I have come out somew^hat from my present bliss. In summer I hope to go to my new house, where I shall arrange my library, and then I look for a calm sea (JMeeresstiUe).
‘ I hope to send you something about Monotheism soon ; I do not think you will like it, and therefore perhaps it will bring me a letter. What about your appointment ? When you have received that, your double state {Zweisiedelung) must certainly assume another shape.
‘And what do you think of Humboldt’s Correspondence ? No poetry, but much truth. The old gentleman has sat for his biography to Varnhagen, and has shown himself as Varnhagen could understand him. Unfortunately Varnhagen dies soon after, and the whole matter comes undigested before the public. I am glad to see that Humboldt on his part has justified Bunsen, though he has not put a stop to Varnhagen’s chattering. But what do the court ladies say ? Will there be more of this sort .? I have no time for writing ; but it will be better when I am in my own house and get all things into order. In faithful friendship, yours, ‘ ]\I.’
^ The famous forger of MSS.


234 Home in High Street [ch. xn
To M. Renan.
New College Lane, March 27.
‘ If you think the chapter on the Introduction of Writing Ukely to interest the larger public, I shall be very happy to see it in the Revue Germaiiique. Boehtlingk has sent me an article of his in answer to my arguments. It does not contain anything to make me change my opinion, or rather to remove the difficulties which I feel myself on the subject. If my article is to be printed in the Revue Germanique, it might be civil to mention B.’s objections. I am printing a second edition of my History of Sanskrit Literature, and find that all my time is taken up, as I have been appointed Examiner in Indian History and Geography and the Sanskrit language for the Civil Service of India. I have, however, made time to review your Histoire des Langues Semitiques, or rather one chapter of it, on Semitic Monotheism. There were two long articles in print which were to appear in the Ti?}ies at Christmas, but political subjects left no space, and so they had to be postponed till Easter \ We both agree and differ, as you will see, and I feel quite relieved after having expressed what I long wished to say on the subject. I am delighted to hear that you are so hard at work, your second volume progressing, and your Etude sur le Cantique des Cantiques finished. I have promised to write a review of Barthelemy-St.-Hilaire’s researches on Buddhism, for the Edifihurgh Review, but it will not be out before the autumn, as all the numbers till then are filled up. With sincere regard.’
Max vi^rites to his mother in April that he has at last found a house in High Street, near Magdalen, and that he will move in in July. In all his letters he exhorts her to lead a quiet, comfortable life, and tells her that he always has enough and to spare for her, and that at her age she ought to give herself more comforts. But it was difficult to induce her to do so, after the long years of frugal living, and to the end she saved more of the money her son sent her than she spent.
Translation.
‘ Do not be always thinking how you can spare a few shillings, but
enjoy the precious years God has added to your life, with constant
gratitude, with quiet and purity of soul, looking more to the heavenly
than to the earthly; that gives true joyfulness of soul, if we every
moment recollect what is eternal, and never quite lose ourselves in the
small or even the large cares of life. My love to Auguste and Krug,
^ Reprinted in Chips, Vol. I, first edition.


i86o] Death of Professor Wilson 235
who nursed you so carefully, whilst I could do nothing to help. May God send His warm sunshine on you, and make your lives as happy as He has made mine, so far beyond all I deserve ! ‘
To M. Renan.
6, New College Lane, May 6.
‘ I have been expecting to hear from you for some time, and I am almost afraid from your silence that you did not quite approve of my review of your work which I sent you at the time of its appearance in the Times. The articles have certainly attained their object in England, as I have heard from many quarters. They have drawn general atten- tion to your work, and they have inspired others with the same feelings of respect and admiration for your labours which I sincerely entertain myself. Your works stand too high to be made the object of a merely laudatory review, and I believe that where I have ventured to express a difference of opinion I have done so, not only Avith that respect which is due to you from everybody, but with the warmest acknowledgement of the value of your researches, even where they did not seem to me completely to confirm the results which you derive from them. I still hope I may be mistaken in my misgivings, but if there should be any expression which could have given you offence, I trust you will tell me openly, and believe beforehand that it was used unintentionally. I am anxious to hear what you think on the main point on which we differ, though in form rather than in substance, and I look forward to your second volume for the full discussion of this question. My hopes of spending part of the summer at Paris have vanished again ; my wife is not well, and we shall have to stay quietly at Oxford. Have you seen a volume called Essays and Reviews ? It would interest you and somewhat surprise you, if you consider that all the writers are clergymen of the Church of England.’
Two days after this letter was written, Professor H. H.
Wilson, Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, died almost
suddenly after an operation. It has been already mentioned
that his last piece of work was a review of Max Miiller’s
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, which was published in the
October number of the Edinhirgh, and was, as the editor
says in a note, ‘ a posthumous testimonial by the first San-
skrit scholar of the age to the erudition and worth of the
most eminent of his followers.’ When the funeral was over,
Max MUller announced himself as a candidate for the vacant
Chair, and soon issued his testimonials, which included the


236 Letter from Bishop of Calcutta [ch. xn
names of nearly every Oriental scholar of real eminence in the world. Though the election was not to be before December, the canvass, which was begun at once, occupied nearly the whole year. On May 19 Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, of the British Museum, wrote to Max Muller : —
‘ On many occasions, and especially the last time (about two
months since, in the East India House) when I had the pleasure of
seeing him (Professor Wilson), he stated that in his judgement you
were the first Sanskrit scholar in Europe. I remarked that I was
glad to hear him give so decided an opinion, as I and several others
naturally were anxious that his successor at Oxford should be the
fittest man we could procure. To this he said, “ You will be quite
right if your choice should fall on Max Muller.” ‘
The two following letters, from the Bishop of Calcutta and Dr. Pusey, are of interest as showing the good they expected from Max Miiller’s election to the cause of Christian missions, though Mr. Jowett wrote much about the same time that he could not make up his mind whether Max MUller or his opponent would do most for missions : —
Ravenswood, Simla, y?^^ 13, i860.
‘ My dear Sir, — When I heard of the great loss which Sanskrit literature had sustained by the death of Professor Wilson, my thoughts naturally turned to you as his obvious successor, and it will give me great pleasure to hear that the University make an election which is certainly expected and will be approved by every one to whom I have spoken on the subject in this country.
‘ I feel considerable interest in the matter, because I am sure that it is of the greatest importance for our missionaries to understand Sanskrit, to study the philosophy and sacred books of the Hindus, and to be able to meet the Pundits on their own ground.
‘ Among the means to this great end, none can be more important than your edition and Professor Wilson’s translation of the Rig-veda. It would be most fitting in my opinion for a great Christian Univer- sity to place in its Sanskrit Chair the scholar who has made the Sanskrit scriptures accessible to the Christian missionary.
• I am glad to have this opportunity of thanking you for the clear and satisfactory letter which you wrote to me a year ago, w’hen I con- sulted you on a theological difficulty which had arisen between two missionaries, as to the translation of some expressions in our Articles into Bengali. Such questions are likely to multiply, and it will be



i86o] Letter from Dr. Pusey 237
a great point to have the Sanskrit Professorship occupied by one who takes an interest in them, and from thoroughly understanding the Hindu theological terms, is able to give advice on the subject, so that it may express our meaning in a manner which will be at once accurate and will avoid the pantheistic notions which abound in Hindu philosophy, and might by an ignorant translator be transferred to Christian teaching.
‘ You are at liberty to make any use that you please of this letter.
‘ With every wish for your success,
‘ I remain, my dear Sir,

‘ Yours very sincerely,
‘ Professor Max Muller. ‘ G. E. L. Calcutta.’

From Dr. Pusey.
Christ Cylvkcu, Jmie 2, i860.
‘ My dear Professor, — On the first election to the Sanskrit Chair, you will have heard that we were divided before two great names. Professor Wilson, whose first-rate Sanskrit knowledge was in the mouth of every one, and Dr. Mill, who, many of us thought, might fulfil the object of the founder better by giving to the Professorship a direct missionary turn. The same thought would naturally recur to us now, and I have kept myself in suspense since our sudden loss of Professor Wilson. I\Iy first impression, however, is my abiding conviction, that we should be best promoting the intentions of the founder by electing yourself, who have already done so much to make us fully acquainted with the religious systems of those whom we wish to win to the Gospel. It is obvious that without this know- ledge a missionary must be continually at fault, ignorant alike of the points of contact of which, after the manner of St. Paul, he may avail himself, or of those which present the chief obstacles to the reception of the Gospel in the minds of those whom he would win. I cannot but think then that your labours on the Vedas — while they attest your wonderful power in mastering this ancient Sanskrit (and of course of the more modern Sanskrit, through which you had access to the older), and while they evince, as I understand, great philological talent, beyond the knowledge of Sanskrit itself — are the greatest gifts which have been bestowed on those who would win to Chris- tianity the subtle and thoughtful minds of the cultivated Indians.
We owe you very much for the past, and we shall ourselves gain
greatly by placing you in a position in which you can give your
undivided attention to those labours by which we have already so
much profited. You know that I have felt it my duty to confine
myself to a different class of languages, those which bear directly


238 British Association [ch. xn
upon Hebrew. I have written, therefore, on that upon which I am alone competent to write — not your great knowledge of Sanskrit, of which we have such eminent testimony, but of the great value of that special line of study to which you have devoted yourself. Your work will form a new era in the efforts for the conversion of India, and Oxford will have reason to be thankful that, by giving you a home, it will have facilitated a work of such primary and lasting importance for the conversion of India, and which, by enabling us to compare that early false religion with the true, illustrates the more than blessedness of what we enjoy. — Yours very faithfully, E. B. Pusey.’
The middle of June Max writes to his mother : —
‘ My time is quite taken up with the election business, and I some- times wish I had not thought of it. It will absorb my time till December, and if I don’t win I shall be very cross ! Only think of 4,000 electors, scattered all over England, and each must be written to! In a week the British Association meets here, as in 1847, t^^ first time I made an address in English.’
His old friend Carus came over for the meeting, and stayed with Dr. Acland. Max Mliller was far too much occupied to take any part in the discussions, even in opposing the fierce attack of Mr. Crawfurd (the famous Objector-General) on the doctrine of the Aryan race, and the connexion between Hindus and the nations of Europe.
Early in July Max was busy in London examining the candidates for the Indian Civil Service in Sanskrit, Indian History and Geography. On his return to Oxford, the move to the new house, 64, High Street, took place, but his wife was so unwell that he sent her away to her father’s, undertaking all the trouble himself.
To HIS Wife.
July, i860,
‘ Surely everything is ordered, and ordered for our true interests. It would be fearful to think that anything, however small in appear- ance, could happen to us without the will of God. If you admit the idea of chance or unmeaning events anywhere, the whole organization of our life in God is broken to pieces. We are, we don’t know where, unless we rest in God, and give Him praise for all things.
We must trust in Him, whether He sends us joy or sorrow. If He
sends us joy, let us be careful. Happiness is often sent to try us,
and is by no means a proof of our having deserved it. Nor is sorrow
always a sign of God’s displeasure, but frequently, nay always, of His


i86o] Life in High Street 239
love and compassion. We must each interpret our life as best we can, but we must be sure that its deepest purpose is to bring us back to God through Christ. Death is a condition of our life on earth, it brings the creature back to its Creator. The creature groans at the sight of death, but God will not forsake us at the last, He who has never forsaken us from the first breath of our life on earth. If it be His will, we may live to serve Him here on earth for many happy years to come. If He takes either of us away, His name be praised. We live in the shadow of death, but that shadow should not darken the brightness of our life. It is the shadow of the hand of our God and Father, and the earnest of a
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higher brighter life hereafter. Our Father in heaven loves us more than any husband can love his wife, or any mother her child. His hand can never hurt us, so let us hope and trust always.’
On his wife’s return they settled down to their quiet busy- life, feeling for the first time really at home, in their own house, with his books and all their wedding gifts round them. His joyous, happy temperament, and thankfulness for every trifle, made life very bright, notwithstanding the anxiety and hard work connected with the coming election. His little garden was a constant pleasure to Max Miiller, and he often worked in it. A flight of steps led to it from his study window, so that he could step out at any moment when tired with work, and enjoy his roses, of which, next to violets and lilies of the valley, he was passionately fond.
It was about this time that Max Muller received an invita- tion to deliver a course of lectures the following spring at the Royal Institution on Comparative Philology. He at once accepted the invitation, and continued to lecture at the Institution from time to time for above thirty years, his last course there being delivered in March, 1894, on the Vedanta Philosophy. Beyond bringing out the second edition of Ancteni Sanskrit Literature, writing a very few articles for the Sattirday Review, and preparing his lectures, Max Miiller got through but little literary work this year. The sunshine within the house was a delightful contrast to the weather without, for it had been a summer of almost ceaseless rain, and at the usual time of hay-harvest the hay-fields round Oxford were all flooded.
Max Miiller had been kept in constant anxiety about his


240 Love of Swimming [ch. xh
mother’s health all through the spring and early summer, and at the end of August wrote and offered to pay her a short visit, but she felt hardly well enough for the excitement.
To HIS Mother.
Translation. Septernber 7.
‘ I think you are right in being quiet and alone. To see you again, and then to have to leave after a week, would be almost too much for me, how much more for you ? Our lives are in the hands of a Father who knows what is best for all of us. Death is painful to the creature, but in God there is no death, no dying ; dying belongs to life, and is only a passage to a more perfect world, into which we all go when God calls us. When one’s happiness is as perfect as mine is, then the thought of death often frightens one, but even then that is conquered by the feeling and the faith that all is best as it is, and that God loves us more than even a father and mother can love us. It is a beautiful world in which we live, but it is only beautiful, and only really our home, when we feel the nearness of God at each moment, and lean on Him and trust in His love. And so I trust God will spare you to us, as long as it is good for us ; and when the hour of parting comes, we know that love never dies, and that God, who bound us so closely together in this life, will bring us together where there is no more parting. ... I wish you could see us here : our home is charming, and when I remember how I arrived here with one “ box,” my heart runs over when I see hovi^ God has blessed me.’
In September Max Midler and his wife went to Brighton, where he enjoyed the sea-bathing, and renewed his old love of swimming. There were several swimming competitions during their stay, and he always joined the competitors, and was glad to find that he kept up his former power of rapid and strong swimming.
To Professor Bernays.
Translation. 64, High Street, October 21.
‘ I found your letter on my return, and I write at once to thank you for the beautiful and flattering proof of your friendship. All that comes from you I read with true joy, as far as I can understand it, and I look forward heartily to the fresh feast. Till the middle of December I shall have no leisure. December 7 is the election :
whether I am to succeed is doubtful, but I hope I shall, especially as
I have lost six months with canvassing. We are all well here ; my
wife is in good health, our house is all in order, nothing is wanting





i86o] Death of Biinsen — Sanskrit Election 241
any more, and I thank God if all remains as it is now. It is true, happiness drives nails into our soul, but all is for the best.
‘ I hear nothing but sad things about Bunsen. I should grieve to lose that man.
‘ When will you come to England again ? In faithful friendship.’
In the last days of November he heard of the death of his friend and benefactor, Baron Bunsen, who passed away at Bonn, after many months of suffering, so that at first the thought that he was at rest overpowered the sense of loss. But the feeling of loss grew ever stronger as time went on, and a year later Max MuUer wrote to M. Renan : ‘ I miss Bunsen more every day. I feel as if I had lost a limb, and I can hardly believe sometimes that one is never to see him again here below.’
On December 7 the election to the Sanskrit Professorship took place, and Max Miiller was rejected. A few days before the election an unknown friend wrote to one of the papers summing up the difference between the candidates, as ‘ the difference between respectable and honourable proficiency, and the complete and masterful knowledge of the subject possessed by a rare genius and profound scholar, from whose authority on the subjects of Indian philology and philosophy there is no appeal in Europe/ and then, adverting to the objection to Max Miiller as not being an Englishman, the same supporter adds : —
‘ Mr. Max Miiller’s English is perfect. Many who have not heard the wonderful force and clearness of his public lectures must have read, without knowing it, some of his many contributions to periodical literature. Nothing that I know of — of thought or expression — exists to differentiate Max Miiller from the highest type of refined and edu- cated Englishman.
• But the implied charge of un-English religion, and even of irre- ligion, is at once the most serious, the most gratuitous, and the most cruel. If the country clergy have been persuaded, as has been wittily said, to smell rationalism in the dots over the ii in Mr. Miiller’s name, I cannot hope to dissipate the detested odour.
I can only submit that there is not the slightest particle of ground for
the suspicion, not the faintest show for the pretext that Mother Church
is in danger. Surely the support and deferential testimonials of the
men of highest character and well-known religious opinions in the
I R


242 Dr. Pusey [ch. xii
University should suffice to dispose of such a vague and ungenerous insinuation. A man’s personal character must stand very high, and his theological opinions can afford but little ground for animadver- sion on either hand, when he unites as his unhesitating supporters Dr. Pusey and Dr. Macbride.’
Dr. Pusey had worked day and night for Max Miiller, and when helping to send out the final notices of the election, wrote in his own hand above those he sent : ‘ Max Miiller has already done more for the Gospel in India than any other Sanskrit scholar, by opening to our missionaries their sacred books. His election would enable him to devote himself to that work. He is the first Sanskrit scholar living.’
It was observed by an elector that could the votes
have been taken by weight, there was no doubt how the
matter would have ended. There can be no doubt that it
was a keen disappointment to Max Miiller, but he lived long
enough to trace his almost unique position later in the world
of letters, and the influence he was able to exert on religious
thought in England, to this very disappointment. Had he
been successful, he must have devoted his great powers almost
exclusively to Sanskrit, and by doing so would no doubt have
remained to the last what Wilson pronounced him to be at
the time of his (Wilson’s) death, ‘The first Sanskrit scholar in
Europe.’ It was the Chair of Philology, founded some six
years later specially for him, his name being mentioned in the
statute of foundation, that led him on from the Science of
Language to the Sciences of Thought and Religion. As
Professor Macdonell says, in his admirable obituary notice in
the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society — \
‘Nothing was known about Comparative Philology when Max
Miiller came to this country. He introduced and popularized the new
science, and soon came to be regarded as its chief exponent. He
was, moreover, the first to inaugurate the study of Comparative
Mythology in this country. ... It was not till the latter half of the
century that the necessary conditions were at hand for founding a
science of religion. Max Miiller was there to apply the needful
stimulus . . . and to collect the requisite materials in his Sacred Books
of the East. Thus there was a great opening in these highly im-
portant branches of learning, but no one man could have taken


i86o] Letters on Sanskrit Election 243
advantage of them . . . , had he not been one of the most talented and versatile scholars of the nineteenth century.’
The following letters vi^ere received soon after the election,
and were kept together and always treasured by Max
Muller :—
From his Father-in-law.
‘ I know not when I have felt more deeply for the trials of others or
had more reason to admire patience and resignation to God’s will
than in the spirit you have shown, in what I know to be a most severe
trial and bitter disappointment. But now that all is over, and I have
time to think, I am inclined to believe that with such unscrupulous
opponents we could not have won. They had every element of
success on their side, but one, and that they disavowed as affecting
the claims of the candidates, namely the vast inferiority of one to the
other. It must be a bitter disappointment to feel that the path of
usefulness you had proposed to follow has been cut from under your
feet, . . . but it is God’s will, and the time may come when you will
see His wisdom in disappointing your hopes and wishes,’
From Dean (then Canon) Stanley.
Christ Church, December 8.
‘ You must allow me to write a few words to express what I cannot say. I have never experienced the peculiar trial under which you are suffering, but I believe, from my own bitter disappointment on your behalf, I can feel what it is for you. You will have many consolations. I need not dwell upon them. But you must also give us the best consolation that we can have, and that is the assurance that we have not been mistaken in the high expectations we had formed of you.
You have it still in your power, thank God, to turn your energies from
this wretched turmoil to the pursuits which have made your name
what it is. You can still show that, although not Boden Professor,
you are and will remain the oracle of all who wish to know the
secrets of Indian literature and religion. You can still by your
writings show what the Christian religion may be to India and the
world, as you could not do before, lest you should be suspected of
unworthy motives. You can still show us how the Christian scholar
and philosopher can put to silence by Christian magnanimity “the
ignorance of foolish men.” [Can one not hear the beloved little Dean’s
inimitable chuckle as he penned these words?] You can in this
crisis of your life rise to the greatness of the occasion, and make your
friends more proud of you, than if they had brought you into the
Professorship by a majority of hundreds. “ Leave off wrath and let
R a


244 Attacks on Max Muller [ch. xn
go displeasure ; fret not thyself, else shalt thou be moved to do evil.”
With bitter regrets at not having exerted myself more, with the truest
sympathy for you and yours. Ever your sincere friend,
‘A. P. Stanley.’
It was not easy to carry out his friend’s advice, for not content with the signal victory they had gained, his opponents brought various utterly unfounded accusations against Max Muller, as that he had inspired an article in his favour which had appeared in the Times, and other equally vexing and untrue allegations, which, though triumphantly disproved by men like Dr. Pusey, the Provost of Queen’s, Dr. Jacobson, Professor Mountague Bernard, and Mr. Dasent, the editor of the Times, were at the time distressing as tokens of personal animosity and malice. To a man of so loving and truthful a character, these attacks were peculiarly painful. His friend Regnier expressed the unanimous feeling of continental scholars in a letter in which he says, ‘ I kept on declaring, in spite of what any one could say, that your defeat was impossible.’
To his mother he wrote, December i6 : —
‘ The last days have been full of disturbance. You will have seen by the papers that I did not get the Sanskrit Professorship. The opposite party made it a political and religious question, and nothing could be done against them. All the best people voted for me, the Professors almost unanimously, but the vulgus pro/antim made the majority. I was sorry, for I would gladly have devoted all my time to Sanskrit, and the income was higher ; but we shall manage.’
Of this election Mr. Tuckwell writes : —
‘ I remember the contest for the Sanskrit Professorship, wherein I voted and, as far as I could, worked for him (Max Muller) : an inferior candidate being preferred before him, first because Max was a German and therefore a “ Germaniser “ ; secondly, because a friend of Bunsen must of necessity be heretical ; thirdly, because it was unpatriotic to confer an English Chair on any but an Englishman.’
Canon Farrar thus describes this event : —
‘ Muller himself was made to feel the prejudice in Oxford against
any novelty in i860, when he was passed over for election to the
Sanskrit Professorship. It is fair indeed to allow that it was not


i86o] Birth of First Child — Wife^s Illness 245
strictly political or religious opposition that was made to him; but the Englishman’s dislike to an adopted son, and the feeling that it was not necessary to go afield to choose the absolutely best man, provided the candidate was respectable. I was of course on Mtiller’s committee ; but I soon found that there was no solid ground for hoping for his success ; and hardly expected that he would poll so many votes as he did. But in truth Miiller’s claims were incomparable, as having really performed for early Sanskrit literature that which the Alexandrian scholars of the second century b. c. had performed for Homer, editing the text and reconstructing the antique grammar. Miiller himself (this shows his goodness of heart) could not imagine why any other motive could outbalance the sole question as to who was the best candidate. He did not realize the stubborn fixedness of English and Oxford preference for an old Oxford man. Miiller felt his disappointment. He was especially grieved with some of his opponent’s committee; for he was a man of spirit and sensibility. He could feel the virtue of resentment, but was too noble to display the vice of revenge.’
But all other feelings were swallowed up by the terrible
anxiety that fell upon Max Miiller very soon after the
election. On December 30 his first child, a girl, was born,
and for two days his wife lay between life and death, and the
doctors gave up all hope of saving her. The horror of that
time he never forgot, and six months afterwards, writing to
his friend Palgrave, who had lost his father, speaks thus of his
experience : —
Oxford, July 8, 1861.
‘ My dear old Palgrave, — I should have tried to see you again
to-day, but I know from experience that in the presence of great
grief I have nothing to say, and for a loss like yours there is no
comfort till we can say by ourselves, “ Thy will be done.” I remember
but one time in my whole life when 1 could not say that, and my
trials have been hard at times, harder than I thought I could have
borne. But when my wife, whom I had loved for six years without
the faintest hope of ever calling her my wife, when she, after one year
of a blessed life, was for two days given up as hopeless by the doctors,
then I broke down, and I could not say, “ Thy will be done.” And
yet what is the tenure of all our happiness ? Are we not altogether
at the mercy of God ? Would it not be fearful to live for one day
unless we knew, and saw, and felt His presence and wisdom and love
encompassing us on all sides ? If we once feel that, then even
death, even the death of those we love best and who love us best,


246 Essays and Reviews [ch. xn
loses much of its terror : it is part and parcel of one great system of which we see but a small portion here, and which without death, without that bridge of which we see here but the first arch, would seem to me a mere mockery. That is why I said to you it is well that human art cannot prolong our life for ever, and in that senti- ment I should think we both agree. I have felt much for you, more than I cared to say. We are trained differently, but we are all trained for some good purpose, . . . and the suffering which you have under- gone is to me, like deep ploughing, the promise of a rich harvest.’
As soon as his wife was sufficiently recovered, Max Muller
took her and his child to Ray Lodge, where they remained
until June, he going once a week to Oxford for his lectures
there. He joined the Maidenhead Company of the Berkshire
Volunteers, to which his father and brothers-in-law already
belonged, drilled and marched out regularly, and was soon
an excellent marksman ; though his drill-sergeant used to
complain of his drill, and declare over and over again that
• those gentlemen who think were a difficulty,’ as they did not readily become the mere machines which even now is still considered the perfection of a private soldier. Later in the summer, and in subsequent years, he camped out with his company. This he particularly enjoyed, and often in after years laughed over their experiences on the Downs and else- where with his kind friend Lord Wantage, who was Colonel of the Berkshire Volunteers.

The agitation about Essays a7td Reviews^ which had been going on ever since the publication of the book, reached its high-water mark in this spring, when Canon (afterwards Dean) Stanley’s famous article on that work appeared in the April number of The Edmburgh Review. Max M tiller, knowing many of the contributors to Essays and Reviews^ had taken a keen interest in the whole affair, and discussed it in many a walk with Canon Stanley ; but the following is the only letter found on the subject : —
To Canon Stanley.
Ray Lodge, April 17,
‘ I have not divulged the authorship, but I have just finished the
article, and there is but 07ie man in England that would have written
it. I think that, next to Garibaldi, you are the bravest man in Europe,


i86i] Lectures on Language 247
and the liberty you are fighting for is worth more than the freedom of Italy. I am proud to be mentioned by you in your article and in your preface. As to myself, I try all I can to forget December 7, and I begin to feel that I shall do more, as I am now, than if I were in the easy-chair of Sanskrit. But I am afraid I shall never feel at home in Oxford again, though it was the place I loved most in all the world. I feel very nervous about my lectures in London ;
I am afraid they won’t be interesting to many people. I shall publish them as soon as they are delivered.’
In April began the lectures at the Royal Institution. There are doubtless some still who remember the enthusiastic interest they excited, the lecture-room being more and more crowded as the course went on, whilst Albemarle Street was filled with the carriages of those who attended them. Max Miiller was very nervous beforehand, but by the end of his first lecture he felt that he carried his audience with him, and the interested faces of Bishop Thirlwall, the late Duke of Argyll, Dean (then Canon) Stanley, F. D. Maurice, Dean Milman, Faraday, and John Stuart Mill, not to mention many others, were an incentive to him to give of his very best.
An intimate friend who was present at the lectures reported :
‘Max Miiller was quite self-possessed, his wife proudly humble.’ A lady who attended these lectures thus recorded her recollections years afterwards : ‘ I remember him then as a slight, intellectual, and interesting-looking young man, with a very clear enunciation, and a perfect command of language, and it was amusing to meet him again a few years ago as a square-shouldered, elderly grandfather.’
‘These lectures,’ says Professor Macdonell in J/aw, February, 1901, ‘afterwards published in an extended form, passed through a large number of editions, and soon raised their author to the rank of the standard authority on philology in the estimation of the English public. Though much of what is contained in these lectures is now out of date, there can be no doubt that they not only for the first time aroused general interest in the subject of comparative philology in England, but in their day also exercised a valuable stimulating influence on the work of scholars in the sixties and seventies. Here Max Miiller first displayed that power of lucid popular exposition, and of investing a dry subject with abundant interest, which has more than anything else contributed to make his name at least as famous as that of any other scholar of the past century.’


248 Success of Lectures [ch. xn
In a most interesting lecture given on December 2, 1900, before the University of Allahabad, by Pundit Satish Chandra Banerjee, these lectures are thus described : —
‘Nearly four decades have now rolled away since Max Miiller delivered at the Royal Institution in London his “ Lectures on the Science of Language,” and so much has been done since, and mainly by the learned lecturer himself, to educate the popular consciousness, that it is difficult for us to realize to-day the value and importance of these lectures. As I turn over the pages of these volumes, I come across much that I feel disposed to characterize as the A B C of the science, much that seems scarcely to require the abundance of explanation and illustration with which Max IMiiller has thought fit to enforce and support it. But we have to remember that when these lectures were first delivered, much of this was new, novel, and startling ; it was in fact a new light which was breaking forth upon the dark and then uninviting fields of Comparative Grammar and Philology.’
• It is,’ said a contemporary review, ‘ a fact of no ordinary significance that, in the height of the London season, an enthusiastic audience of both sexes crowded the benches and endured the heat of a popular lecture-room, not to witness the brilliant experiments, or be fascinated by the revelations of a Faraday or an Owen, but to listen to a philosophical exposition of the inner mysteries of language.’

Max Miiller has told in Atild Lang Syne of several amusing incidents connected with the delivery of his lectures, particularly of the slight estimation in which he was held by Anderson, Faraday’s demonstrator, who was so well known to frequenters of the Royal Institution forty years ago, who could not understand a man wanting no gas or experiments, not even a blackboard at first. As soon as the lectures were over, the Max Mullers returned to Oxford. The printing of the lectures began at once, and the book was out by July 9. It passed through fourteen editions, and was rapidly trans- lated into French, German, Italian, Russian, Swedish, and Dutch, and became a most popular book in America. It was chosen by Cardinal Newman as a favourite prize-book for boys.
On July I Max Miiller had the delight of welcoming his
mother to his home, and showing her his child. She remained


i86i] Visit of Mother 249
until the middle of October, thoroughly enjoying her son’s pretty house, and going with her children to stay at Ray Lodge, and Rugby, where one of the masters, Mr. Charles Arnold, with his German wife, were old friends of hers from 1856.
The summer passed quietly and happily away. Max Miiller preparing the second edition of his Lectures on Language^ and working at the fourth volume of the Rig-veda, which had been delayed for a time — first, by the change of power from the East India Company to the Crown, and the doubt whether Her Majesty’s Government would continue the publication of the work, and secondly, by the loss of so many months in i860 through the Sanskrit election.
The following letter is given as among the first of the long correspondence with Messrs. Longmans, Max Miiller’s valued publishers, the last letter of which, in his own handwriting, is dated August 25, 1901 : —
To William Longman, Esq.
Oxford, October 21, 1861.
‘ I am much pleased to hear of the very rapid sale of my Lectures. I hardly expected a second edition, certainly not so soon. Some of the best reviews I believe are still to come, in the Times, Eraser, Edinburgh Review, Journal des Savants, &c. You must know best whether it is prudent to make as large an edition as the first. ... I fully appreciate the advantage of publishing my books with a firm such as yours, and I ascribe not a little of the success of my Lectures, as compared with the success of my earlier publications, to the popularity of your house, and your experience and judicious arrange- ment. So I hope we shall have no difficulty in coming to an equitable arrangement with regard to this, or any other books which I still have in petto, and hope to finish if all goes well.’
To Professor Bernays.
Translation. 64, High Street, November 1.
‘ Some time ago I sent you a sign of life, i. e. my Lectures, and I should much like to hear by letter how you are and what are your plans for your life. I am well, and I should much wish for you the same sunshine which Heaven has bestowed upon me, though a few dark clouds and storms belong to it also.
‘ How delightful if we could have you here ! Germany is beautiful,
but England is free, and I know how peculiarly such an atmosphere


250 Trials and Successes [ch. xn
would agree with you. I have had lately a visit from George Bunsen — a brave fellow — but his father I miss more and more, and I am sure you do too. I have only just read the essay on Bunsen by Abeken, but something much more complete is to be desired. I have just begun to print a second edition of my Lectures on the Science of Language, and a very large one indeed. Can you send me, when you have read it, some corrections and additions ? But it would have to be by return of post, as I have begun the printing already. I should like to talk to you about some points in it, but letter-paper is not sufficient for spiritual intercourse.
‘ Nothing new from here. Jowett has not been burnt, and the spark has not caught fire yet. But when it begins to burn, it will burn thoroughly. Pattison has married a young wife, and is now Rector of Lincoln College. Is there anything new to read in Germany ? I have only just read Strauss’s Ulrich von Hutten with great interest.’
To M. Renan.
Oxford, November 17.
‘ I heard the other day of your return from the East, and should have written to you at once to congratulate you and your friends on your safe arrival, if M. Durand, who mentioned your being at Paris, had not told me at the same time that you were in deep affliction \ and, as far as I could understand him, suffering also yourself from illness. Those afflictions aje too sacred to allow any one to intrude on the sufferer, with the expression of even the most sincere sympathy.
They bring us face to face with our Father in Heaven, and when we
speak and struggle with Him we want to be alone, quite alone. I
speak from what I felt myself about a year ago, when my wife was
given up by all physicians, and at last restored to me miraculously,
I mean through the mercy of God. I have gone through much
trouble since I last wrote to you, but yet I feel more like myself again,
and begin to see that all was as it ought to be. We both lost a true
friend in Bunsen. ... I had another severe trial in failing to obtain
the Chair of Sanskrit at Oxford : calumnious falsehood and vulgar
electioneering tactics caused the result, and deprived me of the one
sphere where I might have worked with all my heart and souL How-
ever, I have got over that ; I dare say it would have made my life too
perfect, and disappointments are good discipline. Lastly, I want to
send you a book, my Lectures on the Science of Language : I gave
them in London, and they were well attended. I have now printed
them, and am preparing a second and very large edition. I need not
‘ The sister who had educated Renan died at Beyrout of fever.


i86i] Letter from Dean Liddell 251
say I am anxious to have your opinion more than that of any one else. Whether for good or evil, the book has struck root in England, and there is to be a German translation in a very short time. I believe it contains some things that are new, some that are true, and some that will have to be given up as we advance towards the truer knowledge of the mysteries of human speech.’
Kind permission has been given to insert this letter : —
From Dean Liddell.
Christ Church, Oxford,
November i6, 1861.
‘ My dear Muller, — Few things, of late, have given me so much satisfaction as reading your Lectures, though perhaps I should have had yet more satisfaction if the book had been addressed to readers and not hearers. Will you bear with me if I jot down one or two points which I think require more precision or fullness of statement, in a new edition, which I hope will be (as I am sure it ought to be) wanted soon. It is humiliating to hear that these lectures have been delivered to the heedless ears of Oxford hearers.
* (i) In the last chapter, you use “ as an illustration only, not as an explanation,” the fact that metals, &c., ring a sound, each with its proper sound.
‘ How far do you mean the analogy with human speech to go .? Do you mean that each attribute denoted by a Root — as ma, ku, &c. — is expressed by that Root as peculiarly and properly as gold or silver by their respective ring? or do you mean, generally, that man as naturally expresses each general idea by some sound, as gold is betrayed by its peculiar ring, &c. ? Has each general idea its own sound, or only a sound ? I am unable to collect from your statements which you intend. For, while your argument seems to imply that each idea has its own proper sound, I cannot but doubt that you really mean to carry the analogy so far. If you do, I think a good deal more is required to prove the statement. If you do not, a few words are needed to guard against such a conclusion.
‘ (2) Is not the term “ Theoretical Stage” of science somewhat in-
accurate ? Theoretical questions arise in the infancy of all sciences,
and doubtless they cannot be answered till the process of classification
is far advanced or even completed. If this is what you mean, I think
your general and absolute statements respecting the three stages
require modification. I am aware that (p. 20) you admit that “ there
have been instances “ in which theoretical questions have arisen even
in the first stage. I have my doubts whether this is not the rule,


252 American Languages [ch. xn
rather than the exception. Look for instance at the ancient Physics.
Look at Smith’s and Stewart’s Theories of Language, &c.
‘(3) I note a few special points that have caught my eye — (p. 21):
“I expect we shall have to do something else.” This, I think, is hardly a classical use of the term “ expect!’ It would be impertinent in me to express admiration of the almost uniform precision of your English. . . . [Various other small corrections follow.]
‘ Yours very truly, ‘ Henry G. Liddell.’
Max MUller’s mother left him when the autumn weather set in, and he writes to her : —
Translation. 64, High Street, Novemler 20.
• I have not been well enough to write much lately, but have read a good deal, among other books Varnhagen’s new work. It is wonderfully interesting, and shows signs of a ver}’ noble nature, though weak and cross-grained. He misunderstands many people, and therefore dislikes them — as specially Bunsen. His expressions with regard to him are really infamous, but I don’t care for that: words do not make truth, and what he says is not true. One must not mind such false judgement of really noble impulses. As a picture of political and mental efforts, of the stupidity, even madness, of the Government, the book is invaluable. How furious the people in Berlin will be ! That the publication has been allowed at all shows the advance made since 1848.’

Early in December, Max Miiller received a letter from a gentleman in California, who had read his Lectures, urging him to study ‘ the philological connexion of the Indian languages of Mexico and the Alta California, and thus possibly find a key to trace its ante-Columbian history.’ Though Max always felt a keen interest in the North American Indian languages, and when the Mohawk under- graduate Oronhyatakha was in Oxford, prepared a skeleton Mohawk grammar from what he learnt from him, the subject was too remote from his own special line of study, and required far too much time for him to take it up, though he was constantly urging the duty of doing so on American students, and was always very much interested in the publica- tions of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington.
To HIS Wife.
Oxford, November, 1861.
‘ It is so difficult not to grow very fond of this life and all its
happiness, but the more we love it the more we suffer, for we


i86i] Death of Baron <£ Eckstein 253
know we must lose it, and it must all pass away. Does love pass away too? I cannot believe it. God made us as we are, many, instead of one ; Christ died for all of us individually, and such as we are — beings incomplete in themselves, and perfect only through love to God on one side, and through love to man on the other. We want both kinds of love for our very existence, and therefore in a higher and better existence too the love of kindred souls may well exist together with our love of God. We need not love those we love most on earth less in heaven, though we may love all better than we do on earth. After all, love seems only the taking away those unnatural barriers which divide us from our fellow creatures — it is only the restoration of that union which binds us altogether in God, and which has been broken on earth we know not how. In Christ alone that imion was preserved, for He loved us all with a love warmer than the love of a husband for his wife, or a mother for her child. He gave His life for us, and if we ask ourselves there is hardly a husband or a mother who would really suffer death for his wife or her child. Thus we see that even what seems to us the most perfect love is very far as yet from the perfection of love which drives out the whole self and all that is selfish, and we must try to love more, not to love less, and trust that what is imperfect here is not meant to be destroyed, but to be made perfect hereafter. With God nothing is imperfect ; without Him everything is imperfect. We must live and love in God, and then we need not fear : though our life seem chequered and fleeting, we know that there is a home for us in God, and rest for all our troubles in Christ.’
To M. Renan.
Oxford, November 30, 1861.
‘ I was touched when I saw to-day in the Journal des Debats your thoughtful and sorrowful lines on the death of our old friend d’Eckstein. I had long been without news from him, and now that he is gone I regret and I reproach myself for not having written to him more frequently. His death reminds me of the happy time in 1846 when I was at Paris attending Burnoufs lectures, and when d’Eckstein helped me and encouraged me, and when I was fighting my way through difficulties which now would seem to me almost insurmountable.
And yet I was never so happy as in those days, when sometimes
I had to go without a dinner because I could not pay for it, and
when I used to copy for d’Eckstein, who paid me for my work in his
own generous way. Yes, we have lost many men whom we can
hardly afford to spare ; we still suffer from Burnoufs death, we shall
long miss the presence of our friend Bunsen, but when I think of


254 Death of Prince Consort [ch. xn
what we have lost I feel it all the more a duty to live, to work in
their spirit, and thus to keep alive, as it were, some small portion of
their spirit. I am sure you will feel the same, for you have a great
work before you ; you are wanted and you will not fail. I should like
to hear from you that you are well, in body and mind, and that
you do not lose your faith in the work which you have begun, and in
the work which is still before you. The revival of learning in the
fifteenth century was the dawn of Reformation, and I believe a similar
era is approaching to fulfil what the Reformers intended, but which
was frustrated by political events. You have an element in France
which, if properly advised and directed, might become a most powerful
engine for good, as it may be, if left in bad hands, for evil. Germany
must follow the example of Italy, and must look not only for political
union, but for religious union on high and neutral ground. In
England too there is a yearning after real Christianity, though the
struggle will be a hard one. It is a time worth living for, and I feel
convinced that you will be wanted even for a greater work than that
of finishing your Histoire des Langues Semitiques^
Max Mliller and his wife were at Brighton at the time of
the Prince Consort’s death. Though he had seen but little
of the Prince, Max had the truest admiration for his character,
and seems to have felt strongly how much the country which
misunderstood and misrepresented the noble Prince to the
last, really owed him. He had sent his Lectures to the Prince
as soon as published, and they had been most kindly acknow-
ledged. They were by the bedside of the Prince at the
beginning of his illness, as if lately read. Gracious permission
has been given to insert the following letter, written nearly
twenty years later, when the Queen sent Max Miiller the last
volume of the Prince Consort’s Life. The five volumes, each
with Max Miiller ‘s name written and signed inside by the
gracious Sovereign whose subject he was proud to be, will
remain a precious heirloom to his children and children’s
children.
‘Oxford, den 13*^° Mai 1880.
‘EuRER Majestat lege ich meinen tiefgefiihlten Dank unter- thanigst zu Fiissen fiir den letzten Band des Life of the Prince Consort von Sir Th. Martin.
‘ Der Verfasser hat von neuem seine sichere Kunst, seinen richtigen
Takt, sein tiefes Verstandniss und seine ehrfurchtsvolle Auffassung
der ihm gewordenen Aufgabe herrlich bewahrt, und das Geschick,
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i86i] Letter to the Queen 255


mit dem er die ihm anvertrauten
“ goldenen Faden “ in sein eigenes Gewebe hineingewebt, so dass Jeder, der
Augen hat, sie sieht und fiihlt, und sie doch nle die Harmonic des Ganzen
storen, beweist die geiibte Hand des wahren Meisters.



‘ Mit ernsten Gefiihlen
schliesst man das Buch und trennt sich von ihm wie man sich schweren Herzens
von einem lieben Grabe trennt, Wie anders hatte die Welt sein konnen, wie viel
Gutes ware moglich, wie manches Unrecht unmoglich, wenn zwei Augen sich nicht
so friih geschlossen ! Auf das Warum, das immer und immer wiederkehrt, kann die
menschliche Vernunft keine Antwort geben. Nur ein fester Glaube an eine
Weisheit und eine Liebe, die Alles ubersteigt, was wir Weisheit und Liebe
nennen, bringt, wenn auch nicht Trost, doch Ruhe und Frieden auf den einsamen
Lebensweg. Was wirklich unser war, das kann keine Macht uns rauben, und nichts
auf Erden bleibt uns so sicher als der Besitz vergangenen Gliicks.



‘ Mit wahrer Verehrung habe ich
die Ehre zu verbleiben



‘ Eurer Majestat dankbarer und
unterthanigster Diener,



‘ F. Max Muller.’


Translation. ‘OXFORD, May 13,
1880. YoUR MAJESTY,— I beg most humbly to offer the expression of my
deeply-felt gratitude for the last volume of the Life of the Prince Consort, by
Sir Theodore Martin. The editor has again
nobly proved his sure skill, his true tact, his deep sagacity, and his
respectful comprehension of the task committed to him. The dexterity with which, without disturbing
the harmony of the whole, he has spun the “golden thread” entrusted to him into
his own material, so that every one who has eyes sees and feels it, shows the
practised hand of the true master. One closes the book with solemn feelings,
and leaves it with a heavy heart as one leaves a loved grave. How different the
world might have been, how much good had been possible, if two eyes had not
been closed too soon ! Human reason can give no answer to the wherefore that
returns over and over again. Only firm faith in a wisdom and a love that is far
above all we call wisdom and love, brings — if not comfort— yet rest and peace
on the lonely path of life. What was really ours, no power can take from us,
and nothing on earth remains so surely ours as the possession of bygone
happiness. — With deep respect, I have the honour to be your Majesty’s grateful
and most obedient servant, F. Max Muller.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. December 15.


‘ What will you say to the
death of Prince Albert ? He died last night at eleven of gastric fever. This
will involve great changes.



The Queen can hardly bear the
whole burden alone, so there may be



a Regency, probably with the
Prince of Wales, at first for three



months only. It is a fearful loss
for the Queen, who has no one who



can so help her : and the whole
country will long feel his loss. So









256 Religious and Philosophic
Struggles [ch.xh



everything teaches us that our
home is not here, but beyond, and that here there is no lasting happiness. How
many have gone before us these last years ! Would that we were convinced that
we must soon follow, and that everything here is but a preparation for what is
better ! ‘



To M. Renan.


Brighton, December 16.


·
My dear Friend, — I have read your letter with
deep interest and sympathy. Such trials as you have had to pass through are not
sent without a purpose, and if you say that they have changed your views of
life, such a change in a character like yours can only be a change in advance,
a firmer faith in those truths which have been revealed to the dim sight of
human nature, a stronger will to resist all falsehood and tampering with the
truth, and a deeper conviction that we owe our life to Him who has given it,
and that we must fight His battle when He calls us to do it. I am not afraid
that you could ever desert the post which you have so nobly occupied, and
though I am rejoiced to hear that a sphere of honourable activity will be open
to you as a successor of Quatrembre, I cannot believe that Science alone will
ever fill the whole of your heart. I cannot help believing that we are on the
eve of great religious and philosophic struggles. There is a longing after true and primitive
Christianity in the best spirits of England, France, and Germany, and there is
a general desire after an outward union and communion, which is possible only
on the basis of that faith which was in Christ as the Son of God, and which is
the lifespring of all religion, however diff”erent the wordings of formulas and
sects. With the restitution of the Papacy to its true function, a great step
will have been made. Germany at the time of the Reformation objected to an
Italian Pope much more than to the head of a Church. So did England, so to a
great extent did France.



As soon as the Pope has ceased to
be Prince of Rome, a movement



will begin in which the true
purposes of the Reformers will be realized



and through which negative
Catholicism, as you call it, will become



positive Catholicity. In that
movement much will turn on France,



and on your Emperor, and that is
why I wish to see at his side



honest, wise, and learned men. I
am staying at Brighton with my wife,



who has been very ill, but is now
much better. I have just finished my



second edition o^ my Lectures on
the Science of Language. I should



like to know what you think of
them. I know we differ, and in my



second volume I shall have to
fight with you, but I hope and trust that



our literary differences will
only draw us more closely together. There



is that charm about your views
and opinions, that they are carved out



of marble and not out of plaster.
They stand out clearly and firmly









i86i] Lectures on Language,
Second Edition 257



and one may grapple with them,
but when I read a work of Stein- thal’s, and even many parts of Humboldt, I
feel as if walking through shifting clouds. It may be my fault, there may be
much depth of wisdom in all that darkness and vagueness, but I cannot help
thinking that there is nothing that cannot be made clear, and bright, and
simple, and that obscurity arises in all cases from slovenly thinking and lazy
writing. Adieu. Yours with sincere regard.’



To Professor Benfey.


Translation. Oxford, December 17.


‘ Though I have put my Oxford address at the head of this letter, I am sitting in
reality in Brighton, and from my window I look
upon the sea about twenty steps from here. Both of us, I as well as my wife,
needed sea-air, and so we hope to enjoy this refreshing atmo- sphere here till
Christmas. Many thanks for your letter. I have also made use of Strabo’s
remarks about the population of the Caucasus. In a few days a second edition of my Lectures
on Language will be ready. My chief aim has been reached : the book has been
read and has excited great interest in the science of language. It is my con-
viction that we know nothing really which we cannot teach (I think Aristotle
was of the same opinion), and that nothing exists which cannot be clearly and
intelligibly expressed. It requires time and trouble indeed, but it is
effective, and that is the greatest reward of all work and study.



‘ The death of Prince Albert is an incalculable loss. It is
only now people seem to realize that something good can come even from Germany.’



Christmas was spent at Ray
Lodge, quietly, as it was throughout England. The thought of their
widowed Queen, and the sad Christmas at Osborne, weighed on all hearts, and the
universal mourning, not only in the upper classes, but among servants,
tradespeople, and even the poor, showed how the nation was sorrowing with their
loved Sovereign.









CHAPTER XIII


1862-1863


Birth of second child.
Exhibition. Stay in London.
Ewald. Ranke. Fourth volume of Rig-veda.
Second course of lectures on Science of Language. Paris. Germany. North
Italy. Lectures at Edin- burgh. First visit to Windsor.



On their return from Ray Lodge
to Oxford, Max Miiller settled down to work at the Rig-veda, determined that
the fourth volume should appear this year. In fact, the whole year was one of
strenuous work, for a second edition of his Lectures on Language came out
before the end of January, and a third in May, before the book had been out
eleven months, each edition being of 1,250 copies.



Towards the end of January he
went to Lord Ashburton’s for a couple of days, and from there he writes to his
wife : —



The Grange, Alresford, January
24, 1862.



‘ I had a miserable day for
travelling, pouring all the time. How- ever, I found all my trains quite right,
and arrived at Winchester about one. There I went to Mr. Moberly, one of the
masters, and had luncheon. They have a baby five days older than ours, but she
cannot run yet. Then we went to Dr. Moberly’s, and with him all over the school
and cathedral. He explained it all most excellently, but we must go there
together. The cathedral is magnificent, but when I have you with me, and
sunshine, it will be much more magnificent. ... At half-past three I started
for a nine miles’ drive, and arrived here in time for tea. Lady Ashburton seems
very pleasant, and he is a perfect English nobleman — I mean what he ought to
be.



I got your letter this morning,
and I hope you got mine. Yes, we are



very happy^ and I feel as if this
life could give us no greater happiness



than has been ours these two
bright years, and that if we are called



away sooner or later we ought to
part cheerfully, knowing that this



earth could give no more than has
been ours, and looking forward to









1862] Birth of Second Child 259



our new home as to a more
perfect state, where all that was good and true and unselfish in us will live
and expand, and all that was bad and mean will be purified and cast off. So let
us work here as long as it is day, but without fearing the night that will lead
us to a new and brighter dawn of life. I wish you had been here with me, for it
is a delightful place, and very pleasant people. Mrs. Sartoris is the Mrs. S.
Adelaide Kemble, and she still sings most beautifully. The Bishop of London,
too, appeared at dinner, and is staying here.
To-night I hear the Bishop of Winchester is expected. The house is full
of the most exquisite treasures of art, such pictures ! Van Dyck, Titian,
Velasquez, Andrea del Sarto, &c. This morning it was bright, and we had a
long ride ; we started with about twelve horses, and such beauties they all
were, and even your old husband had a splendid gallop, but came home quite
drenched with rain. We were caught by a pouring shower, and when I came home I
had no second coat, and had to appear at luncheon in my Volunteer cape — a
splendid figure. Then I found I had not got my grey trousers, but had taken an
old pair. However, I contrived to hide them in my cape, and looked a regular
night watchman. In the afternoon I sat in my room and read, and now I am
looking forward to to-morrow, when I shall have you and the little one again.
They have a little one here, eighteen months old, a very nice girl, but no boy
coming — and that must be a disappointment with such a place to leave. We have
had a very pleasant time, and if they ask us both I shall be very glad to come
again.’



On February 31 his second
child, another little girl, was



born, and he writes to give his
mother the good news, adding,



‘A little boy would have been
nicer, but I am quite as pleased



with a little daughter, and
girls give less trouble and anxiety



than boys.’


To Professor Bernays.


Translation. 64 High Street,
February 23.



‘ Sooner than I expected I have
received from my publisher the prospect of a third edition [of the Lectures],
and I write therefore to remind you of your kind promise to send me some
“corrections and additions”; it would be the more welcome, as a translation
into German by Professor C. Bottger in Dessau is to appear at the same time,
and the German reviewers have sharper eyes than the English ones. Last week I
lived in great disquietude, and the day before yesterday I became father for
the second lime. Thank God, all passed over happily, but the anxiety and
trouble is so great, I feel quite exhausted and ill, and the doctor sent me to
bed, but I did not stay there long.



S a








26o Oronhyatakha [ch. xm


‘ I had a visit to-day from a
Mohawk Indian ; he has learnt Latin and Greek, he has come to Oxford to study
here, but fancy! he has brought his feather garb with him, but according to the
statutes of the University, I am afraid he may not wear it. I found the man
very intelligent, and the savages more tolerant than many a civilized man.



‘ Aufrecht has got the
Professorship of Sanskrit in Edinburgh. It was offered to me (£500), but I
could not make up my mind to leave Oxford, and I am so glad to know that
Aufrecht is now so w^ell provided for. I do not know whether you have ever met
him. He is just thinking of publishing a new edition of his Umbrian and Oscan
Inscriptions.



‘ Have you read the
hyper-sceptic and somewhat arrogant book of Sir Cornewall Lewis, Historical
Survey of A ncient A stronomy ? Lepsius and Mommsen ought to answer him.’



Oronhyatakha, the Mohawk
mentioned above, vv^as a most interesting man. Dr. Acland had met him when he
was in Canada with the Prince of Wales, and said something which the Indian
interpreted as an invitation to Oxford. At all events, early in 1862 he
appeared, having been helped in his passage-money by friends. With a wild man’s
feelings about hospitality, he expected Dr. Acland to receive him in his house,
and provide for him. He had been well taught in Canada at a missionary school,
and funds were soon collected to enable him to study at Oxford. He used to come
regularly to Max Muller, who by dint of much questioning extracted a skeleton
grammar of the Mohawk tongue from him. Not that he knew what grammar meant, but
by getting him to translate the English equivalents, a student could arrange
the grammatical framework. One day, when writing down some declension or
conjugation, Max Miiller suddenly saw an irregularity, and stopping him, said,
‘ Why do you say that ? It ought to be
so-and-so.’ The Mohawk looked puzzled at first, and said, ‘What you say is the
way my old grandmother talked, but we now say as I have told you,’ thus showing
the rapidity with which an unwritten language may change.



Oronhyatakha went on very well in
Oxford, but some



unfavourable accounts were
received of him from some of



the missionaries to the Red
Indians, and it was thought



best to send him back to Canada.
He was very unhappy,



and the day he came to say
good-bye to Max Miiller he









1862] Letter to Baroness Bunsen
261



looked very fierce, and said, ‘
I buried my tomahawk, but I know where to find it.’ He quieted down, however,
on arriving in Canada, where he trained as a medical man, and as such has done
good work among the settled portion of his own people.



The following letter was
written by Max Muller to his old friend Baroness Bunsen, on hearing of the
death of her daughter, Baroness Ungern-Sternberg : it shows that in the midst
of his own happiness he did not forget to ‘ weep with those that weep.’



64, High Street, April 2.


‘ I saw in the papers the sad
news of the new loss you have suffered, and though I fear almost to intrude on
your grief, which is sacred ground, yet I cannot but send you a few words of
sympathy to tell you how deeply I share in your affliction. Your husband’s
death I feel to-day as keenly as when I first heard of it. I feel it as an
affliction that has fallen, not on you only, but on all of us ; the world is
changed since he has left it. Life has lost something of its bright- ness since
those bright eyes and that bright sound of his voice closed. Some part of ourselves is dead in his death.
I did not write to you then, because words are such poor things, but I have
mourned for him ; I always shall, not only as for a friend, but as for a man
such as I shall never see again. When I saw the loss of your young, blooming
daughter, all the happy days of Carlton Terrace came back like a dream. How
perfectly happy your life was then ; it was happiness even to watch it. And yet
God knows that we want rain and storm as much as sunshine, and He sends us both
as seems best to His love and wisdom. When all breaks down. He lifts us up. I
have myself suffered deep grief — for three days my wife’s life was despaired
of. But when we feel quite crushed and
forsaken and alone, we then feel the real presence of our truest Friend, who,
whether by joys or sorrows, is always calling us to Him, and leading us to that
true Home where we shall find Him, and in Him all we loved, with Him all we
believed, and through Him all we hoped for and aspired to on earth. Our broken
hearts are the truest earnest of everlasting life. May He who alone can send
comfort help you to bear the affliction which He has sent. ]\Iy wife begs me to
add the expression of her deep sympathy, and I remain, with sincere regard,
yours very truly, ‘ M. M.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, April 6.





‘ I am hard at work, and am
printing my Veda and a third edition



of my Lectures. Our garden is
very gay, full of tulips and hyacinths.









262 Prix Volney [ch. xm


and is a great amusement to us.
I get but little time for reading. I
read the Mendelssohn letters with great delight. They are interesting to those
who knew the man, and show his great amiability, but the right pith is wanting
sometimes. They have been translated into English. I have not yet seen
Varnhagen’s new volume. The weather here is very bad, and Oxford is surrounded
with water.’



To HIS Wife,


Oxford, April 19.


‘ It is so difficult not to
lead a selfish life, placed as we are, with all our duties at home and with
hardly any duties to fulfil which are really painful. I feel I ought to work,
and do nothing but work, but then I like my work, and though I believe in the
end it will answer some good and important purpose, yet whatever I do redounds
to my own benefit too. ... I sometimes think I ought to give more time to you
and to society, but I have a feeling that time is so precious, and I have a
good work before me, and I should like, with God’s assistance, to finish it. It
will serve to show the glory of God in the government of the world from the
beginning ; it will show that there was no portion of mankind ever forsaken by
our common Father ; and though His ways with the various races of men are
wonderful, and at first very perplexing, we must learn from God and not attempt
to prescribe to Him how He might better have brought about His mysterious
purposes with the sons of men. Well, I feel I ought not to forsake that work ;
small as it may seem, it will be an important element here- after for a true
appreciation of the history of the world — that great drama in which nothing is
without a purpose and a meaning, from the beginning to the end. Much of my work
at present is only clearing away rubbish, and would not interest you, but there
is a temple under- neath, as will appear by-and-by.’



M. Stanislas Julien had
persuaded him to send in his Lectures on Language in competition for the Prix
Volney. On July 29 he received the
following letter from M. Flourens, the head of the Commission, announcing his success
: —



Institut de France, July 28.


‘ Monsieur, — Permettez-moi de
vous annoncer que la Commission du Prix Volney a decern^, tout d’une voix, le
prix a votre bel ouvrage.



‘ Le plus ignorant de vos
juges, et le plus heureux de votre succ^s,



‘ Flourens.’


Translation. * SiR, — Allow me
to announce to you that the Com- mission of the Prix Volney have unanimously
adjudged the prize to your beautiful work. The most ignorant of your judges and
the most happy at your success,— Flourens.’









1862] Jenny Lind 263


It will be remembered this was the
second time the prize had been awarded to Max MUller, as author of the best
work on language, written in any language during the year.



To HIS IMOTHER.


Translation. Oxford, May 29.


‘ I am very well, though I have
so much work. I do not know often how I shall get through it all. I have so
many examinations — six to get through in the next two months. It is tedious
work, but brings in money. How I wish you could see our garden ! The roses and
pinks are coming out, and all looks so fresh, and is a great delight to us. The
middle of June we think of going to London for a fort- night to see the
Exhibition.’



The Kingsleys came to stay with
the Max Miillers this year for Commemoration, bringing their eldest
daughter. Jenny Lind, who came for one
of the concerts, dined one evening at the Max Midlers’, and as many people were
asked to meet her as the rooms would hold. Deichmann, the violinist, was of the
party, and there was also some good amateur singing, but the host and hostess
could not ask their distin- guished guest to sing. At last, she herself walked
to the piano, and sang, accompanied by her husband, five songs by Schumann, one
after another. It was very hot weather, and the windows were all open, and High
Street filled rapidly at the first sound of the great singer’s voice, which
rang out into the night, and was heard for a considerable distance. Mr. Tuckwell recalls the scene in his
reminiscences : —



‘ I was his guest sometimes in
his pretty house opposite the Mag- dalen elms, where played Deichmann —



Whose bowing seemed made


For a hand with a jewel —





where Jenny Lind warbled, and
Charles Kingsley stammered in impassioned tete-a-tele!



Another reminiscence of Mr.
Tuckwell’s belongs to this



year. Max Midler ‘ consulted me
about two matters in



which, strange to say, I was
better informed than he — the



art of budding roses, and the
conduct of marine aquaria. He



watched me one day in our garden
putting in some buds, and



tried his hand, but gave it up
presently, saying, “ While you









264 Bishop Patteson [ch. xm


are budding a dozen standards,
I can earn £^ by writing an



article.” ‘


During this year more than one
letter passed between Max Muller and his old friend Dr. Patteson, the
Missionary Bishop of Melanesia, who had found the Lectures on Language a great
help to him in studying the many dialects of his scattered diocese.



The Rev. R. H. Codrington
writes : —



To Mrs. Max Muller.


St. Richard’s Walk, Chichester,


March 6, 1901.


. . . ‘ One thing I very well
remember, and that was the Bishop’s



personal affection for your
husband. I don’t see that Miss Yonge



has mentioned in her Lt/e of the
Bishop that they met at Dresden



when both were young men. The
Bishop certainly cherished the



memory of those times, and when he
talked, as he often used, of the



great work of the Professor at
Oxford, he used always to speak as



a warm friend, not as fellow worker
in languages or a learner. He



always gave a copy of the Lectures
on the Science of Language (when



he could get one) to men who joined
the mission, and he advised us



to start with as much knowledge of
that book as we could get. For



my own part, I am sure that I never
should have made any progress



in the study of Melanesian
languages but for the help and encourage-



ment that I got in that way, and
afterwards when on my return for



a time to England I was wishing to
write something. My own



gratitude will never fail. . . .
Yours very sincerely,






‘ R. H. Codrington.’


From Bishop Patteson.


Auckland, N. Z., May 30, 1862.


‘My dear Muller, — I am very
glad to have your book, and more glad still to have a copy of it from you.
Edwin Palmer sent me a copy two or three months ago. I have not read it yet,
reserving it as a treat for my sea life, which begins again now in about ten
days. I wish I could write to you fully
about these Melanesian languages. I
don’t know enough of them to write briefly, and I don’t want to take up your
time. Gabelentz has sent me his Grammar. I am in com- munication with him. He
is on the right track, and has done a great deal with exceedingly scanty
materials.



‘ The division usually made
between Polynesian and IMelanesian



dialects is an arbitrary one. It
is true that east of the Fiji group the



Polynesian language is met with
in a much purer form than in the









1862] Melanesian Languages 265


West Pacific, but Fiji is more
than half Polynesian ; its structure almost wholly so ; and the Polynesian
element is carried, to my certain knowledge, through all the Banks Islands and
all the New Hebrides, and it comes out very clearly in several of the Solomon
group ; and I found it well developed the other day when I first landed at
Ysabel, and found that I could talk somewhat to the people after a short time.



‘ I believe I might say almost
as much of the Santa Cruz Archi- pelago, but I don’t know as much. The Loyalty
Islands contain but few affinities with the Polynesian. I don’t mean to say
that these dialects cannot be classified by one who knows a little of philology
; I could prove it to you, if you were here, in five minutes, I am sure; and I
am satisfied that if a man had the ability and knowledge of all the dialects,
he could reconstruct the original language, or something very near it, just as
one puts together a child’s puzzle. Practically,
till one knows a good many of them, they of course appear to be, and have to be
learnt as, separate unconnected languages ; the difference of dialect being
often very wide.



‘ What an indication of the
jealousy and suspicion of their lives the extraordinary multiplicity of these
languages affords ! In each genera- tion, for aught I know, they diverge more
and more; provincialisms and local words, &c., perpetually introduce new
causes of perplexity.



‘ Well, enough of this ; and
indeed I have no time to study these languages scientifically, so how can I
write about them ? I need not tell you that I heartily regret the blunder about
the Sanskrit Professor- ship. From Sir Wm. IMartin I have heard something of
you ; he met you, you may remember, at Oxford. If you can find time to send me
a line, I shall be very glad ; but I know you are much occupied.



‘ I am, my dear IMiiller, very
sincerely yours,



‘ J. C. Patteson, Missionary
Bishop.’



When the Commemoration was
over, the Max Miillers spent a fortnight in London, to see the Exhibition. They
dined out constantly with their many friends. At a dinner at Mr. William
Longman’s, a Frenchman who was of the party, and was particularly anxious to
make Max Miiller’s acquaintance, was overheard in the course of the evening to
say^ ‘ I did not know a man so learned shall be so very young ! ‘



To Mr. William Longman.


Oxford, July 27.


‘ I know that you will be glad to
hear that my Lectures have just



been awarded the Prix Volney by
the French Academy. The prize is



given for the best work on
Comparative Philology, and it is open to









266 Professor Ewald [ch. xm


all countries. The prize is
only 1,200 francs, but it is very pleasant to have got it, and I hope it will
help to sell the third edition.’



To HIS Wife.


London, y«/v 7.


‘ All I can say is that I have
heard and read the worst that can be said against our religion — I mean the
true original teaching of Christ ; and I feel that I am ready in mind, if not
in body, to lay down my life for the truth of His teaching. All our
difficulties arise from the doctrines of men, not from His doctrine. There is
no outward evidence of the truth of His doctrine, but the Spirit of God that is
within us. He testifieth to its truth. If it does not, we are not yet disciples
of Christ, but we may be hereafter. But more of that later. Be certain of this, that to repress a doubt
is to repress the spirit of truth ; a doubt well spoken out is generally a
doubt solved. Only all this requires great seriousness of mind — it must assume
an importance greater than anything else in life, and then we can fight our way
through it. God is with us in our struggles.’



To Rev. Charles Kingsley.


August.


‘ Ranke {T/ie Popes, &c.)
is staying here for a week, and very anxious to make your acquaintance. Could
you come here for a day to see him ? He dines with us next Saturday, but any
other day will do. Next Monday Ewald
will be here ; he has been here for a fortnight, but comes back all the way
from Penrith to see Stanley. If our spare room is occupied (we expect the
Walronds), we can always get you a bed close by. I think you would like Ewald —
more even than Ranke.’



Ewald’s visit has been fully
described in the Autobiography, and the way he was cross-examined by some of
the younger M.A.’s. He was a most lovable old man in private inter- course,
though a fiery opponent of anything like political tyranny. His power of work
was almost phenomenal : he would spend the whole day at the Bodleian, moving
across to the Camera w}ien the great library closed, sometimes returning there
again after a late dinner. Canon Farrar records an incident of this visit of
Ewald to Oxford : —



‘ Ranke and Ewald were both in
Oxford in the middle of the Long



Vacation. I determined to ask
them to dinner together, though I



dreaded a little friction between
them, of Gottingen versus Berlin, and



of Theology versus Modern
History. I asked Canon Stanley and









1862] Dr, Hang 267


Miiller to meet them. It was
due to Miiller’s extreme tact that con- versation was kept up and yet friction
avoided. Ranke, oddly enough, had his head full of the probable danger to be
apprehended in refer- ence to European politics from Servia and Bulgaria (which
afterwards proved true), and we could not get him to talk with interest on any-
thing else. Miiller showed his cleverness and shrewd common sense by imparling
a vein of humour to the conversation, which prevented a painful outburst of
disagreement ; for Miiller had a vein of true humour. It was not sallies of
wit, abrupt outbursts of the comic, but a playful fun which flowed like a purling
brook, intertwining itself with conversation, and which put crooked spirits in
harmony.



‘ I have already implied that
Miiller had remarkable powers of con- versation : he was always lively and
always instructive. His mastery of English, both in voice and pronunciation,
and of purity of style in writing, was a marvel. To this ought to be added a
pellucid clearness of exposition and description, even in most abstract
subjects, which is seen to some extent in his German tracts as well as more
con- spicuously in his English writings. His syntax was so free from
entanglement, and his language so forceful and expressive, that no reader had
to halt to ask himself the meaning of what he read.’









‘O








It was in the course of the
summer that Max Miiller



received an interesting account
from Dr. Martin Haug,



director of Sanskrit studies at
the College of Poona, of



a great assembly of Brahmin
Pundits held outside the town,



in order to correct their MSS. of
the Rig-veda by the three



first published volumes of his
great edition. The Pundits



would not touch the books
themselves, as the printing made



them impure, an idea having got
abroad that cows’ blood was



used in mixing the ink employed.
But they sat in solemn



conclave for some days, and Max
Miiller’s carefully prepared



text was read aloud, and the MSS.
corrected by it. ‘ Their



judgement,’ says Dr. Haug, ‘ is
to this effect. This edition



must be written by a great Pundit
versed in the Vedas and



Sdstras {veda-sdstra sainpaimvi),
the highest title of honour



of a learned man in India.’ Dr.
Haug then speaks of the



difficulty of getting trustworthy
copies of ancient Sanskrit



MSS. ‘ Not that there are no good
MSS. existing, but they



are to be found generally in the
possession of rich super-



stitious Brahmans, who do not
admit Europeans to their



libraries, and when copies are
made for Sahibs, they are made









268 Letter to Mr. Gladstone
[ch. xm



intentionally bad and
incomplete. One of my Brahman friends told me this the other day.’


The
following letter is the first of a correspondence which was carried on till
within a few months of Mr. Gladstone’s death. An ardent Liberal from his
University days, Max Muller was a great admirer
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:44 pm

of Mr. Gladstone, and a member
of his Oxford committees till his rejection by the University in 1865, But Max
Muller could not follow Mr. Gladstone’s Home Rule policy, and was a determined
Unionist, a Liberal Unionist, and in the contests in the borough of Oxford
voted ‘blue’ for the last ten years of his life, though his deep respect for
Mr. Gladstone’s intellectual gifts, and the spell cast by his personality,
remained in full force to the last.



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



64, High Street, September 7,
1862.



‘ My dear Sir, — I beg to thank
you for your kind letter. It was



a true gratification to me to
hear that my Lectures have attracted your



attention, and that on the whole
you approved of them. I am fully



and painfully aware of the many
and doubtful points in them, but



I am quite satisfied if I have
only succeeded in engaging the interest



of a few thoughtful scholars in
favour of a science which I feel



convinced has still to teach us
many important lessons. The sooner



my book is superseded by a better
one the better. I hope next



spring to give a new series of lectures
on the same subject, and



intend then to enter more fully
into the relation between Language



and Thought, particularly in
ancient times. One of the most im-



portant fields where the
influence of language on thought — the



Tartar’s bow, as Bacon calls it —
has been at work, is Ancient



Mythology, but at the same time
nothing is so beset with difficulties



as the scientific analysis of
mythological names. They belong to



a very primitive stratum of
language, and are full of anomalies ;



yet even these anomalies point to
laws which determine their for-



mation. Until these laws are
discovered, until we can account for



every letter, whether radical or
formative, in the names of the Arian



gods, all guesses at their
original conception must be checked. It



is almost a truism, but
nevertheless a very important truth in the



Science of Language, that the
first meaning of every word is its



etymological meaning. That
meaning may grow and change, it may



shift to the opposite pole of the
compass ; yet, if we want to know



the first impulse which led to
the formation of certain names and



notions — of nomina or numina —
the only answer, if any, must be









‘*’.


*%











i862] Ares 269


given by etymology. Now as to
the name of Ares to which you refer in your letter, I confess that I know
nothing at all satisfactory as to its etymology. I cannot find out (i) whether
*A/j?;f shows any signs of an initial digamma, viz. whether the root from which
it is derived began with a semi-vowel or with a vowel ; (2) I am puzzled by the
accent of “Ap?;?, for in adjectives in tjs the accent is generally on the last
; (3) I am perplexed by the declension, where, as far as I know, no crasis ever
takes place in the gen. eos, &c. Till these difficulties are removed, it is
impossible to fix on any etymology, or rather, I should say, no etymology can
be satisfactory which does not account for all these anomalies. I think it was
in your book on Homer that I read the last account of Ares (I have not got it
by me to-day), but I have no doubt that you are right in representing Ares as a
Thracian god. The coincidence between Aria as the name of Thrace and Ares is
therefore curious. But how are the two words to be reconciled.? If Ares shows
traces of an initial digamma it could not come from the root from which we have
Aria ; nor could Ares be an adjective or other derivative of Aria. I know of no
god named originally from a country, rather are the names of countries derived
from the names of gods. But again in this case^Apijs would never lead to “Apia,
it would be “Apeia. These are nothing but doubts and misgivings, and I have
nothing else to say on the subject, but as to (“ippT]v its etymology is clear.
It has the initial digamma and is identical with the Sanskrit vrzshan. ‘Ai^T^p
again is, I believe, the Sanskrit nara or nn, man. In Greek words there is
frequently a vowel prefixed to an initial N, D, L, Bh ; for instance : —



Sk. naman, name, opofia.


Sk. nakha, nail, 6W|.


Sk. bhrfi, brow, o(f)pvs.


Sk. navan, nine, twea.


Sk. rudhira, red, ipv6p6s.


Sk. laghu, light, eXaxvs.


I confess I know of no instance
where in Greek an a is prefixed



to an initial rj; it is always
e or o, but we find a before s, in



Sk. star, Engl, star, da-Trjp
(stella = sterula).



Whatever therefore may be the
etymology of Ares, app7i’ and dvT]p



point to two distinct roots, and
neither of these would yield a satis-



factory explanation of Ares. I
should have answered your note



before, but I had promised to
send the IMS. of the fourth volume of



my edition of the Veda to the
Press by Saturday night, and I had to



work from morning till evening to
keep my promise. I hope you



will excuse the delay of my
answer, and I only regret that it is so









270 Fourth Volume of Rig-veda
[ch. xm



little satisfactory. Believe me
to be, my dear sir, your obedient servant and sincere admirer.’



The fourth volume of the
Rig-veda was now finished. The preface had required long and careful work, as
Max MUller had to answer various criticisms on his Ancicjit Sanskrit
LiteraUirc^ and the dates he had there assigned to the Hymns of the Rig-veda ;
Wilson and Whitney agreeing in considering these limits as too narrow, whilst
other critics considered them too wide. In his preface therefore Max Miiller
felt it necessary to enter fully into the question as to whether the age of the
Vedic Hymns could be fixed by astronomical evidence — and this led to the
further question whether the Indian Nakshatras or divisions of the heavens into
twenty- seven equal parts were of Indian origin, or derived from a foreign
country ; a controversy which had been carried on with some acrimony, Biot the
great astronomer claiming to have proved the Chinese origin of the Nakshatras,
in which he was supported by Lassen.



The theory which now counts the
greatest number of supporters attributes to the Nakshatras a Babylonian origin,
whence they spread eastward to both Hindus and Chinese. Max Miiller in his preface tried to establish
the Indian origin of the Nakshatras, and adds some valuable notes from
Professor Donkin and Mr. Main, the Radcliffe Observer, giving the positions of
the moon and planets 1424 B.C. All this was reprinted as a separate pamphlet
under the title of Ancient Hindu Astronomy and Chronology. He further defends
himself against various critics who complained that he ‘ did not enter into all
the controverted points, the theories, guesses, doubts, assertions, and
counter-assertions of various scholars,’ and assures them that he did not
shrink from the trouble of examining them, but that he believed it ‘ to be our
duty to learn to distinguish between what is important and what is not. We only
retard the discovery of truth by entering into every bypath on the right and on
the left. The straight line is always the best, the simplest machinery the most
perfect. If we can prove our point without a great apparatus of so-called
learning, it is our duty to do so. He sweeps cleanest that makes the least
dust.’









i862] Visit to Tenby 271


Max Miiller apologizes for the
delay in bringing out this volume in these words : —



·
For a time it was doubtful whether the funds
necessary for the completion of the Rig-veda would be provided. This caused
uncer- tainty and delay. When I resumed my work, my time was no longer my own,
and there were more urgent occupations which left me but scant leisure for the
prosecution of my Sanskrit studies. Had I been allowed to devote, I do not say
the whole, but at least one- half of my time to the study of Sanskrit and the
carrying on of my edition of the Rig-veda, the present volume would have been
pub- lished long ago. The MSS. of the Commentary of Sayana are very inferior
for these later portions, the number of passages hopelessly corrupt and
imperfect is constantly increasing. There is many a short line in these notes
which represents the results of hours, nay of days and weeks of hard work.’






Max Miiller again acknowledges
the help given him by Dr. Aufrecht, who, though he had long ceased to be his
secretary, had been living on in Oxford. The preface contains a warm tribute to
the memory of Professor Wilson : ‘ Wilson had lived through almost the whole
history of Sanskrit scholarship, and had taken part in nearly every important
work that marked an epoch in the study of Indian literature, history, and
religion. Every one of his own works represents a new conquest. He never
followed, he was always first.’ Finally, in dwelling on the translation of the
Rig-veda, begun by Wilson, to be carried on by Ballantyne, Max Miiller points
out the great difficulty of making a thoroughly clear translation of the whole
: —



‘ Some portions, I confess, I
consider as hopeless, as likely to resist all attempts at interpretation, but
there is no reason to despair. The
Rig-veda is the most ancient book of the Aryan world. Every Hymn, every verse,
every word that can be deciphered in it is a gain. These Hymns represent the lowest stratum in
the growth of the human mind that can be reached anywhere by means of
contempora- neous literature.’



Max Miiller was so thoroughly
exhausted by the summer’s work, that he found it necessary to get a change
before term.



He and his wife went for a
fortnight to Tenby, which he



thoroughly enjoyed, visiting
Manorbier, Carew, Pembroke,









272 Welsh Music [ch. xm


and other ruins with keen
interest, and searching for sea animals for his aquarium in Oxford with the
zest of a boy. On their way back a visit
was paid to a relative near Swansea, where the large copper-works of his wife’s
family were inspected with great interest, Max Miiller particularly enjoying
the part-singing of the men employed at the works, during their dinner hour. He
had not heard Welsh singing and voices before, and was much struck with the
natural and national turn for music, as a strong contrast to the absence of it
in the English labourer and artisan.



To Professor Bernays.


Tra?islalwn. December 14.





‘ I will not let the old year
slip past without once more shaking hands with you — as well as it is possible
from this great distance. It is so long since I heard from you, or from any of
my German friends. I am afraid it may be
my fault. I wanted to finish the fourth volume of my Veda, and so I could not
find time for anything else, nor did I think of anything else. But now I have
finished, and I feel like a snake that has just cast her skin, and is now going
forth for further prey. In the new Germany I see no sign of life, and
I doubt whether we shall live to see what our fathers hoped for, realized. Uhland, one of the last noble, faithful,
patriotic men, had been hoping for so long, but he too has been called away
without having lived to see the morning dawn. When I think of Bunsen in 1848,
and of his sure, prophetic hopes ! and he too is gone, and owls sit in the
eagle’s nest which he had built up here in London. Here in England we possess personal and
political freedom, and that is such a blessing — it is like the fresh sea-air,
but it is habeas corpus, not habeas animum. The spiritual struggle proceeds
slowly, and the dogged resistance is great, and the passion of persecution
would do honour to the sixteenth century. Bishop Colenso appeals to the English
mercantile understanding ; it makes more impression than all that tastes of
mind.



‘ The book will amuse you.
Jowett has somewhat retired, and is at work at his edition of Plato’s Republic.
Stanley fights very bravely ; he has just
published Lectures on the Jewish Church, first series, which produce an eflfect
in England, but will hardly
be appreciated in Germany.



‘ Pattison sits still, says
litde, but thinks so much. His young wife



is a little too young for him, I
am afraid, but he is well and of good



cheer. To-morrow night there will
be some acting at his house in the









1863] Famine in Lancashire 273


College ! How is your work
getting on, and what are your plans for the future ? Shall we meet anywhere next
year ? I hope to go to Germany
next summer, but before that I have to give a course of lectures in London, about the
material and spiritual element in Language. My old lectures are appearing now
in a German trans- lation, also Italian and French translations are to appear,
and I am reproduced in America.
I hope the next volume will be an improve- ment, but whether people will like
it is another question.



·
How I wish you could see my home here in Oxford ! I wish indeed
for no better. I have altogether given up having any wishes at all, and I enjoy
the most beautiful happiness which life has to offer — a good wife and two
healthy children.






‘ Aufrecht is Professor in Edinburgh, happily
married to a pretty, cultured wife with independent means ; he writes most
happily, and the sunshine has driven away the old clouds of envy and
suspicion. In old friendship.’



The Christmas was spent at Ray
Lodge, but very quietly, for the awful distress in Lancashire,
owing to the ‘ cotton famine ‘ caused by the American War, weighed on all
hearts and all purses. Superfluous luxuries were cut off in almost every
household, and except a tiny Christmas tree for the children, there were no
presents, all money that could be spared going weekly to the fund for the
thousands starving in the North from no fault of their own.



By the middle of January Max
Miiller was quietly settled again in Oxford, and busy with the preparation of
the second course of lectures on ‘ The Science of Language’ for the Royal
Institution. His course of lectures this term in Oxford were on ‘ Bopp’s
Comparative Grammar^ Towards the close of the month he heard that the fourth
volume of the Rig-veda, the first dedicated to the Queen, had been received at
Osborne, and that ‘ Her Majesty appreciated the learning and erudition that
must have been employed in its production, and that it and the three first
volumes sent at the same time (beautifully bound in morocco and gold) would
form a valuable addition to the Royal Library.’ Soon after he heard from his
old friend and teacher Professor Brockhaus in Leipzig : ‘ Your LecUires on the
Science of Language have, as you know, found many admirers here, and every one
is looking forward to your new volume.’



I T








274 Lectures on Language,
Second Course [ch. xm



The London lectures were even
more crowded than the first course. Max Miiller found them more fatiguing, for
the course was longer, and he went up and down from Oxford, only sleeping in
London if engaged to dine out.



Towards the close of the course
he delivered a Friday-



evening lecture on ‘ The Vedas’
to an enormous audience,



people sitting on every step of
the staircases, and standing



in the gangways. This lecture was
repeated in substance



two years later at Leeds, and
will be found in the first edition



of Chips ^ Volume L


To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Oxford, March 3,
1863.



‘ What you say about the German
translation is just what I feel. I have
not wished for a translation, but cannot prevent it being done, and therefore
have to leave the rest to the judgement of the pub- lisher. In no case should I
undertake to write differently for Germany than for England. My manner of
writing may look learned or unlearned, that is the same to me. I know it costs
more labour to think out a subject so that it can be clearly stated, than to
bring it to light half digested and with all its threads entangled. I work for
no class in particular, nor for a definite purpose, and I recognize only one
duty which renders our work responsible, i.e. the promoting of truth; and nothing
is true which is not perfectly clear. There are some hard nuts hidden in my
lectures, the cracking of which has tried the teeth of some obscure scholars ;
but the honest ones among them will confess this, and will gratefully accept
the cleanly peeled kernel, I could have made an immense noise, had I cracked
all my hard nuts before the public, and many empty ones might have been mixed
up with them without the readers noticing it. But that sort of thing I consider
wrong, and I shall never be infected by the aristocratic arrogance of scholars.
I can well believe, that if I had written five unreadable volumes instead of
one small volume, the sale in Germany would have been more rapid.



‘ What I have worked out may be
good or bad, but each cultivated man, be he an Englishman or a Kaffir, knows
what I am driving at and how matters stand. That was not always the case with
Bunsen.



With all respect for his
knowledge, his proofs were not always



absolutely convincing, firm or
healthy. But I am quite prepared to



see my translation abused in
Germany ; never mind, failure with an



honest conscience is better than
success with a sacrifice of what one



really thinks. If you want to
read obscure books about language,









1863] Summer Plans 275


read Humboldt, or should you
wish to read obscure, superficial books, read Steinthal, &c., &c. How
such things can be endured in Germany, I do not understand, and I expect no
political or religious freedom till the literary cobwebs are swept away. Now,
you will say, “Lion, you have roared effectively!” [Lowe, gut gebriilll !\ but
I think we understand each other in spite of it all. I have not yet seen
Bunsen’s Letters, but I will try to get them. I sit here toiling away at the
Veda, and feel heartily tired of the whole business. In faithful love.’



To HIS Wife.


Oxford, March 14.


‘ I shall live this week like a
hermit and try to get on with my lectures. You see, I must work hard, for that
is what we are all meant to do, and though it may seem to deprive us of some of
the enjoyment of life, it really increases real happiness ; it makes one feel
that one does not live for nothing, and one enjoys one’s holidays with a much
stouter heart. I hope our summer will be a very happy one, but till then there
is still a good deal of work to be gone through.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, March,
1863.



‘ I live in one perpetual trot,
and shall be glad when my lectures in London are over. In the summer I will
amuse myself. If I can get away early in June I think of going with G. to Paris
; the middle of July I must return for the examination of the Indian civilians,
which lasts a fortnight. When that is over we shall go to Germany. But I must
have good air, so I think we will meet you in Dresden, and all go together to
the Lake of Geneva, for I feel in myself that I want bracing, and Dresden does
not do for that. I only grieve that we
shall thus see so little of Augusta and Krug.
Our great difficulty is about the children. The little one certainly
must not go — the doctor forbids it — so the question is about Ada. I don’t think I could bear to be so long
without her, nor G. either, and yet the
long journey is not good at her age. We discuss it every day, and can come to
no decision. I can make no fixed plan yet, I am so overpowered with work ; but
I hope all will be as we wish, and that we may enjoy the summer happily
together.’



To Professor Tyndall.


Oxford, March 14.


‘Accept my best thanks for your
kind help in providing me with



a most excellent Siren for my
lecture yesterday. My audience



seemed delighted with it,
though I am sorry to say it took up more



of my time than I had to spare.
I shall have to finish my lecture



T 2








276 Tales of Thebes and Argos
[ch. xm



next Saturday, but I shall not
trouble you either for the Siren or for any other experiment, as I must get on
with my subject, and cannot afford any more amusements. I am much pleased with
Helmholtz’s book, and should give a great deal to be able to hear your lectures
on “ Sound,” and to see some of the experiments which, though so well described
by Helmholtz, are yet imperfect and unsatisfactory on paper.



·
Do you not think that if our scales were
properly constructed, all harmonies would be necessarily harmonious, and not
inharmonious, as they now are after the 7th ?’






Easter was spent at Ray Lodge,
with many old friends



staying in the house, who all ‘
enjoyed MUller ‘s music,’ says



a contemporary Diary.


To HIS Wife.


April 7.


‘ When I ordered your fly, I
found Mrs. in great distress :



her baby had died on Sunday quite
suddenly. I went to see the little child, and it looked so calm and peaceful,
and yet that poor mother would have given her very life to have had that little
soul back. It was heartrending to see her, and I could give her but little
comfort, but it was a solemn sight. What a small line it is that separates us
and all that we love here from that life w^hich waits for us, and why should we
be so unwilling to go home, for here our home is not, and the great wrench must
come, and happy are those who have passed through it. Yet when I looked on that
little child that had been playing about but a few days ago, and then thought
of our little darlings, I felt it must be fearful to part with them, if one did
not feel that a happier life is in store for them than what they would have
found here. And with all this misery going on every- where, one lives on and
laughs and takes it all as a matter of course, whereas if one looks into life
as it is, one wonders how one can ever forget it again, and ever care again for
the littlenesses of which our pleasures and our pride consist here. Ernst ist
das Leben, so says the German proverb, and very true it is.’



It was at this time that Max
MUller first met with Sir George Cox’s admirable books on mythology. Sir George
seems to have sent him The Tales of Thebes and Argos, and the following letter
is the beginning of a correspondence on Comparative Mythology, spread over many
years. The editor owes these letters to Sir George Cox to the kindness of the
Rev. R. W. Rees of Manchester, into whose hands they had passed.









1863] Dr. Pusey’s Attack on
Kingsley 277



To Rev. G. Cox.


Ray Lodge, April i6, 1863.


‘ Dear Sir, — ... I was
delighted when reading your Tales ‘, and I feel convinced that in the form in
which you have given them these myths are nearer to what they originally were
than in any of the works of the mythographer, whether ancient or modern. I
never felt so strongly that on the whole the principles of Comparative Mytho-
logy are right than when I saw them applied as you have applied them. I do not
despair that we shall discover and disentangle many more of the complicated
myths of the Aryan nations, though I know but too well that the ground is
treacherous and requires great caution. Yours with sincere regard, ‘ Max Muller.’



The end of April Max Miiller went
to London as one of



the deputation from the
University of Oxford, to present the



address of congratulation to the
Prince of Wales on his



marriage. The Prince of Wales
graciously promised to honour



his Alma Mater with his presence
at Commemoration, accom-



panied by the Princess. As is the
custom on such occasions,



His Royal Highness sent in the
names of those whom he



desired should receive the
honorary degree of D.C.L. Among



these appeared the name of
Charles Kingsley, one of the



Prince’s chaplains. At once Dr.
Pusey opposed the degree



in Council, on the ground that
Hypatia, Mr. Kingsley’s finest



work, was immoral. Charles
Kingsley’s friends, among



whom may be mentioned Dr.
Stanley, Dr. Rolleston, and



Max Muller, were very indignant,
and the day that the name



was finally to be voted on in
Council, Dr. Stanley ap-



peared armed with a copy of
Hypatia borrowed from Max



Muller, which still has all the
passages marked in it, used by



Dr. Stanley in opposing the
Professor of Hebrew. But though



the name might have been carried
in Council, a vote of



non placet was threatened in the
Theatre, in the very presence



of the Prince, and to avoid so
scandalous a scene, Charles



Kingsley’s friends withdrew his
name. A few days later



Max Miiller had a letter from
Mrs. Kingsley which is given



here by permission. In sending it
on to his wife, who was



away from home. Max says : ‘ I
enclose an excellent letter



from Mrs. Kingsley, for which she
deserves more than a



^ Of Thebes and Argos.








278 Visit to Paris [ch. xm








D.C.L. degree. I am curious to
know how the Prince will take it, and I am only afraid that he will never know
how badly people behaved.’



From Mrs. Kingsley.


EvERSLEY Rectory, Wednesday.


‘ My dear Max, — Charles is
away at Whitchurch fishing, so he will not receive your mosi kind letter till
to-morrow. I have written by this post to the Rollestons that they may fill up
their rooms, merely saying that unavoidable circumstances will keep us at home
on June 15, and I do hope they will not think us ungrateful and changeable. I
have no doubt there is some wise reason for this great disappointment, and
perhaps the great honour under all circumstances which we should have felt it
to be, would have been very bad for us. It is so difficult to be perfectly
single-minded, even in a little parsonage, that perhaps it is a great blessing
to be saved the Theatre of Oxford, which may not be the best soil for the
growth of such a virtue ; and I am sure I longed too vehemently for the sight
of my dear husband in a scarlet gown for it to have done me any good. Depend
upon us both for not mentioning the subject. It will always be associated with
the pleasant and grateful remembrance of your kindness, dear Max, and Dr.



Stanley’s, and I shall try hard
to let it obliterate Dr. Pusey and his



Christian hatred. Oh ! it is a
great mercy to live in a parsonage



remote from courts and courtiers,
and even doctors of divinity. Best



love to dearest G. and delicious
Ada. Yours ever aflTectionately,



‘ F. E. Kingsley.’


Early in June the Max Miillers
went to Paris, leaving their children at Ray Lodge. Here they passed a
delightful month in constant intercourse with many of the most dis- tinguished
members of the literary world of Paris, a world that all along kept entirely
aloof from the brilliant but evil Court of Louis Napoleon. One evening was
spent with the Mohls, Madame Mohl still keeping up on a smaller scale the Salon
of the earlier part of the century. On this occasion Madame Mohl, who was about
to start for her annual visit to London, amused her guests by parading all the
bonnets she had provided for her expedition, and trying them on, one after
another. Only those who remember Madame Mohl’s quaint, almost bizarre,
appearance can imagine the droll effect as one by one the smart Parisian
bonnets were essayed, and the verdict of her guests, male and female, eagerly
expected.









1863] Mignefs Eloge on Macanlay
279



Renan’s house too was often
visited, with its rooms hung with some of the best portraits by Ary Scheffer,
Madame Renan being his niece, daughter of Henri Scheffer, whose fine portrait
occupied a conspicuous place. Max Muller attended the meetings at the Institute
as a corresponding member, and he and his wife were both present the day that
M. Mignet pronounced the doge on Lord Macaulay. It was a fine scene ; the hall
surmounted by its great dome was well filled by the members of the Institute,
all wearing the beautiful habit brode chosen by Richelieu, and ladies in the
gayest of summer dresses. Mignet ‘s melodious voice sounded clearly through the
vast assemblage, and his words were so distinctly pronounced, they were like
words cut out of marble, whilst it was a pleasure to watch each movement of his
singularly beautiful mouth. The oration itself was magnificent. The following letter must be about this date
: —



To Rev. F, (now Dean) Farrar.


‘ My dear Sir, — I am so sorry
that we can never meet in peace and exchange views : letters and books are
cumbersome ways of mutual explanation, and I do not know how it is that I can
never bring myself to believe that people hold different views on matters
accessible to scientific treatment, unless for some reason or other they wish
to do so. When I read your books I can fully enter into all you mean, and yet I
do not feel the least disturbed in my own views. Our real differences refer to
facts, and these fortunately are amenable to scientific tests. In my lectures,
as you say quite rightly, I have not said half of what I meant to say, perhaps
what I ought to have said. It did not
seem to me the place for it. But I mean to give another lecture specially on
the Antiquity of Language, and then you, or at all events your friends, will be
surprised to see how little we differ, although we seem to be diametrically
opposed. I could have explained this to you in half an hour of conversation,
but I cannot do it by letter, and I shudder at controversy, and have had that
horror all my life.’



After three weeks in England for
examination work, Max



Miiller and his wife started for
Germany, leaving both of



their children behind. They
stopped at Bonn to see Baroness



Bunsen and Professor Bernays, but
Max Miiller was again



disappointed in making his
intimate friend acquainted with



his wife, as it was the time of
the Black Fast, the fall of









28o Visit to Potsdam [ch. xm


Jerusalem ; and Bernays could
not go anywhere, and only saw Max Muller for about an hour. After joining his
mother at Chemnitz, and taking her and his sister with them to Leipzig and Dessau,
the Max Miillers went on to Berlin to see Max’s friend Morier, and whilst there
were commanded to Potsdam to dine with the Crown Prince and Princess of
Prussia. Nothing could exceed the kindness with which they were received,
though the visit was shorter than had been intended by the royal hosts, as the
Crown Prince had been suddenly summoned to Gastein, where the King and Bismarck
were taking the waters. On arriving the guests were driven about the park till
the two o’clock dinner. It was intensely
hot weather, and the dinner was in the open air. Afterwards the royal children
were brought in by their English nurses : Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen,
the present Emperor, and Prince Henry, hardly a year old, to play round the
table, and talk to the English guests. The sight of this happy family life made
a deep impression on the visitors. A few days later the Crown Princess wrote,
through Countess Briihl, to say what pleasure it had been to receive the Max
Mullers in her own home. Things at that time were at an unhappy pass in
Prussia. Old Professor Bopp mentioned to Max Muller, as a mere on dit^
something about the Court which had appeared as a fact two months before in the
English Times, adding, ‘ It is impossible here to find out the truth ‘ ; and in
one of the confidential talks that Max had with his Paris friend von Schlotzer
when they were alone, for in public it was not safe to talk of politics, von
Schlotzer said, ‘ I would give anything to be English for a day, to know what
political freedom means.’



From Berlin, Max Muller and his
wife went by Nuremberg and Munich to Leoni on the Starnberger See, taking his
mother and his eldest niece with them. Here a delightfully quiet month was
passed in a comfortable pension close to the lovely lake, where they bathed and
rowed constantly, taking long walks in the beautiful country round. From the
higher ground behind the house they could see the snow- covered mountains to
the south of the lake. One scene deserves to be recalled. The Vocal Club
{Sanger- Verein)









1863] Venice 281


from Munich came out for the
day, and gave an open-air concert on the summit of a hill crowned with pine
woods that rose over the lake. It was a picturesque sight, the gay- banners,
the club members in their many-coloured scarves, and the groups of peasants in
their national costumes — the men in high hats, and their coats covered with
large silver buttons ; the women with their bright petticoats, and black
bodices with gold or silver embroidery, with chains and earrings of gold or
silver, and small black caps with em- broidery to match. The part-singing was
beautiful, the voices rich and melodious in themselves, and the expression and
light and shade carefully observed. Of course there was plenty of eating and
drinking, and at last dancing, but, though all seemed very free and easy, there
was no rudeness, nothing objectionable in the gathering.



From Leoni the mother and niece
returned to Chemnitz, the Max Mullers going across the Brenner to Italy. It was
their first taste of Italy, after which Max had, he tells us, hankered all his
life. Venice especially was like a dream realized, though the sight of the
Austrian soldiers every- where roused his indignation. It was found on visiting
the Doge’s Palace that many of the best pictures were being cleaned. One that
he particularly desired to see — Venezia irio7tfantc, by Paul Veronese — was
not to be seen, and he was lamenting it one day to the old Italian librarian, a
true patriot, who, when he found a kindred soul in Max Muller, not only in
books but in politics, had many a talk with him on the state of Venice. At his
last visit Max MUlIer said he looked forward to coming again to Italy, adding
significantly, ‘ And then I hope to see Venezia trionfante ! ‘ At their next
visit it was so, but the old librarian had passed away, though he lived long
enough to see his beloved city free from the hated foreigner. The travellers
returned by Turin and the Italian Lakes, the St. Gothard, where the first snows
had fallen, and which they crossed on foot, and rapidly through Switzerland to
England.



Max M tiller’s lectures began
as soon as he returned to Oxford, and he was as usual overwhelmed with letters
on all subjects.









282 Lectures in Edinburgh [ch.
xm



To Rev. G. Cox.


Oxford, November 4.


‘ I was not at Oxford when Dr.
Pusey preached his last sermon. I have
not read it, nor have I heard any remarks about it. But I can quite understand
the impression which it made on you.



‘ There are not a few points on
which Dr. Pusey’s ideas have become perfectly hardened : one cannot reason with
him about them, nor is he able himself to handle them. They have become fixed
ideas — they do not bend, but threaten to crack.



‘ With all that, I have a
strong personal regard for Dr. Pusey. He is a man of great learning and a vast
experience of life, in fact, one of the two or three interesting men at Oxford.
Besides that, he has always shown me great kindness, though he knows my
opinions, and though in University matters we have had fierce fights together.
In spite of that, and though we were hardly on speaking terms at the time of
the election for the Sanskrit Professorship, he offered me his help unasked, he
sat up day and night (in the literal meaning of the words) writing letters to
his friends — whereas my liberal friends, for whom I had worked hard on several
occasions, did hardly anything for me, and some of them, on whom I thought I
had claims, failed me altogether. Stanley and Pusey were my chief supporters,
and the only men who, I believe, felt for me when I failed to obtain that
position in which I might have been really useful, and might have been able to
finish the work of my life. However, I am not blind to the dangerous
consequences of Pusey’s teaching. I consider his alliance with the Low Church
as a most fatal mistake. But I look at all these things very much ab extra ; I
keep entirely aloof of University politics, and I look more and more to Germany
as my real home and the centre which attracts my interests. I shall stay in
England to finish the work which brought me here, but I look forward to
spending the last years of my life among my old friends in Germany.’



Max Mijller had been invited in
the spring to deliver two lectures at Edinburgh on ‘ Language.’ He accepted the
invitation to lecture, but begged that the lectures might be on ‘ The Origin of
Mythology.’ On November 9 he went to Edinburgh to deliver these two lectures at
the Philosophical Institution.



To HIS Wife.


Edinburgh, NovetJiber 10.


‘ One lecture safely over. I
had an immense audience ; the place



was as full as it could hold.
Whether people were pleased or not









1863] Lectures in Edinburgh 283



I don’t know; they applauded
and all that, but I think I aimed a little too high. There were all the
Professors and learned men, however, and they seemed pleased ; also Dr. John
Brown, a charming man, of whom I shall see more.’



November ii.


‘ How thankful we ought to be
every minute of our existence to Him who gives us all this richly to enjoy !
How little one has deserved this happy life, much less than many poor sufferers
to whom life is a burden and a hard and bitter trial. But then, how much
greater the claims on us ; how much more sacred the duty never to trifle, never
to waste time and power, never to compromise, but to live in all things, small
and great, to the praise and glory of God, to have God always present with us,
and to be ready to follow His voice, and His voice only. Has our prosperity
taught us to meet adversity when it €omes .? I often tremble, but then I commit
all to God, and I say, “ Have mercy upon me, miserable sinner ! “
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‘ Let us keep up our constant
fight against all that is small, and common, and selfish ; let us never lose
our faith in the ideal life, in what we ought to be, and in what, with constant
prayer to God, we shall be.



‘ My work here will soon be
over. We had a pleasant dinner to- night at Mr. INIuir’s. I had a drive in the
afternoon with Dr. John Brown, a most charming, excellent man, with whom you
would have been delighted. He is a good friend of Lady A. Bruce and of Stanley,
and he thinks they are worthy of each other. I shall be glad when my lecture
to-morrow is over. People are very civil and kind here. Prince Alfred sent me a
message to say how sorry he was he could not come to my lectures, but that every
one of his evenings had been engaged this week.’



The following description was
sent at the time to a con- nexion of Max Miiller’s wife in London : —



‘ I went on Friday night to
hear Max Miiller on “ The Origin of Mythology.” It was most interesting. I
never liked a lecture more. It required close attention, yet was quite clear
and intelligible. He seemed to open new worlds, dim, half-revealed, mysterious,
and this dimness gave a fascination — wide stretches of thought and conjecture
retreating into darkness yet to be explored, when the Veda, “ still with seven
seals upon it,” shall be adequately translated.
11 ‘ His inquiry into the origin of the name of the Supreme Being —



alike in Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, and Teutonic — was intensely interesting, and his manner was so
reverential on these subjects.



‘ He looks quite young, and his
manner and voice were most pleasant. The hall was crowded.’









284 Mythology [ch. xm


To Rev. G. Cox.


Edinburgh, November 10.


‘ Mythology no doubt springs
from scattered tales, and to single tales it should be reduced before we
attempt to explain it. This is what I thought so particularly happy in your
books, that you should have told the tales singly, as they might have been told
by any grand- mother in any small village of Greece, long before the
encyclopaedic treatment of Greek fables began. I have been trying my hand at
something of the same kind in German, on the pattern of Grimm’s Aldrchcn, but I
have failed. The story of Oedipus has just been dissected by M. Michel Br^al
very cleverly, though I doubt whether people will be convinced by it.



‘ “ Always the Sun, and always
the Sun,” people exclaim, and yet it is not our fault if the Sun has inspired
so many legends and received so many names. And what else do you expect at the
bottom of mythology, if not the reflection of heaven and earth in the mind and
language of man ? ‘



To THE Same.


Oxford, November 29.


‘ . . . I cannot bring myself
to enter into or to adopt Kuhn’s theory of clouds and thunderstorms being at
the bottom of all Aryan mytho- logy, a view which I see has just been strongly
advocated by Mr. Kelle in his Indo-European Traditions. He gives a most
incomplete representation of Kuhn’s labours. I should have thought that Grote
had entirely dispelled the belief that there was any historical substratum in
the legends of Troy, or at least any more than in the legends of Charlemagne
taking Jerusalem, &c.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, November 28.


‘ I must just tell you we are
very well, though we get no rest. Last week a visit from Princess Helena and
Princess Louise, to whom I had to show everything ; last Wednesday a ball at
the Duke of Marlborough’s, where G. and I danced in the beautiful library ; and
to-day a visit from the Crown Prince and Princess of Prussia. They were with
Dr. Stanley, and we went there for luncheon, and have been walking about with
them till now. To-night a dinner, where we are to meet the Due d’Aumale and
Lord Lawrence, the Viceroy of India.
Then next week I am ordered to Windsor
to the Queen, then my lectures here — in fact, my head is in a whirl, and I am
longing for rest. I am happiest when quiet with my children, who are darlings
and thrive so well.’









1863] First Visit to Windsor 285


Just before this letter to his
mother, Max Miiller was graciously commanded to Windsor for the first time. A day- was named
for him to go to luncheon : ‘ The Queen is anxious to see him,’ and it was
considerately added, ‘if the day men- tioned is not convenient to him another
can be named.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, December ii.





·
I was with the Queen for three-quarters of an
hour, quite alone.



Her Majesty received me in
Prince Albert’s room, and said she had long wished to see me, and hoped it
would not be the last time, and then she talked in the most brilliant and
interesting way, and spoke German better than I do. The Queen asked me to tell
her about my work, spoke a good deal about Bunsen, about Prince Albert, about
Schleswig-Holstein, and I could often hardly believe it was the Queen of
England talking to me ! The Crown Princess was not at Windsor, but sent for me
on Tuesday, and we talked for an hour and a half. She too was most charming. The Princess soon
returns to Berlin, which cannot be a pleasant place to her at present. She is a
very remarkable woman, very liberal, and full of enthusiasm for Germany.’



To Rev. G. Cox.


Oxford, December 10.


‘ The Basque is a most
interesting language to study as the type of an agglutinative form of speech,
but though it agrees in form most strikingly with the Turanian language, the
Finnic more particularly, no one has yet discovered any similarity between the
natural elements of the Basque and any other language. How far the Basque was
spoken in former days has been shown by Humboldt in his Essay on the Original
Inhabitants of Spain, before him by Hernas. Michel’s derivations of Basque
words are copied from earlier writers , mostly theologians, who, in a language
such as the Basque, easily found all that they looked for. They are worth nothing,
li year was called inundation, this is no more than if we call year either
spring, or autumn, or winter. But the Basque is a language which, in the hands
of an unscrupulous philologist, will be made to say anything.’



On December 21 Max Miiller
writes to his mother: ‘I am very much excited, for I have been commanded to
Osborne to give some lectures before the Queen and the Princesses. The days are not fixed, but probably early in
January.’



Christmas was spent at Ray
Lodge, and then Max Miiller went back alone to Oxford to prepare the royal
lectures.









286 Lectures for Osborne


To HIS Wife.


Oxford, December 28.


·
Here I am at work, and getting on very well, I
hope. I dine with Stanley to-night, to hear from him and Lady Augusta what to
observe and what to avoid at Osborne. I am sorry to be away from you, but I
feel I ought to do my very best, and I can write better when I am here alone
and have all my books.’






To his mother he writes,
December 30 :’ I go to Osborne on the third and stay till the sixth, so you can
think of me.’









I








*











I








CHAPTER XIV


1 864-1 865


Lectures at Osborne.
Schleswig-Holstein war. Birth of third child.



Member of Royal Irish Academy.
Weymouth. Visit of his mother. Lecture
at Leeds. Member of Turin Academy. Last visit to Ray Lodge. Sub-Librarianship
of Bodleian.



·
Professor Max Muller had the honour of
delivering two lectures last week at Osborne before Her Majesty and the Royal
Family, on the Science of Language.’ Such was the announcement in the Court
Circular, and the following letters give the details of this interesting visit
: —






To HIS Wife.


Osborne, ya««i2ry 5.


‘ I arrived here all safe. I
met the Queen’s messenger at South- ampton, and we went to Osborne in the
Elfin, which had brought Prince Alfred over. The crossing took more than an
hour, but I did not feel uncomfortable. I sat in the cabin with Prince
Leiningen, who commands the vessel, and we had a pleasant chat together in
German. I was very tired when I arrived here, and full of cold and headache, so
I laid down in my own room, which was warm and cosy, and slept till
dinner-time. I dined with the household at eight.



I sat between Lady Churchill and
Mrs. Ponsonby. All was very



pleasant. Sir James Clarke was
there, Mr. Ponsonby, Sir Thomas



Biddulph, and some more ladies.
After dinner we went to the ladies’



drawing-room, where a message
arrived from the Queen, who wished



to see me. So I was conducted
into the royal portion of the palace,



and in a small boudoir there were
the Queen, Princess Hohenlohe,



and Princess Helena : afterwards
Mrs. Bruce came in. I did my best



to talk sense, but oh! my poor
head. The Queen was very kind,



and thanked me for coming, and
said she was looking forward very



much to my lectures. The
conversation was in German, and you



cannot imagine the dignity and
graciousness of the Queen when she



spoke with great composure of
Prince Albert ; and the reports spread



abroad about her state of health
are absolutely absurd. After about



twenty minutes the Queen bowed,
and I went straight to bed. I feel



much better to-day, and hope to
get through my lecture without









288 Osborne [ch.








XIV








disgrace. I received a message
that Princess Helena wished to walk with me in the afternoon. Then at six there
is to be the lecture, diagrams and all. Prince Arthur will be there ; he was
kept a day longer on purpose. The palace is full of beautiful works of art, but
I have hardly had time to look at them yet.’



January 6.


‘ I\Iy first lecture is over,
and from all I can hear it has not been a failure. Yesterday in the afternoon I
had a very pleasant walk with Princess Helena and Mrs. Bruce. Princess Helena
showed me their private museum, which they keep in a Swiss cottage, full of
curious things which have been given them, or which the Princes have collected
in their foreign travels. There were the Queen’s former playthings, and a
kitchen where the Princesses cook and bake, and kitchen gardens, one for each
of them, and the Princess Royal every year gets her green peas from her own
plot sent to Berlin, and enjoys them greatly.



Everything is full of
recollections of the Prince, and they all talk



about him as if he were still
among them. This is thoroughly



German, and it always struck me
in England how carefully all con-



versation on those who have gone
before us is avoided, and how much



of comfort and good influence
derived from the memory of those we



loved is thereby lost. After we
came home from our walk, I had just



time to prepare for my lecture,
and to get my diagrams mounted. At



six all the people assembled in
the Council Chamber, and after a time



came the Queen and the
Princesses. The Queen had not attended a



lecture for more than ten years,
and everybody was surprised at her



appearing. She listened very
attentively, and did not knit at all,



though her work was brought.
After the lecture the Queen conversed



·
with me for a long time, asking many shrewd
questions, as did her sister. Princess Hohenlohe. It was then time to dress for
dinner, and then to bed. This morning I had an interview with Princess
Beatrice, who however was a little shy at first, but became after a time very
amusing. She talks English, French, and German.’






January 6, ii p.m.


‘ Just to finish the account of
my visit here, I must tell you that after I had sent my letter to you to-day,
the Queen sent for me again to her drawing-room, and brought Princess Beatrice
with her to make her read to me in German, English, and French. She did it
remarkably well, and the Queen talked to me a good deal about education, and how
she taught her children. Afterwards Princess Helena showed me all the family
pictures by VVinterhalter, and the splendid statues.



The Princess, when you know
her, reminds you much of the Princess



Royal. We walked about for a
long time discussing all sorts of









1864] Osborne 289


things. I had then to prepare
for my lecture, to which the Queen came again, but without any work at all. In
the evening Lord Granville arrived, and the Queen was very busy. She sent me
word she hoped to see me, but afterwards sent to say it was getting too late,
and that she w^as sorry she could not have seen me, and thanked me again. In
the evening I had a long talk with Lord Granville, and to- morrow morning I
hope to start at 9.30 with Prince Arthur and Sir James Clarke.’



These are the concluding words
of the last lecture : —



·
When the two last volumes of the Veda are
published we shall have saved from destruction a work older than the Iliad,
older than any other literary document of that noble race of mankind to which
the greatest nations in the world’s history have belonged — a race which after
receiving from a Semitic race, from the Jews, its best treasure, its religion,
the religion of the Old and New Testaments, is now, with the English in the
van, carrying on slowly but irresistibly the conquest of the world by means of
commerce, colonization, educa- tion, and conversion.’






On Max M tiller’s return, he
heard from Sir Charles Phipps how pleased the Queen had been with the lectures
— ‘ of that you must be fully aware ‘ — and Sir Charles added how much he had
himself valued the information and instruction com- municated, whilst three
days later Lady Augusta Stanley forwarded the following extract from a letter
from Princess Helena, now Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. Gracious permission has been given to insert
it.



‘ We have had two most
interesting and charming lectures from Professor Max Miiller. I cannot tell you
how much I enjoyed them and value them. Do tell him so when you see him again,
and how much I regret not being able to hear any more. I wish there was a
possibility of my hearing more at some future time ; I hope so — and Mama has
not said No ! You cannot think how pleasant it was for me to be able to talk to
a clever man like Professor M. and one who does not inspire me with fear, as
some very learned people do. The subject
he treats is one which always interested me so much.



Ever with much love, your
affectionate friend, * Helena.’



To Rev. G. Cox.


Ox^OKT), Jatmary 22.


‘. . . When the Rishis first
perceived the necessity of one Superior



Power is difficult to say. It
breaks through here and there, but



I U








290 Persian Influences in the
Bible [ch. xiv



their religion does not become
monotheistic, for this involves the denial of polytheism. It always remains
henotheistic, if one may coin such a word. I mean the one single god addressed
at the time shares in all the qualities of a supreme being, but soon after
another god is addressed equally supreme, and their logic does not in the least
revolt at this. The Etruscan names of Greek deities have about the same value
as the English names of the Indian deities. I mean they are mere corruptions,
pardy owing to ignorance, partly to the imper- fections of the Etruscan
alphabet, which possessed no media, and despised vowels almost as much as the
Semitic languages.’



To THE Same.


January 26.


‘ . . . Much as I admire M.
Brdal’s essay on Cacus, I do not the least feel convinced by his explanation of
the dualism between Ormuzd and Ahriman, nor by his theory of Persian influences
to be discovered in the early portions of the Bible. I am as far from
prejudices on this point as M. Brdal, who is a Jew, and who, like most educated
Jews, looks upon the books of the Old Testament as much more than inspired —
taking inspired in the modern sense of that word — namely, as real, old,
historical documents. I should value any such traces of influences received
from neighbouring nations by the writers of the Old Testament most highly ; but
such is the importance from an historical point of view that I shall not feel
inclined to build any con- clusions on such vague evidence as that brought
together by M. Brdal. . . . Any such
word as Asdossodeus, if it could be discovered in the early books, would be
invaluable, but though I do not give up all hope of such discoveries hereafter,
I am bound to say that as yet I cannot see them.’



To THE Same.


February 16.


‘ I am afraid I have hardly
done justice to your book in my review.
The fact is, I was overwhelmed with work, and, after a short intro-
duction, I put in a portion of my lectures which I am preparing for the Press.
However, I find that my article has at least startled several people who have a
tender feehng for Helen and Troy, and I hope they will take to your book and
try to get some more information. I may
be wrong in my explanation of the relation between Helen and Paris, Sarama and
Pam, but I cannot help thinking that Helena and Sarama are the same word.’



The following letter refers first
to Mr. Gifford Palgrave,



the Arabian traveller, who had
just returned from his daring



expedition, and then to the
Schleswig-Holstein question,









1864] Schleswig-Holstetn 291


which occupied so much of Max
Miiller’s attention during the early part of this year.



To HIS Wife.


February 17.


·
After luncheon I went to see the Jesuit, and had
a very interesting talk with him about a thousand subjects. I found him clever,
well- informed, and devoted to his work ; quite unanglicized, however, in all
his views, and strangely torn away from all the fibres of his native soil. It
is a pleasant contrast to the self-seeking, money-making, place- hunting
tendencies, to see a man without any ambition as far as this life is concerned,
but evidently full of ambition for another life. I enclose a letter from Delane
; so you see I am in for it. I am all in large print, to offer a larger target
to the arrows of the enemy.’






Max MUller, both in letters to
the Times and to friends in England and abroad, upheld the independence of the
Duchies :



‘ They are sovereign and
independent states, and are indis- solubly united.’ He advocated the claims of
the house of Augustenburg, and reprobated the high-handed policy of Bismarck,
as much as the pretensions of Denmark. In later years he saw that Bismarck’s
policy with regard to the Duchies was the first link in the chain that led to
the unity of Germany. The feeling in England was very strong. Denmark was weak,
Prussia and Austria strong ; therefore Denmark must be upheld — people
forgetting that the Duchies, whose rights were at stake, were still weaker. Max
Miiller was openly attacked in the papers, and received anonymous letters from
Danes in England that were too vile to show to any one ; in some his life even
was threatened. One old friend assumed in the AthencEiini that he was the
author of a pamphlet, The Dano-German Conflict and Lord RiisseWs Proposals of
Mediation, calling it ‘an ingenious mystifica- tion, the author of which wishes
to be supposed to be an Englishman.’ The author was an Englishman connected with
the Government, and therefore could not give his name. Max Mijller always signed his letters, and
never masked as an Englishman.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. March 4.





‘You will have gathered from
the papers that I am quite well.



I had lately to tell the
English something of the truth, and though



U 2








292 Schleswig-Holstein ch. xiv


they don’t like to hear it, yet
they have taken it well. The common papers abuse me, but they are of little
weight, and the leading ones behave civilly, though they answer with the most
absurd nonsense. All this takes up my
time, that is the worst, and disturbs my work ; but one must do one’s duty, and
now that I am known in England, it fell to my lot to take up the cudgels for the
truth on the German side. The affair is
still very complicated. Russia, Austria, and Prussia hang together, but with
bad intentions. Everything now depends on France, and the Emperor will sell
himself to the highest bidder — either to England or Russia. England has
plunged deeply, and will hardly come out with a whole skin. Palmerston would
like war, but the people, at least in manufacturing towns and the north, are
against it. The King of the Belgians
arrived to-day.’



To THE Same.


Contemporary Letter, March 4.





‘ M. has talked of writing to
you for some days, as he was afraid you would share the fears of the German
papers, which seem to think he must be in prison, or very near it, for his
letters to the Times. Happily, here any
one may speak out his mind freely without fear of any bad consequences. Such
certainly is not the case in Berlin now, as we hear from Morier that Herr von
Schlotzer has been sent off to Rome for having expressed his feelings against
Bismarck too freely. The newspapers are
all very angry with M., which proves that they feel the truth of what he says ;
but every newspaper almost is ultra- Danish, except the local papers of
Liverpool and Manchester, and other great places of trade, where the merchants
are German in feel- ing, and entirely opposed to any idea of war. The Queen’s
life is no easy one at present. Her own feehngs entirely German, and her
Ministers and people as entirely Danish. She must be happy just now at having
old King Leopold with her, as she leans so much on him.’



Max MUller’s lectures this term
were on * The Origin of Fables,’ and were largely attended.



To HIS Wife.


Oxford, March 30.


‘ I had a visit to-day from the
Schleswig-Holstein architect — a very nice fellow. He came to England on
business : is building a grand mansion somewhere near York. He told me many
things about the war, &c. He is a man of forty-five, with wife and
children, in very good business. He has enrolled himself to fight as soon as
the Prussians and Austrians are gone. All his friends, he says, have done the
same, and are ready to die rather than submit to the Danes again.









1864] Death of the Old Aunt 293



I had a visit from , who
brought me all sorts of messages from



Princess Hohenlohe. However, I
told him nothing could be done at present. I also received an address and vote of
thanks from Bremen, largely signed.’



Early in April Max Miiller
heard of the death of his mother’s old aunt, Frau Klausnitzer, mother of
Emilie, Baroness Stolzenberg. He writes : —



To HIS IMoTHER.


Translation. April 5.


‘ The news of the death of the
dear old aunt has affected me very much. She had indeed enjoyed the full
measure of human life, and in her old age had a large measure of happiness ;
but when the moment of parting comes — come as it may — it comes always too
soon. I have only had the printed notice, and know nothing of how it was. In
your last letter you said she was so well and bright, and then I always
thought, “ Well, whilst the old aunt is so well and strong my mother has a good
spell of life still before her.” One only fancies the generations must follow
each other, till the turn comes for ourselves. Well, for those who have had
such a happy old age, and remained strong in mind and body to the last, those
who are left can only thank God, and pray for a like end for themselves and for
all they love. We accustom ourselves so easily to life as a second nature, and
in spite of the graves around us, death remains something unnatural, hard and
terrifying. That should not be. An early death is terrifying, but as we grow
older our thoughts should accustom themselves to passing away at the end of a
long life’s journey. All is so beautiful, so good, so wisely ordered, that even
death can be nothing hard, nothing dis- turbing ; it all belongs to a great
plan, which we do not understand, but of which we know that it is wiser than
all wisdom, better than all good, that it cannot be otherwise, cannot be
better. In faith we can live, and we can die — can even see those go before us,
who came before us, and whom we must follow. All is not according to our will,
to our wisdom, but according to a heavenly Will, and those who have once found
each other through God’s hand will, clinging to His hand, find each other
again. Let me soon hear how you are, and submit to God’s Will quietly and with
resignation.’



All these early months Max
Miiller vv^as preparing his second volume of Lectures on Language for the
Press, which had been delayed by his visit to Germany the previous year.









294 Comparative Mythology [ch.
xiv



Before, however, they were
ready, a fourth edition of the first volume came out, of 1,250 copies like the
others. He also wrote a much-admired article on * The Language and Poetry of
Schleswig-Holstein,’ with some good translations of Klaus Groth’s *
Platt-Deutsch Poems.’ This was reprinted in Chips, first edition. Volume III.



To Rev. G. Cox.


Oxford, April 1 1 .


·
If the old generation is uncritically sceptical,
the young generation is uncritically credulous. Now the young generation, the
rising scholars, to a man, swear in Comparative Philology and Mythology, and
the future is theirs, I am afraid as we get older we shall be equally unwilling
to change our views and examine our evidence.
I hope in that case we may abstain and stand by in silence ; but though I
hope it, I am not quite certain on that point. Surely, Comparative Mythology is
not self-evident ; if it were, where would be the pleasure of having dug up
some of these old bones ? People who make new discoveries ought not to be angry
with the world for not accepting them at once ! To me, I confess, though it may
sound very conceited, there is a pleasure in living in a small University. I am
old enough to remember the incredulous wagging of heads when Bopp declared that
the infinitive was the dative or some other case of an abstract noun : there is
hardly a grammar now where you do not find this. Even now, if you tell people
that two only of the ten numerals in Greek and Sanskrit are oxytone, and that
this is not by accident, they think you are talking nonsense. Fifty years hence
a boy will be plucked who does not know it. Now you know I am myself a great
unbeliever in many mythological parallelisms, and I am quite prepared to admit
that many of my own comparisons will be knocked over. It is sad that it should
be so, but so it is ! even old Bopp’s Comparative Grammar is by this time
riddled with shot and crumbling down, but something better has been put in its
place. But that the principles I have laid down for the study of Comparative
Mythology are sound I am prepared to prove against the world.’






To HIS Wife.


Oxford, June 17.


‘ Our garden looks so well, and I
jump out of window and look at



my roses, and then go back to my
work. There is to me a beauty



and mystery and sanctity about
flowers, and when I see them come



and go, no one knows whence and
whither, I ask, What more miracles



do we want ? What better, more
beautiful, more orderly world could









1864] Almsgiving ‘ 295


we wish to belong to than that
by which we are surrounded and supported on all sides ? Where is there a flaw
or a fault ? Then why should we fear unless the flaws are within us, and we
will not see the blessing and the rest which we might enjoy if we only trusted
to the Author of all that beauty, order, and wisdom about us ? It is a perfect
sin not to be happy in this world, and how much of the misery which there is,
is the work of men, or could be removed by men, if they would but work together
for each other’s good. It seems so hopeless to do any good on so small a scale
as ours must necessarily be ; yet I do not think we do enough, not in
proportion to what is given us without any desert.’



Max Miiller had very strong
feelings about the duty of almsgiving, and considered a tenth of all he had the
least that should be given away annually. In most years he far exceeded this
sum, and even his wife never knew the constant help he gave to poor young
students and literary men, both German and English. To his mother and sister he
was most generous. He had been a great smoker before his marriage, and indulged
in the best cigars, but he gave up smoking entirely when he had the expenses of
a household to provide for, that his charity purse, as he called it, might not
suffer ; and it was only in the last twenty years of his life that he took to
smoking again, and then only cigarettes, and very few of them each day.



As soon as his book was
printed, Max Miiller joined his wife and children at Ray Lodge, and on June 22
he writes to his mother that he was expecting the publication of his second
volume of Lectures, and did not trouble himself as to its reception. ‘ One does
one’s best, and one says what one feels is right, and the rest one lets alone.
I am not at all sorry that I have spoken out to the English, and if they abuse
me, it shows they are ashamed.’ And his wife wrote also : ‘ Max is enjoying his
holiday here, for the lectures being off his hands he is giving himself perfect
rest and doing nothing but lie in the hayfields or the garden, enjoying the
flowers.’



On August I Max MuUer’s third
child, a third daughter, was born. In writing to ask his valued friend Dean
Stanley to be godfather, he says : —









296 Birth of Third Child [ch.
xiv



To Dean Stanley.


August 2.


‘ I always hoped to have you as
godfather to my first son, if there should be one. As it seems, however, that
there is to be no litde Max, I shall wait no longer. I have no doubt that your
family of godchildren is a very large one, but as I think you may trust G. and
myself that we shall try to bring up our children in the real faith and true
discipline of Christ, I hope you will be able to accede to our request, and add
this one to many other proofs of real friendship which you have given to both
of us. Have you seen Bunsen’s Leben Jesu ? I read it, and wrote to Madame
Bunsen asking her to have it pubhshed, and translated into English, possibly
into French also. I like it, and I think
just now it will do good. It contains the soul, which is wanting in Renan’s
ghost, or rather in his corpse, of Christ.
It gives all that is essential in the outward life of Christ, and then
throws the burden of believing or disbelieving the divinity of Christ on every
one of us, as it was thrown on those who witnessed His real life, who had to
break with a religion dear and sacred to themselves, and whose senses and
reason must have had to pass through a much more severe struggle than we have
to pass through, before they yielded to the voice within, that Christ was the
Son of God. I do not know whether you would consider it wise to have your name
in any way connected with a translation of Bunsen’s work, but I hope it will
not be brought out with any appearance of coming from a hostile camp. It should come as a message of peace — as a
minimum, a very small minimum, if you like — but with a large margin on every
side, which need not remain a blank.’



In writing to tell his mother
of the birth of her new grandchild, Max mentions at the end of his letter that
1,000 copies of his Lectures had been sold the first day.



To Rev. G. Cox.


Oxford, August 5, 1864.


‘ My dear Sir, — . . . As to
annihilation, all I mean is that it is a word without any conceivable meaning,
and that it might do some people good to see this clearly. We are — that is
enough. What we are does not depend on us ; what we shall be, neither. We may
conceive the idea of change in form, but not of cessation or destruction of
substance.



No doubt people mean frequently
by annihilation the loss of conscious



personality, as distinct from
material annihilation. On that point



I said nothing, because it would
have led me too far out of my own



sphere. However, what I feel
about it is shortly this. If there is any-









1864] Weymouth — Mother’s
Visit. 297


thing
real and substantial in our conscious personality, then whatever there is real
and substantial in it cannot cease to exist. If on the contrary we mean by
conscious personality something that is the
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result of accidental
circumstances, then, no doubt, we must face the idea of such a personality
ceasing to be what it now is. I believe, however, that the true source and
essence of our personality lies in what is the most real of all real things,
and in so far as it is true, it cannot be destroyed. There is a distinction
between conscious personality and personal consciousness. A child has personal
consciousness ; a man who is this or that, a Napoleon or a Talleyrand, has
conscious personality. INIuch of that conscious personality is merely temporary
and passes away; but the personal consciousness remains. I do not think that
Schleiermacher could have said that the last enemy that would be destroyed in
us is the idea of our immortality. What he may have said is, our idea of
immortality. I should like to see this subject fully and freely discussed. It
is no doubt the old controversy between Nominalism and Realism under a new
form. We know what stuff words are made of, and it strikes me that those who
know the antecedents of words are spared many troubles and difficulties in
religious and philosophical struggles.’



The middle of September the
whole family party went for change to Weymouth, where they were joined by Max
Muller’s mother, who returned with them to Oxford and stayed on with them the
whole winter.



Politics crop up again towards
the close of the year, as



the follov/ing letter to Morier,
Secretary of Legation at Berlin,



shows. Morier shared all Max
MUller’s feelings as to the



Duchies : —


Oxford, Novetnher lo.


‘ INIy dear Morier, — For the
sake of decency, if not from a feeling



of personal friendship, I trust
the Duchies will soon be handed over



to Duke Frederick. If Prussia attempts
to swallow the small morsel



by itself it will stick in her
throat. Hereafter it will go down together



with others at one good gulp. I
was so sorry not to see you again



before you returned to Berlin ;
we went to Weymouth during Sep-



tember and October ; my mother
came to me there, and is now staying



with us. We are all well, thank
God, and if it were not for the dinner-



pardes this quiet life would be
very pleasant. But I am afraid the



dinner-parties will drive me
sooner or later away from this country to



the less hospitable shores of the
Spree or Danube. Jowett’s salary



has again been defeated, this
time in Council ; it shows how low



human nature can sink. It is
perfectly disgusting, and I feel ashamed









298 German Christmas in Oxford
[ch. xiv



to accept any salary from such
a body of men. The matter, however, is not to rest, and a new motion has at
once been made. Is there not some great mischief brewing in all these meetings
of crowned heads and Ministers ? And are you quite certain that there is no
mischief hatching as against England ? Though John Bull does make a fool of
himself now and then, the world would soon go to wrack and ruin without him.
Crowned brains are just now very active, and I am sure they all consider
England a bull in a china shop. There are certain fellows now very cock-a-hoop,
and capable of anything in the way of spite and mischief. Yours ever
affectionately.’



Christmas vi^as spent in Oxford
for the first time since i860, and was a regular German Christmas, with a tree
for the children, and German Stolle (cake) and German dishes. Max Mliller, who had not spent Christmas with
his mother since 1 849, was as happy, and entered into everything with the same
zest, as one of his own children. It was never difficult to give him pleasure,
for his hard early training made of every little trifle a source of enjoyment
and a cause of thankfulness to the Giver of all Good.



Early in 1865 the Max MUllers
received the sad news that the family home at Ray Lodge was to be given up and the
party there dispersed. The long lease had nearly run out, and the owner would
only sell, not let again. Max Muller’s father-in-law resolved to settle in
London near his younger daughter, and the sister who had lived with him over
forty years, bringing up his children, preferred the country, as did Max
Muller’s brother-in-law, who had hitherto, with his wife and child, lived at
Ray Lodge. To the Max MuUers and Walronds it was a great loss ; living, as they
did, in a town, the country life was a boon to their children, and only a large
country house had room for them all to meet together. It was at once resolved
to spend as long a time as possible during the summer in the old home.



To Lady Augusta Stanley.


64, High Street, Oxford, February
7, 1865.



·
Dear Lady Augusta, — Many thanks for the
Theology of the Nine- teenth Century — and, I hope, of many more centuries to
come — which I believe I owe to your kindness. I read it with intense pleasure
; it was almost like having a talk with the Dean, or listening to one of his












1865] Lectures at Leeds 299


sermons. I do not know the
exact date of the Book of Daniel, and this, I am afraid, would be considered
heresy by many of the Presi- dents and Princes ; but of this I am certain, that
in any century, even in our own, the lions cannot hurt a man who, like Daniel,
is a servant of the living God. I hope you and the Dean are quite well. We have
been living our quiet and happy life at Oxford. My mother has been with us the
whole winter, and the children are well. With herzb’che Griisse to the Dean,
yours sincerely, ‘ Max Muller.’



The following letter touches on
the curious legend of the Barnacle Goose, fully detailed in the second volume
of Max Mialler’s Lechircs on Language, which had excited a good deal of attention
not only in England, but on the Continent : —



To Professor Benfey.


Translation. 64, High Street,
February 26.



‘Dear Colleague, — . . . I have
read the little notice on fishes and birds in Occident und Orietit. As it is a
later addition, it would be most remarkable if the fable had really got into
the Eastern fables from the West of Europe. The occurrence of the same legend
in different places allows of various explanations, but especially through the
passage in Genesis i. 20, to which the priests have often referred, in order to
prove that all fowl are of common origin with fishes, and therefore may be
eaten on fast-days.



‘ These commoner legends do not
therefore belong to the “ myth “ treated by me, which does not refer to birds
in general, but only to the goose which goes by the special name of Barnacle
Goose. This name can be explained, and can be connected with the name barnacle-
shell.’



Early in March Max Miiller went
to Leeds to deliver



a lecture on ‘ The Vedas, or
the Ancient Sacred Books of the



Brahmans.’


To HIS Wife.


Leeds, March 6.


·
So you see I found my way after all. L was a
wretched day till we got beyond Rugby, and then the sun came out, and the
country looked warm and bright. It is quite spring here, and I hope the change
will do me good. I found Mr. Hincks waiting for me ; he is a clergyman, though
I do not know of what denomination yet. He has a nice house, and a wife and two
daughters. We had a quiet dinner, and in the evening the intellect of Leeds
will assemble here.’






March 7,


·
We had a very pleasant party last night, chiefly
clergy and medical












300 Leeds [ch. xiv


men. The Vicar of Leeds, Dr.
Otley, came, though my host is the Unitarian minister of Leeds. I was a little
tired, having to talk a great deal. We had a sumptuous supper, and then to bed.
This morning we started after breakfast to see the town. Very fine Town-hall,
with a statue of the Queen by Noble. Then we explored a wool manu- factory,
with some beautiful machinery, seeing the whole process from the sheep to the
shawls. Then the poor parts of the town, and the Working Men’s Club — all very
curious, and the weather fine. We dined at three, and in the evening the
lecture is to come off. Well, I must do my best. The people are all very civil,
but I shall be glad when it is over. Love to mother, and give her this wool,
which I saw made.’



The Philosophical Hall at Leeds
was packed with a most attentive audience, which included many clergy of the
Church of England, and ministers of all the leading nonconformist bodies, for
the friendly relations between the Church and Dissent at Leeds, so marked in
the days of Dean Hook, still continued in full force. The lecturer concluded by
deducing three lessons to be learned from the careful study of the Vcdas and
other Sacred Books of the East. Firstly, that ‘ most religions were in their
most ancient form, or in the minds of their authors, free from many of the
blemishes that attach to them in later times. Secondly, that there was hardly
any religion which did not contain some truth, sufficient to enable those who
sought the Lord to find Him in their hour of need. Thirdly, that we learnt to
appreciate better than ever what we really have in our own religion. No one who
had not examined patiently and honestly the other religions of the world could
know what Christianity really was, or could join with such truth and sincerity
in the words of St. Paul, “I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ.”’ The
concluding words were quoted thirty-five years later in the sermon preached in
Max Miiller’s parish church the Sunday after his death.



Soon after his return from
Leeds, Max Miiller’s mother, who had been with him since September, returned to
Germany.



With all her devotion to her son,
the quiet, regular life in



his house soon wearied her,
accustomed as she had been



from her earliest days to be
actively busy in household



affairs ; and her deafness
prevented her from sharing in the









1865] Foreign Member of Turin
Academy 301



pleasures of society,
especially in a foreign country. In summer, when she could be more in the open
air and enjoy the beautiful College gardens, she was happier, but the long
winter visits were never a success. To her son, the mere feeling that his
mother was under his roof was happiness; but she required more variety and
amusement than a scholar’s house could give her, and it was impossible not to
see that she longed for her German home, though she suffered severely when the
moment of parting came.



The following letter shows that
Max MuUer was still occupied with the Schleswig-Holstein question. Mr.
Gladstone was at this time Chancellor of the Exchequer : —



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



High Street, April 2.


·
Dear Sir, — I hope to be in London the whole of
next week, and should like very much to see you. You will easily guess the
subject on which I should wish to speak to you. I have felt throughout that if
there is a statesman in England who will form his opinion on the
Schleswig-Holstein question, not according to what seems expedient, but
according to what is just and right, it is you. There may be reasons however
why you might decline to speak to me on that question, but even in that case I
hope you will pardon my request.’






This spring Max Mliller, who
had been elected a Corre- spondent of the Turin Academy in 1859, was chosen as
one of the six Foreign Members of that distinguished society, his colleagues
being Cousin, Thiers, Bockh, Mommsen, and Grote.



Before leaving home for the
summer. Max Mliller found time to write to his old friend Bishop Patteson, in
answer to his letter of the year before : —



64, High Street, Oxford, April
i6, 1865.



‘ My dear Bishop, — I am so
thoroughly ashamed of myself that



I was afraid I should never have
courage enough to write to you. It



has been a weight on my
conscience for years, and I doubt whether



I shall be able to give you any
intelligible reason why I put off writing



to you from month to month, and
from year to year, till at last I gave



it up for very shame. However,
the simple truth is this. I have been



very busy, and I always hoped I
should find time sooner or later to



devote special attention to the
IMelanesian languages, I wished to do



so first, and before I troubled
you with any inquiries; and then,









302 Bishop of Melanesia [ch.
xiv



whenever I began to get ready
for the work, I felt that I had other work to do, more necessary, and which my
friends expected me to do, and that I must not attempt any new subject before
having finished what I had in hand. This is the only intelligible account I can
give you of my protracted silence, and now that I have done so, I can only ask
that you will forgive me, though I can hardly forgive myself. My thoughts, I
can truly tell you, have often been with you and your work. Many times I have envied you your choice of a
life’s work about which, if once chosen, there can be no doubt that it is
right, useful, and pleasing in the sight of God and of men. When I first heard
of your departure, I confess I was surprised. I believe I had seen you last at
Dresden, revelling in ancient Italian art, and studying Hebrew or Arabic. I
thought of you, as I thought of Thomson, as a future Bishop in the midst of the
refined society of London, and when I received your first letter, dated
somewhere latitude and longitude, I felt for a moment that you had made a
mistake, and that the Church at home could ill afford to send men of your stamp
as missionaries to mere savages. I do not think so now, and if I compare your
lot with that of Thomson, now Archbishop of York, I feel that yours is the higher
and the happier of the two.’



Oxford, May 14.


‘ I had the pleasure of seeing
Mr. Codrington, who told me many



things about you and your work,
full of interest. How different life



must seem to you from what it is
to us ! Everything so clear before



you, nothing to cause you any
misgivings, work to be done which



must be done, a great work
without any of the littlenesses which hang



about our life in English
society. I cannot bring myself to take much



interest in all the controversies
that are going on in the Church of



England, and which to a great
extent centre in Oxford. No doubt



the points at issue are great,
and appeal to our hearts and minds, but



the spirit in which they are
treated seems to me so very small. How



few men on either side give you
the impression that they write face to



face with God, and not face to
face with men and the small powers



that be. Surely this was not so
in the early centuries, nor again at



the time of the Reformation ? I
have great regard for Stanley, because



I know him personally, and know
him to be strictly honest to himself,



and capable of sacrificing many
things he holds most dear for the



sake of truth. He takes a warm
interest in your work too. I suppose



you received some years ago two
contributions, one from Stanley, the



other from Thomson (Archbishop),
which they gave me to forward to



you. Stanley was most anxious to
send more, but knowing how he



spends his money, I would not
take more than £10. I still have great



faith in the Archbishop of York.
Unfortunately his elevation has been









1865] Melanesian Dialects 303


very sudden, and there are many
who envy him and watch him : that makes him timid, and he hardly dares to be
himself. But I feel certain he is averse to persecution, and ready to make
every possible allowance for difference of opinion among those who seek
honestly for what is true and right. If I may judge as a mere spectator, the
danger of the Church lies at present in narrow-minded clamour and partisanship.



Newspapers, religious or otherwise,
appealing to the masses on points



which men of education and
special knowledge only can understand,



do more harm than any political
demagogues. I wish I could send



you about twenty persons, both
lay and clergy, to work for ten years



as missionaries with you, and I
feel certain that after the removal of



the leaders, the Church would
have peace again. But enough of this,



for I want to have some space for
linguistics. The skeleton grammars



you sent me are very valuable,
and it is most desirable that all you



can write down should be printed.
Of course, if the grammatical



forms could be more systematized
it would be better, but at the same



time there is danger in
systematizing ; and I consider that the most



important point which, in the
study of languages, can be settled by



such languages as yours, and by
such only, is the original want of



system, the influence of the
individual, the family, and the class, in



the formation and tradition of
speech. The natural state of language



is unbounded dialectic variety,
but of course in all literary languages



that phase is lost to us beyond
the hope of recovery. Your own



missionary work, the repeating of
certain prayers, &c., will artificially



arrest the dialectic variety of
the native language. I suppose few of



your Melanesian friends recollect
more than their grandfathers, and



therefore it is not likely they
should be conscious of changes in their



language. But the great variety
of local dialects are the best witnesses



as to the changeableness of language,
and though it would hardly be



worth your while to note such
things, small peculiarities in the speech



of certain families or
settlements might throw much light on the



process, the most mysterious
process, how language changes. This



is the great problem on which, in
the end, will depend the decision in



favour of one or many beginnings
of human speech. Literary languages



do entirely mislead us, and have
misled nearly all scholars on that



point. Savage languages alone can
show how far languages can



change. It would be very
important, too, to make observations as to



the number of words sufficient
for answering all the purposes of a low



civilization. How many words does
a Melanesian know or use ? How



many of them convey to him an
etymological meaning, i. e. are



intelligible to him in their
radical intention ? Does he use different



names for the same thing, or does
he call two things by the same



name? A language of i,ooo words
is more easily changed than









304 Last Visit to Ray Lodge
[ch. xiv



a language of 10,000. Out of
two synonymes, one is sure to be lost in time, whereas the inconvenience
arising from two things being called by the same name is sure to lead to an
independent coining of new words, I send you, through Mr. Codrington, a book by
Mr. Tylor on A7icienl Civilizaiion, with a review of mine. It will show you how
valuable accurate and trustworthy observations of the habits of savages are for
many important inquiries, and it may perhaps induce you to put down in writing
the results of your own observations among the ancient strata of mankind
cropping out in your islands. I wish I
had more time for that kind of work, but I must for the next three or four
years give all my time to the finishing of my edition of the jRig-veda, the
work which originally brought me to England, and which, when finished, will set
me free.



‘ We are hard at work
canvassing for Gladstone. I believe he will be returned, and I believe his
place would never be contested, if it were not for twenty or thirty idle agitators.’



Early in June the vi^hole
family moved to Ray Lodge for their last visit, and stayed there nearly three
months, during which time there vv^as a constant succession of family visitors,
all wishing to see the last of the house that had been made so pleasant to all
members of the large circle of relations. The Walronds were also there with
their four children, and the summer months flew by all too fast to the two
young wives in the home of their happy childhood and youth. The river was a
constant pleasure. Max Miiller becoming an expert oarsman, and many were the
hours he spent with his wife on the river, under the shadow of the Taplow and
Cliveden woods. One long delightful day was spent in a picnic at Medmenham
Abbey, with the choir from Bray Church, in which his father-in-law, who had
himself a very fine voice, had always taken a keen interest, and the old ruins
echoed to many a beautiful glee and chorus. The loved Vicar of Bray drove over
with his wife and daughters in the afternoon, in time to come down the river on
the barge that held the large party, and, among other singers, Max Miiller was
persuaded to sing ‘ O Tannenbaum,’ the song that nearly twenty years earlier
had amused his friends in ‘ Billy Russell’s’ rooms in the Temple, with its imitation
of various musical instruments, and which, if report speaks true, was a delight
to the ‘ Monks of All Souls ‘ at their Gaudys for many years.









1865] Messrs. Longmans 305


Drives, too, were taken through
Hedsor, Dropmore, the Burnham Beeches, and Windsor Park, and all the other
favourite haunts of bygone years. But a sense of regret underlay everything,
and Max Muller in his letters of that summer to his mother constantly laments
the loss to his children of the grandfather’s house and gardens.



Throughout this year there was
a frequent exchange of letters with Messrs. Longmans, Max Muller arranging for
his friend. Professor Benfey, the publication in England of his Sanskrit
Grammar, as one of the series of handbooks for Sanskrit which Max Muller was intending
to publish. With the thoroughness that he carried into all his work, he made
himself master of the details of printing, binding, and publishing, the cost of
ink and paper, the proper charges for corrections and advertisements, and he
used laughingly to say that the highest compliment he ever received was what
Mr. William Longman, half in admiration and half provoked, said of him to Mr.
Froude, ‘ As to your friend Max Muller, he can skin the flints in Paternoster
Row!’ A second edition of Volume II of the Lectures came out this year, and the
fifth edition of Volume I.



From Professor Huxley.


Museum of Geology, Jermyn Street,


June 15, 1865.


‘My dear Sir, — I beg your
acceptance of the numbers of the Fortnightly Review containing my article on
Ethnology, which accom- panies this note.



‘ I lost no time on Monday in
referring to Christianity and 3fankind, and the perusal of your chapter on “
Ethnology v. Phonology “ leads me profoundly to regret that I had not been able
to avail myself of the aid of so powerful an ally.



‘ But if you will continue to
pull one way, and I the other, I have hopes we shall be able to get Ethnology
and Phonology apart in time. Ever, my dear Sir, very faithfully yours, ‘ T.
Huxley.’



To Professor Huxley.


Civil Service Commission, y««^
i6, 1865.



‘ I\Iy dear Sir, — Accept my
best thanks for your article on Ethnology in the Fortnightly Review. I shall
read it carefully next week, when this examination for the Indian Civil Service
is over.



I X








3o6 Queen of Holland [ch. xiv


I have 130 candidates to
examine in Sanskrit; and six hours of viva voce a day acts Hke an extinguisher
on my reasoning faculties.



I hope, however, I shall soon
recover, and shall truly rejoice if, after



your powerful pleading, Sir
Creswell Creswell will grant a divorce to



Ethnology and Phonology, two
parties that ought never to have been



joined together, and whose union
has certainly been the cause of



a succession of scientific
mishaps. Believe me, yours very truly,



‘ Max Muller.’


To Edward Tylor, Esq.





Ray ‘Lodq-e, June 23.


·
I am glad to hear you are going to write an
article on Wilhelm von Humboldt. Steinthal has made Humboldt far more
unintelligible than he is. Humboldt is much more of a poet or seer than an
exact philosopher. To attempt to make him what he is not, as Steinthal has
done, destroys what he really is. But I confess, to give a faithful, clear, and
consistent account of Humboldt’s various and sometimes diverging views of
language is by no means an easy task, and I am glad you have undertaken it. I
was very sorry to have missed you when you were at Oxford. I am still deep in
examination papers for the Indian Civil Service. Yours very truly.’






To HIS Mother.


Translation. Ray Lobg’e, /tily
16.



‘ I was lately invited to a
luncheon in London to which the Queen of Holland had asked various people she
wished to know — Professor Owen, Tennyson, Grote the historian, Lord Houghton,
formerly Monckton Milnes and also a poet, the Editor of the Times, and my
unworthy self. The Queen is very friendly, and very highly educated. She is a daughter of the old King of
Wurtemburg, and we talked German together, though she speaks English and French
fluently. My second volume of Lectures
goes off very well, 2,200 copies sold in one year. It is stereotyped in
America, and translated into French and Italian. Bottiger gets on slowly [with
the German translation] and is not a good translator, but that can’t be helped
now.’



It vi^as in this summer that
Mr. Gladstone stood for the last time for election as a University burgess, and
was rejected.



The Max MUllers were staying at
Claydon House, and from



there Max came in to Oxford to
record his vote. On his



return that evening he brought
word of the mishap to the



statue of King James over the
gateway into the Schools



quad. Originally the statue had
held a sceptre in the right









1865] Gladstone s Defeat at
Oxford 307



hand, and a Bible in the left.
The tradition in Oxford had always been that the sceptre fell out of James’s
hand, and was smashed on the pavement, on the day that William III landed at
Torbay. Certain it is that, as the voters poured out of the Theatre, the Bible
was lying in pieces on the pavement, and was seen by all voters who crossed the
Schools quad, coming out of the Theatre. Max Miiller was of this number, on his
way to his house in High Street. Of course it was considered of great
significance by Mr. Gladstone’s supporters. Lord Houghton was one of the party
at Claydon, and read aloud of an evening Swinburne’s Atalanta in Calydon, which
had not long appeared.



To THE Dean of Westminster.


Ray Lodge, July 19.


‘ My dear Stanley, — I was in
town yesterday and called at the Deanery ; but as I was told you had a bad
headache, I did not like to send up my card. When I returned in the evening I
found your letter. I shall go to Oxford to-day and be at the station at
3.55. It will be a real pleasure to show
Oxford to the Queen of Holland. I liked
very much what I saw of her at your house. The only people worth knowing in the
world are those who, instead of being Deans or Bishops or Archbishops, &c.,
are themselves, or try to be, and are proud to be themselves. She hides her
crown most gracefully — and crowns, I suppose, are more difficult to hide than
mitres, coronets, &c.



‘ Gladstone is rejected by
Oxford, and I grieve to see meanness, narrowness, intolerance, and conceit
triumphant once more. I sup- pose it is right to subscribe to the Bishop of
Natal’s Fund ; I promised to do so, though I cannot subscribe much. I do not
think that he understands the language of ancient history — it is a language
full of irregularities, and to try to eliminate them all is like eliminating
the irregular verbs in Greek. But though I differ from him and his school, I
cannot bear to see honest inquiry squashed by the clamour of Demetrius and his
craftsmen, and the attempt to starve a man into silence or submission is a
discovery which will be a disgrace to the nineteenth century. Ever yours, * Max
Muller.’



To E. A. Freeman, Esq.


Ray Lodge, A ugust 1 2 .


‘ My dear Freeman, — Could you
find time to send me one line if



you know any book in English on
the English Tell saga ? I have



got the Swiss books, but I want
to know the history of the English



tale of Adam Bell, Clym of the
Clough, and William of Cloudesley.



X :j








3o8 ‘Foolish Letter’s’ [ch, xiv



I think with you that the myth
of Tell or Agamemnon makes the existence of a real Agamemnon probable, but what
can the historian do with such probable heroes ? ‘



Max MUller was singularly
scrupulous as to inflicting inquiries on his friends, as he suffered himself
from letters from all parts of the world, on every imaginable subject. He was most careful to answer all genuine
inquiries, but when asked by one lady if football was played in England before
the emigration of the Britons (whatever that meant), and by another where to
get her horoscope cast, by one gentleman how to find the origin of his name
Jones, by another why in learning German he might not say der but das Pferd,
and by an hotel-keeper how to pronounce the word ‘ schedule,’ and whether the
term revoke or renege should be used at cards, as two gentlemen had laid heavy
wagers on these points, he did not feel called on to waste his time in answers.
He had a book in which these and other equally foolish letters were pasted, and
in which he kept the most amusing of the envelopes addressed to him in every
imagin- able style.



Among the best of these
envelopes are : —



‘ To the most celebrated and
honoured Max Miiller.*



‘ M. le Directeur, Universite
des Langues, Angleterre,’ came straight to him.



‘ Professor Max Mliller, Editor
of the Works of the East Indies, General Post Office, London.’



‘ Max Miiller, Ancient
Professor of University, England.’



‘ Mr. Rev. Max Mullen’


‘ Master Max MuUer.’


‘ To very honourable Knight Max
Miiller,’



‘S”^ Magnificenz Mr. Max
Muller, Rector of the University.’



‘ The Venerable Professor Max
Mliller.’



·
Pundit Max Mullen’






‘ Mn Max, Oxford.’


‘ To the great Linguist Max
Miiller.’



‘ To Father Max Mullen’


‘ The most noblest of the noble,
Great Oriental Savant,



F. Max Mullen’


‘ To the Head authority on
Language, Oxford.’









1865] ‘ Mabel and Ellen ‘ 309


But there was one letter which
he was fond of showiner though he never knew who were the writers : —



To Professor Max Mijller.


March lo.


‘ Sir, — We are a couple of
rather wild English girls, who have been trying all our lives to learn
something and have not yet succeeded. We
have become somewhat dissatisfied lately with our failures, and have made up
our minds to master some wonderful language that few girls (or even men) would
know. We intended to “ go in “ for Arabic, but every one says that we should
never get over even the alphabet. To
take only one or two you mention in your lectures, Persian and Sanskrit are as
difficult as Arabic. Zend no one has ever heard of Prakrit we cannot get the
necessary materials for. What are we to do ? Every one seems to think we are
too fastidious, but all we want is to get hold of an unusual language that is
not quite beyond our capabilities. We have at length made up our mind to try
and get out of our difficulties by applying to head quarters, and trouble you
with our inquiries. We enclose a directed envelope in order to take up as
little of your valuable time as possible. We are, yours respectfully, ‘ Mabel
and Ellen.’



The address given was ‘ Holly,
Post Office, Kiln Green, Twyford.’



To this the following answer
was sent : —



‘ Dear Miss Mabel and IMiss Ellen, — It is by no means
easy to reply to your inquiry. To take up any work in good earnest is a most
excellent thing, and I should be the last person to find fault with anybody for
fixing on learning a language, even for the mere sake of learning something.
Yet it is right that our work should have some useful object beyond the mere
pleasure of working. Thus in selecting a language we might look at three
ulterior objects — literature, travel, or science of language. Now, as I have
no reason to suppose that you want to learn a language that might be useful to
you in travelling, or that might furnish promising material for scientific
analysis, I will take it for granted that literature would form an object of
interest to you in the choice of a language. As it is to be a language which
few people in England
are likely to know, I should say take Portuguese, if you like Romance, or take
Swedish, if you like Teutonic languages. The books for learning these languages
are easily procured, and there is a literature both in Swedish and Portuguese
very little known in this country, and well deserving the .









3IO Leaving Ray Lodge [ch. xiv

interest
of two young ladies. But I am afraid you will consider both Portuguese and
Swedish as flxr too commonplace. Well, in that case, take Siamese. You will
have some difficulty in getting grammars and dictionaries, yet, if you are in
earnest and apply to Messrs. Williams
and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street,
Covent Garden, you will with some little
trouble and expense get what you want. There is not a single man in Europe, I believe, who knows Siamese. The French, however,
are opening the country, and some of their agents and missionaries have begun
to study the language. The alphabet is troublesome, the grammar itself seems
easy. There is a vast literature, as yet
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என்ன மணி அனைத்தும் ஆங்கிலதிலே இருக்கு ... தமிழில் கிடைக்குமா
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Re: ஆரியர்கள் இந்தியர்களே அது பற்றி சில கருத்துக்கள்

Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:50 pm

@ஜு4லியன் wrote:என்ன மணி அனைத்தும் ஆங்கிலதிலே இருக்கு ... தமிழில் கிடைக்குமா

இல்லை நண்பா ஆங்கிலத்தில் தான் இருக்கிறது தமிழில் கிடைத்தல் விரைவில் பதிகிறேன்
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:52 pm

almost unknown. The King of
Siam is a man of literary tastes, a man who reads and writes English, and who
would no doubt be delighted to receive, say two or three years hence — for it
will take at least that time — a letter written in his own language by two
English ladies. With this little glimpse of romance looming in the distance I
must close my letter, and beg to remain, with best wishes for perseverance and
success, yours faithfully, ‘ M. M.’



Mabel and Ellen were the
daughters of the well-known writer, Mortimer Collins, but they did not learn
Swedish, Portuguese, or Siamese !



After another month at Ray
Lodge the Max MUUers returned to Oxford^ and the
Walronds to London,
and the old house knew them no more. The weather in September of this year was
unusually hot, and evening after evening was spent on the river, not only on
the lower river, but the Cherwell, then hardly known even to boating men, was
constantly explored nearly to Islip.
‘ We carried the boat from one river to the other,’ says a letter. It was a
happy six weeks before term began, and Max Miiller, who was working at his
Veda, without any pressure of other work, greatly enjoyed the quiet — as he
tells his mother — alone with his wife and children, and a few intimate friends
who were in Oxford.



He gave two public lectures in
the October Term on



·
Joinville’s Saint Loiiisl which were much
appreciated, and formed the nucleus of the article on Joinville in Chips,
Volume in.






It was in October that Max
Miiller, finding that his friend



the Bodleian Librarian, ‘ Bodley
Coxe/ could not secure the



services of any Orientalist for
the place of Oriental Sub-









1865] Siih-Lihrarianship of
Bodleian 311



Librarian at the Bodleian,
offered himself for the post. As soon as the Vice-Chancellor announced the day
on which the ‘ nomination of Mr. Max Mtiller to the office of Sub-Librarian,
which nomination has received the sanction of the Curators, will be submitted
to the House,’ disagreeable letters and protests began to appear. One man,
signing as ‘ a Member of Convocation/ made out that Max Muller had an income of
at least ;^ 1,1 00 a year from public funds (it was really i^yoo, including his
ill-paid work on the Veda). This was answered by the Bodleian Librarian, and by
a Member of Convocation, in the following letters : —



November 4.


‘ Members of Convocation are
respectfully informed that the necessi- ties of the Bodleian Library require at
this time an Under-Librarian specially conversant with Oriental Literature.
Failing in his endeavour to secure the services of another distinguished
Orientalist, the Librarian has been allowed (with the unanimous consent of the
Curators) to submit the name of Professor Max Muller to the approval of the
House, as one who, together with his Oriental learning, combines a large
acquaintance with Modern European Literature, a department of scarcely less
importance to the interests of the Library.



‘ It may be as well to correct
three mis-statements which appear in the first of the letters now in
circulation : —



1. Professor Miiller’s salary
as Taylorian Professor is £500, not “more than £600.”



2. He has resigned the
Examinership for the Indian Civil Service.



3. His labours in editing the
Vedas, so far from being “ well paid,” entail on him a considerable pecuniary
sacrifice.



‘ H. O. CoxE, Bodley’s
Librarian.’



November 6, 1865.


‘ The letter of a Member of
Convocation contained in the Standard of October 30, furnishes us with the
keynote to the threatened opposition to Professor Max Miiller’s appointment as
Sub-Librarian to the Bodleian Library.



‘As this “distinguished scholar”
has been always too much occu- pied in the duties connected with his
Professorship to mix himself up in theological or in political controversies,
it is difficult to under- stand on what grounds he can have rendered himself
obnoxious in either of these capacities, except to those who regard every
German as a Rationalist, and every member of Gladstone’s Committee as a
Radical.



‘ It is to be hoped that
Convocation, dismissing all such irrelevant









312 Palmerston’s Death [ch. xiv



considerations, will leave it, as
on former occasions, to the Head



Librarian, who has never been
suspected of an undue bias towards



“Liberalism in politics, or
Rationalism in religion,” to determine,



with the sanction of the
Curators, what is most needed with reference



to the exigencies of an
Establishment for the efficiency of which he



is mainly responsible. ‘ Member
of Convocation/



Max Muller was elected, and
enjoyed the work very much ; but the strain of double work was too much, his
health broke down under it, and he had to resign the Librarianship after about
a year and a half. He of course ceased to be a Curator of the Bodleian (he had
been elected in 1856) when he accepted the post of Sub-Librarian.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. November i.





‘ Here people talk of nothing
but Palmerston’s death. I have never admired the man much. I was introduced to
him a couple of years ago ; he looked like a dandy, but spoke in a very
friendly way. He allowed himself to be more ruled by England than he ruled her. That has its good side, especially here where
public opinion is well regulated, but he was entirely wanting in independence
and all higher ideas of life. Stanley buried him in Westminster Abbey. I did
not go up for it.’



To Dean Stanley.


64, High Street, November 23.


‘ My dear Stanley, — Many
thanks for the second series of your Lectures ^ just received. I shall read
them as soon as I find a few quiet days, and they will recall the pleasant time
when you were settled here. If you cannot have the man, the next best thing is
to have his book, yet it is but a poor substitute. Why did you not put on your
titlepage, “Corresponding Member of the Institute of France “ ? They are rather
particular about that in Paris.



‘ The Convocation for
confirming my re-election ^ is fixed for Friday, December i, at two. Whether
there is to be a sulphurous eruption I do not know yet, but I should not be
surprised. However, you must not think of coming up. If it is to be, I have no
doubt it is meant for good. I have done nothing in the matter, and my rule in
life has always been not to struggle against storms that are gathering
overhead, but to wait, hoping they may pass, but quite prepared for the
drenching if it comes.



‘ I think I have been treated
without that fairness and consideration



^ On the Jewish Church. “^ To
his Professorship.









1865] Attacks on M. M. 313


which, as a rule, are generally
shown by Englishmen to Englishmen ; but though I may have made a mistake in
settling in England, and spending here the best years of my life, I shall always
be thankful for having passed through this school of life. There are many
things I owe to my stay in England and to my English friends, perhaps the most
precious things in a man’s life — things that cannot be taken away, and that I
shall value all the more, if the evening of my life is to be spent in my own
country. Ever yours, ‘ Max MiJller.’



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



High Street, November 12, 1865.



‘ I cannot allow another week
to pass without thanking you for your essay on the Providential Position of
Greece. I have read it with deep interest, and there are many things which I
should like to say about it. But I live just now in the midst of a storm which
will very likely drive me away from England \ and I cannot for the moment
concentrate my thoughts on any other subject. I am so glad that you have said
many of the things which you have said in your valedictory address. Though no
human mind can ever hope to discover or to understand the vestiges of the
Creator and Ruler of mankind in the broken strata of history, yet the very
search for them comforts and elevates the mind of man, and the sense of our own
impotence and ignorance widens and deepens our faith in the Highest Wisdom and
Power.



‘ With many thanks for the
honour you have done me in sending me



your essay.’


To HIS W^ife.


Oxford, November 28.


‘ May God watch over us, and
may we never forget how much happiness He has showered upon us ! There is
something very awful in this life, and it is not right to try to forget it. It
is well to be reminded by the trials of others of what may befall us, and what
is kept from us only by the love of our Father in heaven, not by any merit of
our own.’



Christmas was spent in London
at the grandfather’s house, but to the sorrow of the two eldest children, who
recollected the regular German Christmas of the year before with their
grandmother, there was no Christmas tree, the house being too small to give up
a room to it.



^ The opposition threatened to
his election as Sub-Librarian on account of his unorthodoxy.









CHAPTER XV


1866-1867


Easter in Paris. Sanskrit
Grammar. War between Prussia and Austria.



Cornwall. ‘ My Brother.’ Gold
medal from Duke of Anhalt. Illness.
Bournemouth. Letter on Brahma Somij, Death of niece. ‘ Parks End’
bought. Cure at Ems. Chips, Volumes I and II.



By January 2 the Max Miillers
settled quietly again in Oxford, he remaining hard at work till Easter, when
the ten days’ vacation from the Bodleian was spent in a visit to Paris. The
weather was too cold for expeditions, but many pleasant hours were spent with
congenial friends — the Mohls, the Regniers, Barthelemy-St.-Hilaire, Stanislas
Julien, Michel Br^al, and others. To Max Miiller this intercourse and ex-
change of ideas with friends occupied in work like his own was the greatest
refreshment. It was such intercourse he sorely missed in Oxford, where the men
who could at all enter into his pursuits were younger than himself, and more
like pupils, whilst his older friends, with whom his Oxford career had begun,
had almost all moved on to other spheres of work.



To HIS Mother.


TransIafio?i. Oxford, April 16.



·
Our time in Paris was very amusing. The only sad
thing was the recollection of so many friends whom one knew there, and who are
gone. I often thought of Emilie, and of Gathy, and Hagedorn, and of my life in
Paris in 1846. That is long ago, and yet I enjoy life as much as I did then,
and think the grey hairs are only an outward appearance ! ... I do not believe
in war, have never believed in it, but I am curious to see how long men of
honour and reasonable men in Germany will submit to such a scandalous
government !



Now I am busy again with my
work, and shall not get away till









i866] ‘ CJiagreen ‘ and ‘
Chagrin ‘ 315



August. I have been made an
Academician of Turin. There are only seven, and after Thiers and Cousin comes
my unworthy self.’



To E. B. Tylor, Esq.


Oxford, April 16.


‘ On my return from Paris I
found a copy of the Quarterly, and in it your excellent article on the Science
of Language. I feel not only personally very much obliged to you, but I believe
you have rendered a real service to our common studies by exciting the interest
and allaying the fears of that large and important class of Englishmen who are,
more or less, led by the Quarterly Review. A violent onslaught from that
quarter, which was by no means unlikely, might have done serious mischief, and
I therefore tender you my thanks both for what you have done, and what you have
been the means of preventing. What you say about Prepositions is true. I believe,
however, that those which are not predicative like trans will turn out to be
prenominal, local adverbs pointing to here and there. Qui vivra verra. You have
managed the Interjectionalists very well. Never did I make a greater mistake
than in taking an illustration of the Bow-wow theory from Wedgwood’s
Dictionary, which happened to be on my table, instead of quoting the same view
from a hundred other books! You have put the case very clearly, and I hope no
more paper will be wasted on this unprofitable discussion. You attribute too
much importance to my phonetic types or typical sounds ; they were left as a
mere frame, to be filled in by-and-by.’



To THE Same.


Oxford, April 19.


·
Many thanks for your article in the Fortnightly
Review. I like it very much and agree with every word of it ; only that I shall
have to write a much more determined defence of the Pooh-pooh and Bow- wow
theory than you have done, but of course only after defining the true meaning
of these theories. I cannot get over chagrin. I do not think it can be merely
leather, least of all Eastern leather ; but I confess I cannot get at the
history of the word. I believe that the chagreen leather is of Eastern origin,
but chagrin as substantive and adjective, chagrineux and chagriner — I confess
that staggers me. The question is who
first used the metaphor, if that is the origin of the word.’






Rumours of war between Austria
and Prussia were now rife, and Max Mullcr wrote to warn his mother not to
depend on seeing him and his in Germany in the summer.









3i6 Sanskrit Handbooks [ch. xv


To HIS JMOTHER.


Translation. May 27.


‘We can make no plans for the
summer whilst there are these rumours of war. Till now I firmly believed in
peace, but now I am afraid the summer will not go by without something
happening. I cannot take any interest in
these matters, unless it comes to a real popular war. Till now the people have
not wished for war, but only the JMinisters and the soldiers, and they may eat
the broth they have cooked. But how any people can submit to such a way of
governing, I cannot comprehend, and am thankful I am not there. I have at last finished my Sanskrit Grammar.
It came out last week, and it has taken a great load off my conscience.’



In 1864 Max Miiller had
arranged with Messrs. Longmans to publish a series of handbooks for the study
of Sanskrit. In his preface to the first
of the series, the first book of the Hitopadesa, he explains that these
handbooks were intended for two classes of readers : first, for those
candidates for the Indian Civil Service who desired not only to acquit them-
selves well in the examination, but to lay a good foundation for the subsequent
study of the spoken vernaculars ; and secondly, for a steadily increasing
number of scholars who wished to gain an elementary but accurate knowledge of
Sanskrit as a key to the study of Comparative Philology. For both these classes the existing works
were too diffuse, and only adapted to those who wished to make Sanskrit their
lifelong study. Max Miiller’s handbooks included the first, second, third, and
fourth books of the Hitopadesa, Benfey’s Sanskrit Dictionary, and a Sanskrit
Grammar for beginners by Max MUlIer. The text of the first book of the
Hitopadesa was prepared by Dr. Kielhorn, one of the many German Sanskrit
scholars for whom Max Miiller was instru- mental in getting appointments in
India.



The Librarian of the India
Office, in writing to thank him for the Hitopadesa, says, ‘ It is very obliging
of you, in the interest of beginners, to prepare books of this description ;
that they are very much needed is undeniable — at last it is feasible for a
student of ordinary ability to commence the study of Sanskrit without a
teacher.’



Max Miiller’s ‘sensible and
well-constructed book’ was









i866] War between Austria and
Prussia 317



praised in several reviews,
whilst his friend Professor Cowell



had from the first welcomed the
series as * an immense help to



the student. With such helps as
these Sanskrit should be as



easily acquired as any other
language. The projected series



will be invaluable.’


To HIS Mother.


Translation. O^iYO^vt, June 17.





‘ I hope that you are safe in
Chemnitz, for Dresden is not the place for you. I see that the Prussians have
marched into Saxony, and they are very likely to encounter the Austrians in the
neighbourhood of Dresden. At Chemnitz, at all events, you are not in the im-
mediate scene of the fighting — you have advice and help from the Krugs. Now
that war has really begun things will not quiet down again so very quickly ;
but in the way war is now conducted, those who live at the very theatre of war
will be far less disturbed than in former times. Sooner or later a war between
Austria and Prussia was unavoidable, and if it is but decisive, it will lead to
what all true Germans have desired for years, a united Germany. Prussia and
Austria are merely names, and stand for no more than Anhalt and Reuss. The
great thing is that the dualism of Prussia and Austria should be ended. Who
conquers, or is conquered, is of little con- sequence. Germany remains Germany,
and cannot be governed, even by a Roman Catholic Emperor, otherwise than she
allows herself to be governed. If Prussia wins, she must cease to be Prussia ;



Austria the same. So wait
quietly, no excitement, no partisanship.
Bismarck, either with or without his own consent, may become the
greatest benefactor of Germany. It is sad that your Austrian invest- ments have
fallen again ! but don’t make yourself miserable about it. How many people are in the same, or even
worse, plight ! Whatever you want, I can always give. You need have no scruples
about it, for if I don’t give it to you, I give it to others ; and I have for
years given away to others far more than I give you. What flows in so richly on
me does not belong to me, and I ought to give away a great deal more than I do.
So, as I say, don’t vex yourself about money.
Stay on quietly for the present with the Krugs. We can make no summer
plans yet. France and Switzerland are the only places where it would be quiet.
... Do not make the times worse than they are by over-anxiety.’



It was in this year that Max
Muller made the acquaintance



of Mr. John Bellows, the head of
the great printing works at



Bristol. At first the
acquaintance was only by letter, but on



meeting they were both much
attracted to each other, and









3i8 Bellozvs’ Outline
Dictionary [ch. xv



a true friendship sprang up
which continued to the last, though, being very busy men, they did not meet as
often as both desired. In sending his friend’s letters to Mrs. Max Muller, Mr.
Bellows says : —



‘ It was in 1866 that I put
before Professor Max Muller a plan



1 had for printing a skeleton
dictionary in which travellers and missionaries might record the vocabulary of
any particular language, or dialect, they wished to study. He entered heartily
into it, and compiled for it a key alphabet for the various sounds that would
have to be noted. It so happened that a Scottish firm just then offered me a
quantity of paper they had made for Confederate bank-notes during the American
War, but which they had failed to run through the blockade at Charleston. As
this was very strong and thin, I used it for the Outline Dictionary . It
answered well, I believe, as the edition all sold. It was really Professor Max
Miiller’s work, however.’



The following letters show how
minutely Professor Max Muller entered into the scheme : —



To Mr. John Bellows.


64, High Street, June 20.


‘ I cannot think of anything
better than the inverted a to represent the a ; we must not have accented
letters, otherwise no doubt the Swedish S would be preferable. I do not see
quite clearly the principle you follow in giving the various meanings of
certain words.



The book is meant for Englishmen
who must be supposed to know



the shades of meaning of each
word ; besides there is no reason to



give them all. Would it not be
best to give various meanings only



when there is a clearly defined
difference, as in Account, i narrative,



2 bill, 3 esteem ? But why give
“ coming to the throne “ under Accession ? If the missionary wants to express
that meaning he would put it under Accession, and if he wants to express “ an
acces- sion to his income “ he would place it there likewise, making a note for
his own information. Why put casual, and by injury, under Accidental ? Does
accidental ever mean by injury, except indirectly ? ‘



To THE Same.


Oxford, June 27.


‘ There is very little to alter.
I should put v, bought, all, as a familiar



English sound, before the a of
Vater. Also I should put n as



optional with fi ; in fact I
should not have admitted fi at all if I had



not been told that this type is
generally to be found in ordinary



founts. You know best whether
that is so j if not, I should leave it









i866] Battle of Koniggrdtz 319


out, and give ;/ only. I think
a little more care should be taken with the Dictionary.’



To THE Same.


July 18.


‘ I received your envelopes and
the electro-typed specimens, and am much obliged to you for them. As to your
Dictionary, I am afraid there is something wrong in getting the words ready for
press. Why should you not take any
ordinary Dictionary, and just underline in red the words which you want 1 I
have been collating your proof- sheets with Blackley and Friedlander’s
Practical German Dictionary, just published by Longmans, and I really think it
would take less time to underline that, than to collate the proof-sheets, to
say nothing of the trouble of making the corrections in the composition. I
always think that what is worth doing is worth doing well, and I feel sure that
with a little more trouble at first, much trouble afterwards may be avoided.’



Since Max Muller’s last letter
to his mother great events had taken place in Germany. The rapid advance of the
Prussians had been crowned by the great battle of Konig- gratz. Austria had given
up Venice to France, and the ‘ Seven Days’ War,’ as it was called in England,
seemed over. The excitement and interest
in England were very great.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxfokb, July 8.





‘ All good Germans have long
desired what is now happening. The
methods employed might have been better, here and there, but Prussia staked her
existence to make Germany united and strong, and though I thoroughly doubt
whether the motives were throughout honest and pure, yet I rejoice over the
results. Prussia will have a yet harder war to wage, for war with France can
hardly be avoided. But in spite of all
that, Germany will at last take her right place in Europe, and that she never
could have done with the “ Bundestag “ and thirty princes. Austria will always
remain a great power in the East, but in the Protestant North an independent
power must be created, be it called Prussia or Germany. I often long now to be
back in Germany, though I could be of no use as a soldier.



Write to me very often ; I am so
busy I cannot always write to you,



but you have plenty of time, and
all you write interests me. Also



letters may get lost now, so the
more you write the better. Why do



not you and Emilie come to
England for six or eight weeks ? I do



not believe that we shall have
peace very soon ; should it come we









320 Wilhelm Midler Prize [ch.
xv



might still go to Germany in
August and September. Do not worry too much. There is always war, and always
will be, like thunder after great heat. I am very sorry for Emilie at Dessau,
in the midst of Prussians with her strong Austrian feelings. Where is Adolf,
and what has become of Fritz Stockmarr ‘ ? ‘



The following letter refers to
a communication from Max MUller’s old schoolfellow, Karl Elze, of Dessau, a
well-known Shakespearian scholar, later on Professor of English Litera- ture at
Halle. He wrote to tell his friend that a literary society in Dessau, which for
some years had been giving public lectures, had resolved to apply the money so
made to the founding of a Wilhelm Miiller Prize, to be given each year in the
three highest classes of the Dessau Gymnasium (public school) on Wilhelm
Miiller’s birthday.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, July i6.





‘ I write whenever I have
something to write about, and from the



enclosed letter from Elze you
will see that we are not quite forgotten



in Dessau. I wrote at once to
Elze a beautifully written letter, to tell



him how pleased I was. I at once
promised him loo thalers, and



hope later on to give more, so
that perhaps in time it may form



a Wilhelm Miiller Scholarship. So
you see there is a bit of good



news. One hopes now the war will
soon be over ; well, the quicker



the better. The losses are
terrible, but so it has always been, and in



no century has Germany been so
long at peace as in this. You can



well imagine I am no admirer of
Bismarck, but I am convinced his



policy is the only one to make
Germany strong and respected by



other nations. What would have
become of Germany if France had



attacked Hanover, or Saxony, or
Hesse, and the jealousy betv/een



Prussia and Austria had made all
joint action impossible? With



Italy united, with the Colossus
of Russia and the great mass of



France, it was necessary North
Germany should be united. Austria



was opposed to this union and
must therefore suffer, but in spite of



all defeats she will always be a
great power in the East, and, if she



concentrates herself by giving up
Italy and Germany, will, one hopes,



be strong enough, in spite of
Russia, to annex Turkey, and drive



the Turks back to Asia. Those are
my hopes, but who knows



what may come } I expected that
Prussia would meet with some



great defeat, and that may still
happen, and would do Prussia good,



as thereby she would become more
thoroughly German; but these



^ Soldier cousins of Max
Miiller’s.









i866] Unsettled State of
Germany 321



things are not in our hands,
and all happens as is for the best. So do not let the grey hairs appear ! much
worse things have happened in the world than the overthrow of a dynasty. On the
whole the world is a very small grain of sand, Europe a small quarter of the
world, and Austria a very small part of Europe, and the man one calls from
habit Emperor is but a man, not so much better than the thousands who have
fallen in Bohemia. I wish I knew how to send you some money — the letters seem
to go safely enough. Stay quietly in Chemnitz. It is possible the Prussians may
have to retreat, and then Dresden might have to suffer, whilst Chemnitz is off
the track. Wish Krug joy for his
twenty-five years’ doctorate — I shall soon attain a like honour, and yet I
cannot feel myself at all old ! ‘



To E. B. Tylor, Esq.


July 6.


·
Two things have escaped me which perhaps you
will help me to






catch. I made a note of a
passage where the name Bear, for the



constellation, occurred among a
race that could not be suspected of



Aryan influences. But I lost my
reference. Secondly, I saw a paper



by Mr. Edkins on the relation
between Chinese, Mongolian, and



Tibetan, either in the
Ethnological or Anthropological Society ; but



this too I cannot find again.
The finder shall be duly rewarded.’



As the time for his holiday
drew near, Max Miiller felt more and more unwilling to risk taking his wife and
children to Germany in the unsettled state of things ; and he was conscious,
without any vanity, that he could not travel about entirely unknown, or say
what he liked unheeded. He did not wish to be obliged to express any real
opinion publicly for either Prussia or Austria, and it seemed wisest to keep
out of Germany till things were more settled. Even in his own family party
spirit ran very high. His Dessau relatives were all for Prussia, and Max
Muller’s own feelings were on that side, whereas his cousin Emilie, and,
influenced by her, his mother, were violently Austrian.



mi,- To HIS Mother. ^


Iranslation, Oxford, August 5.


·
That nothing has come of our plans is very sad.
I had gone on hoping we might get to Riigen, but the state of things is too
uncer- tain for travelling, especially with children. It looks more peaceful at
this moment, but I do not quite trust it; it is always possible that Austria
may venture on another battle. Also the new organization in the north, and the
Parliament in Frankfort, are sure to cause local






I Y








322 St. Ives, Cornwall [ch. xv

disturbances,
and as one can do nothing to help, it is better to stay away, and hope for
happier times. . . . One cannot alter matters, and when you think that Babylon and Nineveh, and Athens and
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:53 pm

Rome, have passed away in the course of time,
you cannot wonder so much at the Hapsburg catastrophe. Such things happen now
and again, and the world goes on afterwards as before ! ‘



Sir Benjamin Brodie and his
family, and Professor Bar- tholomew Price with his, had gone to St. Ives in
Cornwall for
the summer, and persuaded the Max MUlIers to follow their example. The one
difficulty was a house ; the few suited to visitors were all taken. At last
Lady Brodie found what was really a fisherman’s cottage close down to the
beach, small and simple, but exquisitely clean, and this was promptly secured.



Life at St. Ives was amusingly
primitive ; the butcher came once a week from Penzance,
but every house had its own poultry yard to supply deficiencies. Vegetables and
fruit were even more difficult to procure : there was one baker in St. Ives.
The town faces north ; the part where the visitors lived thirty-six years ago
was out of the town proper, which was built on a broad spit of land surrounded,
except to the south, by the sea. The town was entirely inhabited by the fishermen,
and was almost unapproachable from the smell of stale fish. Behind the cottage
which the Max Mlillers occupied the land rose to the granite moors, from the
top of which there was a wonderful view, south to Penzance
and Mount’s Bay, and back north to the Bay of St. Ives
and the coast towards Perranzabuloe. The smelling town was often braved, for
beyond it the spit of land ended in an open meadow, from which one could see on
calm days the long swell of the green waters of the Atlantic rolling in with
irre- sistible force, or on stormy days the foaming waves as they dashed and
thundered against the cliffs ; whilst the sunsets, as seen from this point,
were a constant delight. Bathing was carried on from the beach in front of the
Max Mlillers’ cottage, ‘ Primrose Villa,’ the boulders of rock fallen from the
cliff’s serving as dressing-rooms. At that time of year the moors were one
blaze of purple heather and golden gorse — in striking contrast to the grey
limestone headlands of the sea-coast. So brilliant was the colouring that, on
the









i866] Sf. Michaers Mount 323


first walk to the moors, the
eldest child, five and a half years old, who inherited all her father’s passion
for flowers, gave a cry of rapture as she saw the long stretch of heather and
gorse, ‘ Oh, Daddy, whose garden is this ? ‘ Max Miiller was delighted with the
country, examining the cromlechs and other Celtic remains with keen interest.
But his letters shall speak for themselves.



To Mr. Bellows.


St. Ives, September.


‘ I have not been able to see
much of Cornwall
yet, owing to various reasons : my own health, my wife’s health, and the
weather. How- ever, we are both well again ; and in spite of the weather we
have spent three days at the Lizard. Gew Graze, Pigeon Hugo, Kynance, and the
coast as far as Cadgewith are full of interest. As soon as the weather settles
a little, we mean to go to the Land’s End. If
possible, we shall do Carnbrea, when I hope to see your friend Mr. Michell,
though I am afraid we are not up to descending into the mine. What you say
about the accent in Cornish is very true. I did not know about the German
miners, and I wonder whether one could find an historical account of them
anywhere. The legends and stories of Cornwall
are purely German — very little of Cornish left there. The names of places
deserve a careful study. Mere etymology will not do it ; you want first of all
to ascertain their primitive form. As to “Carack luz en kuz\” please remember
that I am not a Cornish scholar. I
consider your argument against the modern form of kuz, instead of the Cornish
cuit, Welsh coed, as quite true. So far I go with you, and this seems to me to
dispose of the meaning commonly given to “ Carack luz en kuz,” the hoar rock in
the wood. What it really meant I cannot tell ; I do not see that you prove the
meaning of bay for the word ktlz, or of holy for Mz, unless you have some
further evidence. Mere possibilities will not help much. Nor do I see that you
prove that the Mount was a burial-place. If you can establish the meaning of bay
for kuz it will be very important, but even to have shown that it could not
have meant wood, is quite sufficient to guard against the extraordinary
conclusions founded on that name. One more quesdon, What is the earliest date
for the name “ Carack luz en kuz,” or of the pilchard song in which it occurs ?



To THE Same.


St. Ives, September 13.


‘The weather is sadly against
us here. We saw the Land’s End, and walked along the coast to the Logan, with a fearful sea
rolling at ^ An old name for St. Michael’s Mount.



Y a








324 Articles on Cornwall [ch. xv


our side. It was magnificent.
We went down Botollock Mine, which to my mind is as grand as anything I
recollect. We have only one more week here. I wish I could stay here longer, it
is a delightful neighbourhood and full of interest. Now and then one feels very
near the old world. How careless people are about Celtic antiquities; while
they send men-of-war to fetch home the lions and bulls of Nineveh, farmers are allowed to pull down
cromlechs and caves, and use the stones for pig-styes.’



To THE Same.


St. Ives, September 18.


‘ The fates have been sadly
against me during my stay in Cornwall.



First I was laid up with cold,
&c., and afterwards the weather has been



so uncertain that I have only
just been able to see what was absolutely



necessary. However, in spite of
all, I am so delighted with Cornwall,



that I am sure to come again,
and if I could I should gladly give up



Oxford and settle here, in a cottage by the
sea-shore, and finish my



edition and translation of the
Veda, which I am afraid I shall never be



able to finish at Oxford. The air here is
so invigorating, and life so



easy, natural, and
uninterrupted by society, that one feels up to any



amount of work. I tremble when
I think of the hurry and flurry of



Oxford, and the distraction and lassitude
which it entails. . . . The



growth of the modern name and
legend of Marazion is very curious.



... I wish somebody would take
up the history of Cornish names of



places. There are so many names
of fields, and lanes, and stones, to



say nothing of houses and
villages, which would yield an ample harvest.



... I should like to know the
meaning of Perran, and St. Perran, and



his various aliases. Can it
mean *’ miner “ or “ smelter “ } He seems



a saint of Cornish growth, and
I expect a saint who never had flesh



or bone, as little as his
companion, St. Chywiddan, i. e. White house,



or Smelting house. Do you
happen to know anything about their



meaning and origin, beyond what
is found in Hunt’s Cornish Tales ? ‘



So delighted was Max Miiller with
all he saw and heard



in Cornwall — for he was never tired of the
tales of Cornish



saints, giants, and fairies that
he learnt from various Cornish



people with whom he came in
contact — that he began, almost



as soon as he returned to Oxford, to write the
paper on



‘ Cornish Antiquities,’ which was
published the following year



in the Quarterly. Another, on the
question, ‘ Were there



Jews in Cornwall ? ‘ also appeared in a periodical of
the next



year, and provoked long
discussions ; whilst a third paper, ‘ On



the Insulation of St. Michael’s
Mount,’ was read before the









i








i866] Max Midler’s * Brother’
325



Ashmolean Society in Oxford in the autumn of
1867. AH



three papers were republished
in the two first editions of



Chips.


To Mr. John Bellows.


September 29.


‘ . . . I send you what I have
written down about St. Michael’s Mount. I wonder whether you will be able to
read it, and I want much to know what you think about it before I send it to be
printed. I have taken possession of some
remarks of yours, to which, how- ever, I would gladly attach your name if you
will let me do so. ... I am in no hurry about printing it. I am pining after
St. Ives, and Cornish rocks, and fresh sea-breezes.’



Just after his return to Oxford, Max Miiller received intelligence that an
impostor, calling himself his brother, was going about in London getting money from those whom he could
take in. The story was always the same : he had been robbed on his way over
from Germany, and had not
enough to pay his ticket to Oxford.
As the man or men continued the same fraud for several years. Max Miiller at
length put a notice in the Times, mentioning that he had never had a brother.
This stopped the impostor in London
after a time, but a few years later the same trick was tried in one of the
Australian colonies, and Max received letters from several people who had been
duped by him. The imposture continued on and off for quite five years, and
there is still a large packet of letters from his victims marked in Max
Muller’s hand, ‘ My Brother.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. October 7.


‘ The Professors in Berlin are wretchedly
paid, and whenever I hear of affairs there, I feel I should never be able to
fit in there. I am not rich here, but independent. I think I should long ago
have been in prison had I stayed in Germany
; here in England
I can do what I will. People abuse me, but they cannot bite, and everybody
barks at his own door.’



To Professor Lepsius.


Translation. Oxford, October 14.


‘ . . . The things that happen in
Prussia — or shall I say Germany ? —



occupy one’s head and one’s
heart. What would Bunsen have thought



of it all ? Many a thing has
happened differently to what we should









326 Gold Medal from Duke of
Dessau [ch. xv



have wished, but that it has
happened, and that it has advanced so far, and will advance still more and
more, makes it well worth while to have lived to see it come to pass. There
will have to be further struggles, but a glorious beginning has been made ! ‘



It w^as in this autumn that Max
Miiller received a fine gold medal from his old Duke, Leopold of Dessau, who,
knowing that Orders are not worn in England, except at Court, had this medal
struck expressly for the student whose career he had watched with interest from
his earliest childhood. On the obverse of the medal is the head of the Duke,
who was a very handsome man, and on the reverse, within a broad wreath of oak
and laurel leaves, the inscription : —



‘ Fiar Verdienst um Kunst und
Wissenschaft dem Professor Dr. Max Muller, 1866.’



(‘To Professor Dr. Max Miiller,
1866, for services to Art and Science.’) It was the first recognition he
received, except from learned societies, and was greatly prized, and always
kept on his table.



To Mr. John Bellows.


Oxford, Noveinber 8.


‘ It is very kind of you to
lend me your Cornish Dictionary ; I shall take great care of it, and return it
as soon as I get my own copy. It seems a very useful book, and carefully put
together, only the Sanskrit comparisons are horrible. I wish Mr. Williams would
publish his Celtic Grammar, but confine himself to Celtic. I guessed the riddle
of the Nine Maidens as soon as I began to read your letter. I saw the stones,
and I wish I had known about the missing stone, and where to find it. As to the
legend, it would grow up naturally enough. If you once have the nine maidens
and turned into stones, the dancing on a Sunday, &c., will come by itself.
I think I could match that easily by German legends. You see that even the two
pipers were soon added by popular fancy. I wish I could find out whether I am
right in supposing that the two pipers, and the two stones that flank the
Men-an-tol, point to the equinoctial points, and served to fix the great annual
festivals. There are certainly tombs on St. Michael’s Mount, and I read an
ancient charter which allows people to be buried on the mainland, but still
requires the dues to be paid to the Priory. I feel sure an attempt should be
made to declare all real antiquities, in Cornwall
and elsewhere, national property. I have collected a few cases of vandalism. If
you meet with any in your readings, please let me know.’









1 866] Indian MSS. 327


To THE Same.


Oxford, November 14,





·
You have traced the extracts from the Sikh MSS.
beautifully, and before I say more about it, let me ask you where you get that
beautiful tracing-paper, and how much it is per quire. Well, there is very
litde known about the Sikh language. We possess several MSS. of their sacred book, the Granlh, and of some
minor works, all treating of the Sikh religion. The language is the Penjabi as
spoken about 1500 A.D., a corruption of Sanskrit, like Hindi and the rest. The alphabet, too, is Devanagari, only
curiously misapplied. By means of Sanskrit on the one side, and Hindi on the other,
one could make out passages here and there, but that was a slow process. So I
wrote through a friend of mine to some of the Sikh priests at Umritsir, asking
them to write out a Sanskrit translation of some portions of their sacred code.
They sent me instead a Hindi and Penjabi translation, and by means of it, and
with the help of some friends who are good Hindi scholars, I made out some
interesting passages. I have now written again for a literal Sanskrit
translation, and when I get it I hope to publish a few specimens of the sacred
writings of the Sikhs. Every book that has formed the foundation of a large
religious movement ought to be accessible to scholars and theologians. It has
taken me twenty years now to bring out the first edition of the sacred book of
the Brahmans, the Veda ; so I am afraid life is too short to embark on a second
undertaking of the same kind — the one representing the oldest, the other the
most modern phase of religious thought in India — the one 1,500 years before,
the other 1,500 after, our era. I should be very glad some day to see Sir
Thomas Phillips’s collection ; I know it is wonderfully rich. I wish some
collector, like him, would rescue what there is still to be rescued of the
ancient literature of India.
Manuscripts in India,
being made of vegetable paper, do not last much longer than 400 years. It was
the duty of every rajah to keep a library and a staff of librarians, whose work
it was to recopy each manuscript as soon as it began to show signs of decay. As
soon as these rajahs were pensioned off, the first retrenchment they made in
their establishments was the suppression of these libraries and librarians.
They were not even allowed to present their libraries to the East India Company
! Well, the result is that at the present moment literary works, which have
been preserved for more than a thousand years, are crumbling away.



In a few places, where there
exists still among the natives an interest



in their ancient Hterature,
manuscripts are copied and some of them



printed and lithographed. But the
great bulk of Sanskrit literature



(larger than the literature of Greece) is
allowed to perish, whereas









328 The Veda [ch. xv


a few thousand pounds might
preserve all that is worth preserving.
If the interest which is now taken in the early history of mankind, in
the origin of religions, mythological and philosophical ideas, con- tinues for
the next hundred or two hundred years, the Sanskrit MSS. would be valued hereafter, like the Codex
Alexandrinus or Sinai- ticus. Many of them will be unique. And strange to say
the same manuscripts which in the hot and dry climate of India are so perishable are
perfectly safe as soon as they are deposited in a European library. But no one
takes an interest in these matters, and while people shudder at the supposed
vandalism of Omar in de- stroying the Alexandrian Library, the same unconscious
vandalism takes place unheeded under our eyes. I have not forgotten my Cornish
articles ; but I want to get rid, not only of the Jews, but also of the
Saracens. Yours very truly.’



TO HIS WIFE.


OXFORD, DECEMBER 9.


‘ LIFE AT MAY BE VERY NICE
FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOTHING TO DO,



OR THINK THEY HAVE NOTHING
TO DO, AND NO ACCOUNT TO GIVE OF THEIR DAYS AND HOURS. BUT I HAVE NOT LEARNT
LIFE SO. I STILL HAVE A GREAT WORK TO DO, AND I OFTEN FEEL THAT I MIGHT HAVE
DONE A GREAT DEAL MORE, IF I HAD KEPT THE ONE OBJECT OF MY LIFE MORE STEADILY
IN VIEW. I SOMETIMES WISH YOU WOULD HELP
ME MORE IN DOING THAT, AND INSIST ON MY WORKING HARDER AT THE VEDA AND NOTHING ELSE.
1 HOPE I SHALL FINISH THAT WORK, AND I FEEL CONVINCED, THOUGH I SHALL NOT LIVE
TO SEE IT, THAT THIS EDITION OF MINE AND THE TRANSLATION OF THE VEDA WILL
HEREAFTER TELL TO A GREAT EXTENT ON THE FATE OF INDIA, AND ON THE GROWTH OF
MILLIONS OF SOULS IN THAT COUNTRY. IT IS THE ROOT OF THEIR RELIGION, AND TO
SHOW THEM WHAT THAT ROOT IS, IS, I FEEL SURE, THE ONLY WAY OF UPROOTING ALL
THAT HAS SPRUNG FROM IT DURING THE LAST 3,000 YEARS. IF THOSE THOUGHTS PASS THROUGH ONE’S MIND,
ONE DOES GRUDGE THE HOURS AND DAYS AND WEEKS THAT ARE SPENT IN STAYING IN
PEOPLE’S HOUSES, AND ONE FEELS THAT WITH THE MANY BLESSINGS SHOWERED UPON ONE,
ONE OUGHT TO BE UP AND DOING WHAT MAY BE GOD’S WORK.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. London, December 16.





‘ We stayed from Thursday to
Saturday with the Belgian Minister,



M. Van de Weyer, who has a
beautiful place not far from Taplow. He



is a very cultivated man and an
experienced statesman, and was a



hbrarian in Holland when the revolution broke out ; then
he became



one of Leopold’s Ministers. He
married a rich American, and they



live in great luxury. We had the
same rooms Princess Alice had









t867] Bournemouth









329








when she last paid them a long
visit. It is very near Windsor
and the Queen often drives over to see them.’



The Christmas was spent in London with the
grandfather, the last the Max Miillers were to spend away from their own home
till their children were grown up.



Max Miiller had been far from
well whilst in London, and on his return to Oxford was laid up with so severe a bronchial attack,
accompanied by great prostration, that his medical attendant and friend, Mr.
Symonds, was seriously anxious about him, and took him to London for further advice. He was ordered to
leave Oxford at
once for a milder climate. The weather
was so severe that a journey to the Riviera was thought too great a risk, and
just after the middle of January Max with his wife and children settled at
Bournemouth, his old friend Professor Cowell undertaking his work as Sub-
Librarian at the Bodleian, and occupying his house in Oxford, till it was fit
for him to return home. At first he was almost entirely confined to the house,
but as the weather improved and he gained strength he was able to enjoy the
walks in the sheltered pine woods, which then stretched between the Bourne and
Boscombe, or quiet rides with some relatives of his wife living at Bournemouth
; and constant talks with one of these relatives, the banker Mr. Glyn,
afterwards Lord Wolverton, was a great resource, as he was not fit for any hard
mental work, and had been ordered by his doctor to leave his books in Oxford.
Both Max Miiller and Mr. Glyn were ardent Liberals, and great admirers of Mr.
Gladstone, who, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, was in the habit year by year
of talking over his Budget with Mr. Glyn, and a favourite point of discussion
was whether the nation would accept Mr. Gladstone some day as Prime Minister.
Mr. Glyn was in those days inclined to doubt it. One point on which the uncle
and nephew disagreed entirely was in their estima- tion of Louis Napoleon, whom
Mr. Glyn admired, as he attributed the commercial prosperity of France
to his good government. Max Miiller, on the other hand, who had often been in Paris, and knew how the
respectable middle class kept entirely aloof of the Government, which they
looked on as thoroughly evil, had no admiration for the adventurer.









330 Brahma Somdj [ch. xv


It was many weeks before Max
Miiller at all recovered his usual health and strength ; and though he began
his translation of the Rig-veda, of which the prospectus had been published in
January, he soon found that he was only up to lighter work, and he began to
prepare his articles on Corn- wall for the Press. The first, on ‘ Cornish
Antiquities,’ had been intended for the North British Review. When written he
sent it to his friend Mr. Bellows, a Cornishman by birth, for revision, and in
his letter mentions that he had a half- promise from a member of Parliament
that he would prepare a Bill on the proper preservation of national monuments.
It had been a real sorrow to him in Cornwall to see how the interesting Celtic
remains were left entirely at the mercy of indifferent landowners and ignorant
farmers, who had no scruples in using the fine stones for gateposts and farm
buildings ; in some cases, as with the ancient wells, pulling them down
entirely to build them up in modern style, or as they described it, ‘fitty.’
Nothing more is to be found about this half-promise in any of the letters, and
it was not till about 1873 that Lord Avebury, then Sir John Lubbock, introduced
his Ancient Monuments Bill, which was not finally passed till 1882.



The second article, ‘Are there
Jews in Cornwall?’
came



out in Macmillans Magazine in
the April of this year. The



third article, ‘ On the Insulation
of St. Michael’s Mount,’ was



not published till it appeared
in the third volume of CJiips



from a German Workshop in 1870.



BEFORE HE LEFT OXFORD, MAX
MIILLER HAD HEARD FROM THE DEAN OF ST. PAUL’S, ASKING HIM TO FURNISH A LIST OF
BOOKS THAT MIGHT BE OF INTEREST AND USE TO HIS NEPHEW. DR. MILMAN, THE NEW
BISHOP OF CALCUTTA.
ON FURNISHING THE LIST MAX MIILLER FORWARDED A LETTER ON THE BRAHMA SOMAJ, OR
BODY OF PURE THEISTS IN INDIA, WRITTEN TO HIM BY SATYENDRA NATH TAGORE, HIMSELF
A FAITHFUL ADHERENT OF THE BRAHMA SOMAJ, WHO WAS THE FIRST NATIVE TO PASS THE
EXAMINATION FOR THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE. AS MAX MIILLER WAS INTIMATELY
ACQUAINTED LATER WITH KESHUB CHUNDER SEN AND MOZOOMDAR, LEADERS OF THE SOMAJ,
AND ALWAYS TOOK THE DEEPEST INTEREST IN THE WHOLE MOVEMENT, AS BEING, HE FELT,
THE REAL STEPPING-STONE









1867] SATYENDRA NDTH TAGORE
331



TO CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA, THE
LETTER IS GIVEN IN THE APPENDIX. IT
PRESENTS THE REAL TEACHING OF THE SOMAJ AT THAT TIME AS EXPLAINED BY A HIGHLY
EDUCATED AND ENLIGHTENED FOLLOWER.



To THE Dean of St. Paul’s.


64, High Street, Oxford,



January, 1867.


·
I enclose a letter from an Indian friend of
mine, Satyendra Nath Tagore, which may possibly interest you, and which, if you
like, you may forward to the Bishop, It will give him an insight into the
religious aspirations of the best people in India at the present moment. The
writer is the grandson of Dwarka Nath Tagore, whom you may remember in London, some twenty years
ago, a very shrewd and amiable man. His grandson came over to pass the Civil
Service Examination, and, to the great dismay of the authorities, came out as
No. 6. He was about twenty when I knew him in England,
and he was then at the head of the so-called Brahma Somaj, which is making very
considerable progress among the lower classes in India. The movement began with
Rammohun Roy, and him, too, you may have seen. His idea was to go back to the
earliest form of the Indian religion, as preserved in the Vedas, and to
surround the Vedas with all the defences of a revealed book. What he took for
the Veda was not the original collection, but the more modern philosophical
appen- dices, Upanishads. After his death the movement languished, I re- member
my young friend telling me : “ Rammohun Roy put us on a wrong track — he was a
trimmer. We have entirely broken with the Veda.” They have certainly put an end
to idolatry, they have broken with caste, and they hold the essential points of
natural religion. I need not tell you that I find it difficult to meet his
argu- ments, and to remove his doubts with regard to some points of the
Christian religion which are his stumbling-blocks. I have not written to him
for some time, simply because I feel I cannot grapple with him, and he is not a
man to be satisfied with words. I know some other men of a similar character in
India
— one, a convert, a man more like the martyrs of old than anybody I ever saw.
What I feel very deeply when I have to argue with such men, is that the Chris-
tianity which conquered the world was very different from our hardened and
formularized Christianity, and that the old tree will never bear transplanting
into a new soil, though the young seed would probably grow up on Indian soil
into as wonderful a tree as anything we have seen as yet in the history of Europe.
India wants Apostles
enjoying all the freedom of St. Paul ; but what
would the Elders at Jerusalem
say to that ?












332








Nehemiah Goreh








[CH. XV








‘Please return Satyendra Nath
Tagore’s letter to me when you have done with it.’



To THE Dean of St. Paul’s (Dr.
Milman).



Staunton
House, Bournemouth,






February 26.




‘ Dear Mr. Dean, — I see no objection whatever to Tagore’s letter being
copied and shown to men who take an interest in the religious future of India,
as he says himself I may make any use of it. I am particularly glad that Lord
Cranborne should have seen it, if, as you say, he takes an interest in affairs
of religion. I have myself the strongest belief in the growth of Christianity
in India, There is no
country so ripe for Christianity as India, and yet the difficulties
seem enormous. The case of
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:56 pm

Nehemiah
Goreh is a most interesting one ; it ought to be typical, and yet it seems to
be exceptional, and he became a Christian without, nay, in spite of, the
missionaries. I have never yet seen a
missionary or a civil servant who does not consider himself infinitely superior
to any Hindu, and yet this Nehe- miah Goreh has suffered more for his
Christianity, and of his own free will, than any man I know in England or
Germany. Such a man, and many like him, wants sympathy and love, and that is
what they never find. Advice, reproof, and a good deal of de haut en las patro-
nizing the natives receive, no doubt, from missionaries, but respectful and
loving treatment I doubt whether they ever receive. The idea that a man like
Nehemiah Goreh could be in any respect his superior never enters a missionary’s
mind, yet I confess I felt far more awed by that modest and honest convert than
by many a bishop and archbishop. Twelve men such as Nehemiah might do more in India than
hundreds of missionaries. I hope my health is getting better. I am not accustomed to be ill, and it makes
me very unhappy not to be able to work. My chief complaint is want of strength.
I am to stay here till May.’



The end of March brought great
sorrow to Max Mijller in the news of the death of his sister’s eldest daughter,
nineteen years of age, after a few days’ illness. It may be remembered that she
had spent part of the summer of 1863 with the Max Miillers on the Starnberger See.
She had grown up into a beautiful girl and was the joy and pride of her
parents. Max Miiller wished to go at once to his mother and sister, but his
doctor would not sanction the journey, and absence again added to his sorrow.









;?^’





*(ll^.








1867] Death of Max Midler’s
Niece 333



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Bournemouth,
April 8.



‘ Augusta’s letter has touched me again deeply.
May God give her strength to bear this sorrow. I have spent the whole week in
great anxiety and grief, and whenever I feel a little better I think I ought to
have gone to you. And yet my doctor says I must still take the greatest care,
and I feel myself that I only get on slowly, and the smallest change in the
weather brings back the swelling and inflamma- tion of the throat, and I might
have been more of an anxiety than a help to you.’



It was during this spring that
his friend Mr. Bellows brought out the Outline Dictionary mentioned earlier in
this chapter, to which Max Muller contributed a valuable preface.



To INIr. Bellows.


Oxford, May 3.


‘ I received to-day a dozen
copies of the Outline Dictionary, and was very much pleased to see the book
out. I shall try to make the best use I can of these copies. I shall send one
to Lepsius, Berlin Academy ;



Monsieur Bell, French Academy
; Bishop of Melanesia, and the Bishop of New Zealand. The book strikes me as
very convenient, just the right shape, and I should think missionaries would be
very thankful to have such a book if they knew of it. I begin to feel so much
better, now that the weather is mild, and work is again a great delight.’



Through the past winter Max
Miiller’s thoughts had been much occupied by the idea of a possible change in
his life. The University authorities at Cambridge had founded a
Chair of Sanskrit, and he was doubtful whether he ought or ought not to stand
for election. Six years sooner he would have felt no doubt on the question, but
he had now turned his attention more to general philology and the problems of
mythology. He had lived too for nearly twenty years in Oxford, and both he and his wife were deeply
attached to the place, and had many valued friends there. The following letter
shows how the matter had been decided for him : — .



Bournemouth,
April 16, 1867.



‘ My dear Kingsley, — I am not
sufficiently up in the Luxemburg



question to undertake an article
for Eraser, but I have written to



a friend of mine, an Englishman
who knows a good deal about these









334 Chips from a German
Workshop [ch. xv



matters. I hope and trust the
matter will be settled peaceably. Germany has enough to do at home, and though I
rejoice in a united and strong Germany,
I do not like to see the drill-sergeant Govern- ment strengthened more than can
be helped. The absence of England
from the councils of Europe is sadly felt just
now, A man must dare to have friends, and dare to have enemies — and so must a
people. The natural ally of England is Germany,
that is to say, a united, sensibly governed, Protestant, Northern
Germany. England
and Germany will represent
the Teutonic element in Europe, with all that
is good and bad in it ; and, if united by common objects, they will stand like
a breakwater between the Romans and Roman Catholics in the West and South, and
the Slavs and Greeks in the East and North.
You want a good statesman in whom the country trusts, a man like Pitt or
Sir Robert Peel. Gladstone has a foreign policy,
but matters must get much worse before people in England
will find out what they possess in Gladstone.
He ought to retire like Camillus, and wait till greater times call for greater
men.



‘ Cox is a hard-working man. He
wants a little sunshine — to throw off the prickles and grow into flower.



‘ My Cambridge plans are at an end. I had long
made up my mind not to stand against Cowell. He has now decided to become a
candidate. You could not get a better man. The Master of Trinity, I hear, is
favourable to him. Do what you can for him, you may do it safely. Ever yours
affectionately.’



The follovi^ing letter contains
the first mention of the work by which perhaps Max Miiller became best known to
the general public, Chips from a German Workshop. On receipt of Mr. Longman’s
answer he set to work at once on the collection and revision of his articles.
The work came out in the autumn, when the fine preface was written. ‘ It was
through the preface to the Chips that I first learnt to know and love Max
Miiller,’ wrote one who felt he owed nearly all that was good in him to Max
MuUer’s teaching.



To W. Longman, Esq.


Bournemouth,
April 20, 1867.



‘ Dear Sir, — I have been looking
through my essays, and I mean to revise and republish them. The first volume
would contain essays on Religion, Mythology, and Traditions.



‘ Afterwards there would be a
second volume on Languasfe and



Literature. As a general title
I thought of Chips from a German









•^nJ











■s.


■s.











1867] ^ Parks End’ bought 335


Workshop. Would you feel
inclined to take these essays on the same terms as the second volume of my
Lectures ? They will be ready for October, I think. Yours very truly, ‘ M. M.’



On one of the last days of
April the Max Mtillers returned to Oxford, and the same day they saw the
announcement of the sale by auction, in a day or two, of the house Professor
Goldwin Smith had built for himself across the Parks— which had already been
laid out and planted, and were no longer the bare fields, with the Museum in
their midst, of five years before. The house in High Street was damp, cold, and
becoming too small, and on finding that ‘ Parks End,’ which was only a
bachelor’s house, could easily be enlarged, Max Muller resolved to bid for it.
It was a bright sunny day when he and his wife first went over their future
home, the lilacs were in full bloom, and the little place looked its best. Not a single house then stood to the north of
‘ Parks End ‘ — on the north side of what is now called Norham Gardens were
cultivated fields — the nearest houses were in Park Town, and only two houses
existed each side of * Parks End.’ Directly the house was bought plans were
made for adding a drawing- room, and what Mr. Goldwin Smith afterwards
irreverently called a ‘ baby-hutch,’ and the work was at once begun, as his
wife was resolved that Max Muller should leave High Street before the winter
set in.



The lectures announced for this
term were on the poem



of the Nibclungen, on which he
had lectured sixteen years



before.


To HIS Mother.


Translation. 64, High Street,
May 3.



‘ You will hardly guess what has
kept me from writing sooner. We



have bought a house, and I wanted
to tell you all about it. . . . You



must not be anxious about me. I
am really well again : our doctor



thinks me much stronger in every
way. I have given up the Bodleian,



and shall not have so much work.
The new house is really very



charming, and the children are
delighted with it. It is the best built



house here in every way ; all the
chief rooms look south, and as it



faces the Parks we can never have
any house built in front of us. We



must add to it, for it is too
small, but we are able to pay the whole out



of our savings without borrowing
anything. We have had very happy



years here, and the children are
so strong and healthy ; we shall be









336 Birth of only Son [ch. xv


sorry to leave this house, but
we are glad to have a larger and better house, and more out of the town.’



Since her daughter’s great
sorrov^ the old mother had



resolved to give up her rooms
in Dresden and
move to



Chemnitz,
a change v^hich her son had long urged her to



make.


To HIS Mother.


Translation. 64, High Street,
May 19.



‘ Your rooms in Dresden must look very
sad and bare, and whenever I think of poor Auguste my heart is very heavy. It
is such a hopeless trial, and one sees nothing to make up for what they have
lost. It is well that you have settled to move to Chemnitz, and though you will
miss Dresden,
few mothers have the comfort of spending their last years with their children
and children’s children. You can thank God for this, in spite of the many
afflictions and trials He has laid on you, and then you will forget the many
little disagreeables and misunder- standings which constant living together
must bring. I cannot under- stand why you make yourself so anxious about money.
I hope I shall always be able to give you as much as you want. I give away
every year a fixed proportion of my income, and if it does not go to you it
goes to others. The question is therefore only, whether I give it to you, or to
others who perhaps need it less than you do. You should make no difficulty
about such matters ; there are cares enough in life without making new ones for
ourselves.’



On June 9 Max Miiller’s
youngest child and only son was born, and though he had professed to be quite
satisfied with his three little girls, his letters show how he rejoiced at the
birth of what is called in Germany the ‘ Stammhalter.’



To HIS Cousin, Captain von
Basedow.



Trajislalion. 64, High
Street,///;/^ 30, 1867.



·
My dear Adolf, — You will already have heard
that at last a little son has appeared here, and I wish to ask you to be one of
his god- fathers. Both G. and I wish the boy not to be exclusively English,
and, like his name Wilhelm Grenfell, so his godfathers should be of both
countries. He can then later on choose his own home, and like the old proverb
uhi bene ihi patria. His other godparents are cousins of G.’s. Of course we
should prefer that you should come here your- self, but if that can’t be, write
if you will accede to our wish, and let me have your answer as soon as
possible, as the little heathen is already three weeks old. Here, thank God,
all goes on well, but after












1867] Ems 337


all the sorrow we have had, we
cannot feel very joyful. The last few years have brought many changes, but one
must not lose courage. In August I think
of going to Germany, and hope I shall find you all well at Dessau. Much love
from us both to your wife, your mother, Tante Julie, Rosalia, Berndt and his
wife, the Stockmarrs, and any old friends who still remember me. Always in true
affection, ‘ Max.’



Though very much stronger, it
was thought wise for Max Miiller to take the waters at Ems this summer, and as
soon as his wife could move she and their four children went to stay with the
mother-aunt near Maidenhead, and Max started for Ems, where his mother and
sister and her husband joined him as his guests ; and a happy month was passed
together, he doing everything in his power to lighten the cloud of sorrow
resting on his sister and Dr. Krug.



To HIS Wife.


Ems, August 19.


‘We have had a beautiful walk
this afternoon, and I have often wished you here ; you would enjoy it so much,
and I should enjoy it all so much with you. And yet what a pleasure it is to
see mother so well, at least for her age, and able to enjoy all with us. And
those poor Krugs — it is quite sad to see them happy, and always that fearful
grief in their hearts. How often one thinks of Marie, and how she would have
delighted in seeing all this beautiful scenery, and being with us. . . . Krug
speaks so freely about those who are no more ;



I can only listen, for what can
one say ? Our view of death is wrong, no doubt, because our view of life is
wrong : there is nothing to be feared in this beautiful world of God’s own
making and ordering. But parting is a
wrench, even for a few weeks, and nothing can take away the pang of that long
parting with those whom we have truly loved. How one grows together ; how you
and the children, every one of them, cling to me, and are part and parcel of
myself. To lose one of them, even though one may submit to God’s will, must
tear a wound which can never disappear again, however time may soothe the first
agony. We ought to be so grateful. I do not think of real happiness God can
give more than has been given us : how can one ask for more, or wish for
anything ? I should like to sit quiet, to rest and be thankful, not to move,
lest something should move and fall.



I do long for you all, but it was
right to give up something of our



happiness : the more you give
away the more is given you ; that



seems to me a law of our
spiritual life. ... All send you their best



love, and wish you and the
children were here ; and they say it is so



I Z








338 Ems [cH. XV


good of you to let me go alone.
Krug thinks it will be very good for me here. The evenings are glorious. We
have supper in the garden at nine — the river running by, all lighted up, and
in the distance lights on the hills, and then the bright stars above. People do
enjoy them- selves here; there are more than 2,000 here, music everywhere,
splendid roses, fine halls — I am sorry to say gambling, too.’



To THE Same.


Ems, August 27.


‘ One look up to heaven, and
all this dust of the high-road of life vanishes. Yes ! one look up to heaven
and even that dark shadow of death vanishes. We have made the darkness of that
shadow ourselves, and our thoughts about death are very ungodly. God has willed
it so ; there is to be a change, and a change of such magnitude that even if
angels were to come down and tell us all about it, we could not understand it,
as little as the new-born child would understand what human language could tell
about the present life. Think what the birth of a child, of a human soul, is ;
and when you have felt the utter impossibility of fathoming that mystery, then
turn your thoughts upon death, and see in it a new birth, equally unfathomable,
but only the continuation of that joyful mystery which we call a birth. It is
all God’s work ; and where is there a flaw or a fault in that wonder of all
wonders, God’s ever-working work ? If people talk of the miseries of life, are
they not all man’s own work .? Would not the carrying out of one single
commandment of Christ, “ Love one another,” change the whole aspect of this
world, and sweep away prisons and work- houses, and envying and strife and all
the strongholds of the devil? Two
thousand years have nearly passed, and people have not yet understood that one
single command of Christ, “ Love one another.” We are as perfect heathens in
that one respect as it is possible to be.
No ! this world might be heaven on earth, if we would but carry out
God’s work and God’s commandments — and so it will be hereafter.



We must submit, but we must feel
that it is a great blessing to be able



to submit, to be able to trust
that infinite Love which embraces us on



all sides, which speaks to us
through every flower and every worm,



which always shows us beauty and
perfection, which never mars, never



destroys, never wastes, never
deceives, never mocks. And would that



loving Father begin such a work
in us, as is now going on, and then



destroy it, leave it unfinished ^
No, what is will be ; what really is in



us will always be ; we shall be
because we are. Many things which



are now will change, many things
in us which we take to be our very



own will change ; but what we
really are we shall always be ; and if



love forms really part of our
very life, that love, changed, it may be,









1867] Thoughts on Death








339








purified, sanctified, will be
in us and remain with us through that greatest change, which we call death. The
pangs of death will be the same for all that, just as the pangs of childbirth
seem ordained by- God, in order to moderate the exceeding joy that a child is
born into the world. And as the pain is forgotten when the child is born, so it
will be after death — the joy will be commensurate to the sorrow. The sorrow is
but the effort necessary to raise ourselves to that new and higher state of
being ; and without that supreme effort or agony, the new life that waits for
us is beyond our horizon, beyond our con- ception. It is childish to try to
anticipate ; we cannot know anything about it ; we are meant to be ignorant ;
and, though we may imagine heaven and hell, even the Divina Commedia of a great
poet and thinker is but child’s play and nothing else. Here, as everywhere
else, the purity of Christ’s teaching appears. A teacher whose every word is believed
is sorely tempted to promise rewards in a future life, and to paint in glowing
colours the Jerusalem
the Golden that is to receive those who believe in Him. Christ says, “ What no
eye has seen,” and thus shows the truth of His vision, and the honesty in His
dealing with His fellow creatures. No illusions, no anticipations, only that
certainty, that quiet rest in God, that submissive expectation of the soul,
which knows that all is good, all comes from God, all tends towards God, To say
more is to deceive ourselves and others. But though M’e may thus look forward
to what is to come, I quite agree with you that it is wrong to look away from
this life, or to treat it as an imperfect or contemptible state. This life is
as perfect as God would make it, and it is an incredible pride if we are to
master and criticize this beautiful work of God. We have spoilt it first, and
taken away its very sunshine and warmth — love — and then we complain that it
is cold. Poverty is hard to bear, but a cheerful and contented mind does not
feel the burden ; and how much poverty might be alleviated, if we wished to do
it ! Illness is hard to bear, but it raises us above the cares of this life ;
it reconciles us to that parting which must come sooner or later; it makes
death easy, which those who are rich and strong dread as the greatest of evils.
Unkindness is hard to bear, but it leads us to examine ourselves, to weigh our
own motives, to value all the more those loving hearts who return our love, and
to look forward to a better time when we shall be known such as we are.’



To THE Same.


Ems, August 31.


‘ We had such a beautiful
evening. We drove to a forest between Ems and the Rhine, where we could see the
whole neighbourhood, and all the windings of the river about Ehrenbreitstein
and Coblentz.



Z 3








340 Bonn [cH. XV


There was a Franciscan
monastery with the fourteen stations of the



Passion, arranged with such
real taste and thought, and at the end



a chapel and a beautiful
church, all built by the present incumbent, an



old man, who is his own
architect, and has begged together the funds



for the church, which is built
in a very old and simple Byzantine style ;



and the walls and altar and
pulpit are covered with crystals and stones



and slags found in the
neighbourhood, so that the interior is glittering



with light. Though the
experiment is difficult and apt to degenerate



into mere stage effect, there
is so much originality and thought about



it, that one can enjoy it all,
and feel with the old man who spent his



life and energy in erecting
that sacred place. As we drove home the



first line of the new moon was
visible, and Jupiter shone in all his



beauty.’


To THE Same.


September 2.


‘ You have no idea how
beautiful this valley is — the smooth wooded hills all around, and the river
reflecting the undulating landscape, and the beautiful clear sky, and the
varying tints and the brilliant stars. Life seems so light and easy here. Then
it is very amusing to watch all the strange people from every part of the world
— Orientals and Greeks and Wallachians, to say nothing of French, EngUsh,
Americans, and Jews.



·
I had a kind of semi-official application to ask
me whether I would not settle in Prussia. They would give me 3,000 thalers
(£450), and I need not trouble much about lecturing, either at Berlin or
Bonn. I said that for the present I was
tied, but that, if I settled in Germany, I should prefer to live independently
without taking any office, and make what I wanted by writing. I could not quite
make out from whom it came, but Professor Bernays told me the offer was
serious, and he is a friend of the Minister of Public Instruction.’






To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Lustgarten, Ems,
September, Wednesday.



‘ I hope to get to Bonn on
Friday night, on my return to England, and to stay till Saturday afternoon, and
then start straight to London via Cologne. I trust to find you in Bonn, my best
friend, for I long to have some spiritual intercourse with you before I leave.
I also want to see Brandis. I shall put up at the “ Stern “ ; Morier may be
there too. What you mentioned about the German plans the other day has occupied
me much, but, as I told you before, it seems to me best to remain in Oxford for
a few more years. I do not deny that I should like to spend the evening of life
in German air, but I stopped long ago wishing for certain things and making
plans ; Heaven has so far guided me so mercifully. Hoping to see you soon, ever
yours.’









1867] Move to ‘Parks End’ 341


Directly Max Miiller returned
to England, the move to ‘ Parks End ‘ began. The roof was already on the new
part of the house, which was boarded off from the old part, in which the whole
party, tightly packed, spent the winter.
When once settled, his wife wrote to a relative : —



Parks End, October 9,


‘ You can enter into the
delight it is to Max to look round and to feel that he has bought this house
with his own hard work. I am sure it is a much greater delight than any house
left to one could give.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Parks End, October
9.



‘ Do not lose heart, but thank
God for all that is left you ; that is the chief thing, and so I wish you joy
of your birthday and of your new home. May God give you many peaceful and happy
hours there, and strength to bear whatever He sends. How happy our time was
together in the summer, and how seldom does everything succeed so well as our
stay in Ems. It is true, the sad recollections were always there as a
background ; but what life is without such recollections ? But we must go on, and comfort comes only
when we know whose hand sends the sorrow. I hope, in spite of all your fear and
difii- culties, that your move is safely over, and that you do not dislike your
new home.’



On his own birthday this year,
his forty-fourth, he writes to his mother : —



Translation. December 6.


‘ Thank you for all your good
wishes. I feel always as if there is hardly anything left to wish for. I can
only pray God to preserve all I have ! The children are all well and bright ;
the boy grows fast.’



To his sister he writes a few
days later : — •



Translation. December 9.


·
I often feel how much more happiness has been
given me than I deserve ; and when I think of all you have lost, I often feel
how all that we call our own is only lent us for a short time, and how we
cannot, from day to day, call anything ours. This Christmas time will bring you
and poor Krug renewed sorrow. But try and remember how much is left you, and do
not let the years you yet have together pass in mere sorrow ; the years do not
come again.’






The allusion in the following
letter is to the intention



Max Miiller had already
expressed of dedicating the second









342 Visitors at ^ Parks End’
[ch. xv



volume of Chips to Bernays, who
was at first too modest to



accept it.


To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Parks End,
December 15.



‘ My dearest Friend, — I had
long looked forward to giving you a public recognilion of my friendship and
gratitude. Though our meetings have not been frequent of late, yet they have
left the memory of many beautiful and stimulating hours, and I hope indeed that
a lucky star will perhaps once more bring us close to each other for a longer
period. What I miss most here in Oxford
is stimulating intercourse in literary and scientific circles. That is entirely
wanting, especially in my special branch of study. Altogether the Englishman
seems to me to have no interest for the “ Becoming “ or “ Growing” ; it is all
to be tangible and ready made. All dialectic is wanting in the true sense of
the word. However, there are deep shadows every- where, and I do not want to
forget the bright sides of English life, and I am afraid that I should find it
somewhat difficult to get accustomed again to the rather narrow German
trousers. As matters stand now, I feel bound to stay in England as long
as my father-in-law is alive ; what comes after we will leave to that guidance
which so far has led me so beautifully. A house on the Rhine and a
Professorship at Bonn
would be great attractions later on. Berlin
would never tempt me ;



it requires too many sacrifices
to the Non-L . Here in Oxford,



I must say, everything is done to
make up for what has been done



amiss. I have been relieved from
Modern Literature, and they are



thinking now of founding for me a
Professorship of Comparative



Philology, also of raising my
salary if possible, and so I hope to get



again more time for my own work.
I feel very well, thank God, this



winter, and I hope to get on
famously with my labours for the Veda^



Max Mijiler found that the
change to ‘ Parks End ‘ gave him more rest and leisure for uninterrupted work.
In High Street he had been, as it were, in the gangway, and was liable to
constant interruptions. Visitors to Oxford,
with half an hour to spare, would drop in unexpectedly, more especially
foreigners and Americans, with or without introductions. The distance across the Parks to his house
was a barrier to such unexpected invasions, and, though he had more room in his
new home to welcome and entertain his friends, his daily life was quieter and
more regular.



Among Max Muller’s papers there
was found a small



memorandum, ‘ Our first
luncheon party at “ Parks End,”









1867] Mr. Gladstone 343


December, 1867/ with the names
of Mr. Jowett, Bob Lowe, Huxley, H. Graham, Rev. W. Rogers.



To THE Right Hon. W, E. Gladstone (who was anxious to discuss the law of
copyright with Max Miiller and Dean Liddell).



Parks End, December 30.


‘Dear Mr. G., — I shall be at
home to-morrow at 2 p.m., and delighted to hear any news about the Greeks and
their schoolmasters, the Phoenicians. If you arrive by the 1.57 up-train, your
best plan would be to take a fly at the station, and tell the driver to drive
to the house that formerly belonged to Mr. Goldwin Smith. That is the house I
now live in, at least one-half of it, for the new half which I have added is
not yet habitable. I shall ask the Dean to come to luncheon a little after two
to meet you. Dr. Scott is not in Oxford,
so far as I know. Yours sincerely.’



Mr. Gladstone’s signature heads
the long list of distinguished guests that Max MUller had the honour of
welcoming to his house during the next thirty years.









CHAPTER XVI


1868-1869


Death of sister. Visit of
mother. Letter to Duke of Argyll. LL.D. at Cambridge. Professorship of Comparative
Philology. Visits to Frog- more, Fulham, and Gloucester. Isle of
Wight. Tennyson. Illness of children. Member of French Institute.
Translations frojn the Vedic Hymns, Vol. I. Soden. Kiel. Denmark.



A FEW days after Mr.
Gladstone’s visit Max Miiller wrote to him as follows : —



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, January 5.


‘ ... I do not think that many
fresh deities were introduced by the Phoenicians into Greece. The
influence they exercised on the Greeks was more like that which the Greek
colonists exercised on the Italians.
Jupiter was not Zeus, nor Juno Hera, nor Saturnus Kronos. There was a
conviction among the Greeks and the Italians that their gods must be the same,
and hence any point of similarity was caught at in order to identify different
deities. Something of the same kind seems to have taken place when the
Phoenicians taught the Greeks their ABC. But while the names of the letters in
Greek are simply Phoenician, Alpha, Beta, &c., I do not know of any names
of Greek deities that demand a Phoenician etymology. It is true there is no
satisfactory etymology of Poseidon, but there are hundreds, nay thousands, of
words in Greek, as in English, which have no satis- factory etymology, but
which no one would think of deriving from Semitic sources. , . . The subject is
a very important one, and I expect will excite some interest. . . .’



Early in February Max Miiller, who had suffered so much
the previous year at the loss of his niece, was called on to bear a much
heavier sorrow in the death of his only sister. She was ill but a day or two,
and the first intimation of any anxiety was the telegram with the news of her
death. It was









i868] Death of Sister 345


a terrible shock, and Max
Muller was quite prostrated by the blow, which seemed all the harder to bear,
as his wife had to leave him a day or two later, owing to the alarming illness
of her mother-aunt and two of her sister’s children.



To HIS IMOTHER.


Trajislation. Parks End,
February i6.


Poor
mother, who would have thought that you must yet bear such a loss, after all
the sorrow which God has sent you in your life ? And yet it was His will, and
He will send the strength to bear it. He has taught us that death is not so
terrible as it appears to most men — it is but a separation for a few short
days, and then, too, eternity awaits us.
For all the sorrow, I can only think, it is well with her ; she is
spared much, many a heavy burden is taken from her. She had a happy youth, and
in spite of many sorrows, in all that makes the true happi- ness of life, hers
was a happy marriage. The children to whom her heart clung are gone before her,
and I think she was glad to follow. I
have been reading such beautiful hymns of Paul Gerhardt’s on Death and Life —
you will know them — but in the grief and sorrow God has sent us, one really
feels how true, how deep, how beautiful they are. Yet life goes on, and its
duties must be carried out. To-morrow I must begin my lectures; I could not do
so this week. Try to trust in God, throw your grief on Him ; He will help you
to bear it. My only thought is how I can
get you here as soon as possible.
Perhaps you can find some one to travel with you, and I will meet you at
Dover, My doctor still says I must not venture on the sea passage. I feel well,
and cannot believe the trouble
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:57 pm

·
in my throat is of any consequence. Bring your
maid with you, shut up your rooms, do everything you can to come soon.’






To THE Same.


Translation.





‘ You must come to me and spend
the last years of your life with me. You will find here all those who in life
are the nearest to you.



Dear Auguste knew, as she closed
her eyes, that you would not be



left alone in the world. But what
will poor Krug do ? It goes to my



heart when I think of him and all
he has suffered this last year. How



different life is to what one
thought it when young, how all around



us falls together till we
ourselves fall together. How meaningless and



vain everything seems on earth,
and how closely the reality of the life



beyond approaches us. Many days
were beautiful here, but the



greater the happiness the more
bitter the thought that it all passes



away, that nothing remains of
earthly happiness but a grateful heart









346 Visit from his Mother [ch.
xvi



and faith in God, who knows
best what is best for us. May God strengthen and keep you. Even with my wife
and children life seems so empty to me, and I keep saying, “ My dear Auguste !
“ How delightful it was being together last summer. Oh, God, who could have
foreseen this ! Write to me as soon as you can, my poor mother. I wish I had you here.’



To HIS Wife.


Parks End, February 24.


‘ I had a sad, very sad letter
from my mother. My thoughts are always with her, and I can hardly bring myself
to believe that we have really lost our dear good Auguste. She was my oldest
friend and companion, and everything in my early life was connected with her.



Now that she is gone, all those
pleasant recollections on which one



dwells, one hardly knows when,
but yet which constantly pass through



one’s mind, are altogether
changed, all life and reality taken out of



them ; one’s own life brought
more clearly before one’s mind, as what



it really is, a short stay in a
foreign land. And there is still so much



left us, so much to be happy and
thankful for ; and yet here, too, the



thought always rushes across
one’s brightest hours, it cannot last — it



is only for a few years — and
then it must be given up. Let us work



as long as it is day, let us try
to do our duty, and be very thankful for



God’s blessings which have been
showered upon us so richly ; but let



us learn also always to look
beyond and learn to be ready to give up



everything, as my poor mother has
had to give up almost everything



that makes life happy, and yet
she can say, “ Thy will be done.” ‘



To THE Same.


March 31.


‘ It is true that I have plenty
of happiness, but great happiness makes one think so often that it cannot last,
and that one will have some day to give up all to which one’s heart clings so.
A few years sooner or later, but the time will come, and come quicker than one
expects. Therefore I believe it is right to accustom oneself to the thought
that we can none of us escape death, and that all our happi- ness here is only
lent us. But at the same time we can thankfully enjoy all that God gives us,
and few have more reason to say this than I.’



As soon as she felt able to
travel, his mother came over to her son and stayed through the summer, but
preferred return- ing for the winter to her own rooms in Chemnitz.



The following is one of the
first letters of a correspondence









i868] Date of Human Language
347



with the Duke of Argyll which
continued to within a short time of the Duke’s death : —



To THE Duke of Argyll.


Oxford, February 24.


‘ . . . I only wish I could
send a more satisfactory answer, but, as far as I can judge, every attempt at
translating the periods of natural growth or structure into the language of
definite solar chronology has proved a failure. The history of language opens a
vista which makes one feel almost giddy if one tries to see the end of it, but
the measur- ing rod of the chronologist seems to me entirely out of place.
Those who have eyes to see will see the immeasurable distance between the first
historical appearance of language and the real beginnings of human speech :
those who cannot see will oscillate between the wildly large figures of the
Buddhists or the wildly small figures of the Rabbis, but they will never lay
hold of what by its very nature is indefinite.



‘ The earliest historical
appearance of human language takes place in Egypt. Whatever the date of the
earliest hieroglyphic inscription may be, that is the earliest date of Egyptian
language. I am not satisfied as yet as to the soundness of Egyptian historical
chronology. The Semitic languages make
their first historical appearance in the cuneiform inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar,
or, it may be, of some more ancient Babylonian and Assyrian monarchs. In real
literature there is nothing Semitic more ancient than the earhest portions of
the Old Testament.



‘ Of Aryan language the first
literary relic is the Veda. With the evidence now before us, and after a
careful consideration of all objec- tions, one may honestly say that the Hymns
of the Veda could not be more modern than 1200 b. c. I believe they are older,
and my belief is chiefly founded on the nature of the Vedic Sanskrit as
compared with the Sanskrit of the laws of Manu, the Mahdbhdraia, &c. I
shall just quote one instance. According to all Sanskrit grammars, that
language, so rich in other forms, is without any trace of a conjunctive mood.
And this is perfectly true if we take into account the ordinary Sanskrit only.
But the Veda is full of conjunctives, and they are the same conjunctives as
those we find in Greek. Greek has a medial form of most verbs, so has Sanskrit.
Greek has a first aorist in the medium, so has Sanskrit. That first aorist in
Greek is a compound form, (Tv\j/dfiT]v, and is formed by an auxiliary verb that
yields (ra-firjv, just as I loved is formed by an auxiliary verb, viz. by did.
The Sanskrit aorist is formed by the same auxiliary verb, so that f/SfiK-a-a-To
is represented by Sanskrit ajdik-sa-ta. The conjunctive of the first aorist in
Greek takes the personal terminations of the present, and .









348 The Augment [ch. xvi


loses the augment. The same in
Sanskrit, at least in the Vedic Sanskrit, where corresponding to deU-crrj-Tai
we should find dik-sa-ie.



‘ If we take this one form, we
might call it in one sense almost a work of art, though it is only a product of
that art which may be called the art of nature, and which preserves amongst an
infinity of possible forms those only that are really good, really adapted for
the work they have to do. These conjunctives of the medial aorist exist in
Homer and in the Veda. They must have existed before Greek was Greek and
Sanskrit was Sanskrit, for they are formed out of materials which exist neither
in Greek nor in Sanskrit. In the same manner mais and mai must have been formed
before Italian was Italian or French French, for neither of these dialects have
the materials out of which mat or mais could have been formed. But how little
should we gain if we argued as some geologists do ! It has taken so many
centuries before the Latin magis dwindled down to mai and mais, therefore it
cannot have taken less time to change the original type of deLK-o-Tj-Tai and dik-sa-te
into these two forms. It is far better to look at these forms and find out how
much even their typical ancestor presupposed, how much wear and tear was
necessary before such a compound could become possible as we see fixed in that
grammatical system which preceded Sanskrit and Greek. In that compound we have
at least four elements. We have the augment, and no language, not even the most
ancient, has as yet betrayed the secret as to the material out of which the
augment was formed. Secondly, we have
the personal termination rai or te, clearly a pronoun of the third person, but
diff”erent from the pronouns of the third person such as we find them in
Sanskrit or Greek. Thirdly, an auxiliary verb ^ra, the Sanskrit as, to be, in
as-mt, ia-fii, &c., which loses its initial vowel as it does in Latin sum
for es-iim. This as meant originally to breathe (in Sanskrit as-u, ‘ breath ‘),
and before it dwindled down to what we call an auxiliary verb, a mere verbal
copula, again how many centuries must have passed } Can we measure them by the
distance that divides the Latin status from stato and ete ? I doubt it, yet we
can see deeper and deeper into the shaft from which the ore of human speech is
brought, and discover level after level that must have been left behind before
the pure metal, and before such amalgamates could have been produced as those
which we see in such a conjunctive as dik-sa-te. After that amalgamate is
formed, and after it has been coined into a definite grammatical token, begins
the phonetic decay, the influence, it may be, of diet, climate, and all the
rest ; and only after all this can we account for the fact that in the Homeric
poems we find a form like deiK-arj-rai, and in the Hymns of the Veda a form
like dik-sa-ie.









i868] LL.D. Cambridge 349


‘ In all these considerations
the question how a root dik came to mean “ to show “ and nothing else has not
been touched upon, though that again can only have been the result of a sifting
process of which we can hardly form an adequate idea. If there was proof that
it had taken 10,000 years to form out of given radical elements that wonder-
ful system of grammar which was quite finished before Sanskrit became Sanskrit
and Greek Greek, I should feel no surprise. Before that date we should still
have the formation of roots. What we commonly call the history of language is
from the very beginning nothing but a history of decay — the period of youth
and growth is past before we know of any language.’



In the month of January, Max
Miiller had received an invitation from Cambridge
to deliver the Rede Lecture in the course of the summer. The Vice-Chancellor,in
transmitting the invitation, observed that these lectures were generally scien-
tific rather than literary, but that Mr. Ruskin had been the lecturer of the
previous year, adding, ‘ Your subject, however, is a science, whatever the
Royal or any other Institution may say to the contrary.’ Max Miiller accepted
the invitation, and in writing again in April to fix the day, the Vice-Chan-
cellor told him that the University wished to offer him the degree of LL.D.
Accordingly, the last week in May, Max Miiller and his wife visited Cambridge,
where they were the guests of Dr. Thompson, Master of Trinity. Commodore Maury,
the American hydrographer, and Dr. W. Wright, the Arabic scholar, received the
degree of LL.D. the same day. The Public
Orator, Dr. G. W. Clark, thus presented Max Miiller :—



‘ Sequitur deinde Max Miiller,
Taylorianus apud Oxonienses Pro- fessor, qui, cum iuvenis admodum, consiliis et
auspicio celeberrimi viri Christiani de Bunsen, se in Britanniam transtulisset,
banc sibi sedem et novam patriam elegit, atque ita profecit ut si loquentem
audiveris, non dubites in Anglia natum, si magnitudinem operum respexeris,
Germanum esse cognoscas.



‘ Ad id vero potissimum navavit
operam, ut Philologiam doceret, non cam quae circa verborum argutias
commoretur, sed illam quae, Unguis Teutonicis, Graeca, Latina, Sanscritica,
inter se collatis, com- munem omnium originem exquirat, incunabula gentium
recludat, historiam quibusvis annalibus antiquiorem certioremque evolvat.



‘ Quid multa ? eras, ipso
audito, quanta facundia difficillimas res expedire possit, omnes iudicaturi
estis.’









350 Rede Lecture [ch. xvi


Translation.


‘ I would next speak of Max
Miiller, the Taylorian Professor in Oxford, who having while still a youth,
with the advice and under the auspices of that illustrious man Christian von
Bunsen, come over to Britain, has chosen this land for a new home and country,
and has made such progress that, having heard him speak, you think he must have
been born in England, whereas, if you consider the importance and quantity of
his works, you are quite sure that he must be a German. The work he has devoted
himself to especially has been the work of teaching Philology, not that branch
of it which is con- cerned with the niceties and subtleties of words, but that
which, by the comparison of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and German languages,
investigates their common origin, discovers the cradle of the nations, and
unfolds a history more ancient and more certain than that contained in any
written annals. What need of further words !
To-morrow, when you have heard him speak, you will all be able to judge
with what eloquence he can make the most difficult subjects clear and plain.’



The next day Max Miiller
delivered the Rede Lecture to a very large audience. It will be found in Vol.
IV of Chips, first edition. In the middle of the lecture, Commodore Maury, who
sat behind the lecturer’s wife, leant over and said in a loud whisper, ‘ I must
tell you, it’s just elegant ! ‘



During the winter months a
movement had been going on in Oxford
for the foundation of a Chair of Comparative Philology, which was carried out
in the May Term, with the proviso in the statute of foundation that Max Miiller
was to be the first Professor, if he would accept the post. He was deeply
gratified by this mark of esteem from the resident members of the University,
and it relieved him of the duties of the Chair of Modern Languages, added to
his salary, and enabled him to devote all his time and energies to his own line
of studies. His inaugural lecture was delivered in the October Term. ‘
Professor Max Miiller,’ says a contemporary notice, ‘ enjoys the high honour —
an honour the more signal as he is a foreigner — of occupying the first
Professorship ever founded at Oxford by the University Corporation itself; all
previous Professorships having been established either by royal benefactions or
private announcements.’



Early in June Max Miiller paid his
first visit to their Royal









1868] First Visit to Frogmore
351



Highnesses Prince and Princess
Christian, then living at Frogmore. These visits were always a rest and
refreshment to him, a delightful contrast to his quiet life of hard work, and
the gracious friendly feeling always shown to him and his called forth his
lively gratitude to the last.



To HIS Wife.


Frogmore House, Jime i.


‘ I came here in good time last
night, though after a long and hot journey. When I arrived at Frogmore the
Prince and Princess were just coming back from a walk, and they asked me at
once to take a walk with them in the garden, which just now is in great
beauty. We passed the Mausoleum, and
when we came back sat down and had a long and animated discussion, all in
German, though the Prince speaks English very well. We then went in to get
ready for dinner, and dined at half-past eight : no one present but the Prince,
the Princess, Lady Susan Melville, and myself. One of the servants was in
Scotch attire, but no bagpipes \ Nothing could be pleasanter. The Princess kindly inquired after you and
the children, and is of course wrapped up in her own boy’^, whom I have not yet
seen. After dinner, Lady Susan left, and
we went up a small staircase to the smoking-room, the Princess sitting down in
an armchair and the Prince asking me to smoke. This, however, I could not bring
myself to do till the Princess had left. I sat up till nearly twelve with the
Prince. He is a true Schleswig-Holsteiner, very quiet but very determined, and
very frank. He has fine blue eyes, and is a decidedly handsome man. His
photographs do not do him justice.’



To HIS Children.


Frogmore, y«7/^ 2.


‘ My dear little Girls, — I
have just come back from a beautiful drive through Windsor Forest. We drove in
an open carriage —



Prince and Princess Christian,
Lady Susan Melville, and your daddy.



There was a long avenue of
rhododendrons all in flower, and we



drove through it, and you never
saw so many beautiful flowers



together. And then the Prince
took me to see the house where all



the dogs live that belong to the
Queen. It was like the Zoological



Gardens, but all the animals were
diff”erent kinds of dogs — greyhounds



and deerhounds, like old Oscar,
and Teckels, like those mama had at



■^ Bagpipes were a horror to
Max Miiller.



·
Prince Christian Victor, who died the day after
Max Miiller.












352 Life of Bimsen [ch. xvi


Ray Lodge ; and some very
scarce but valuable dogs, called “mops “ in German : there are only three of
them left in England, and the Queen takes great care of them. Prince Christian
is a German prince, and he married Princess Helena, a daughter of the Queen ;
and they are very happy together, just like mama and papa, only they are very
rich and have a beautiful house and garden ; and they have one little boy, a
little older than our boykin, and he is a very handsome little fellow, ■with
large blue eyes and rosy cheeks.’



To Professor Lepsius.


Translation. Parks ‘E’U’d, June
i8.



‘My honoured Friend, — . . .
Bunsen’s Life has gone straight to my heart, as it has with you. Oh, if we
could even in this life forget all that is unessential, all that makes it so
hard for us to recognize true greatness and goodness in the character of those
with whom this life brings us into contact for a little while ! How much we
lose by making little things so important, and how rarely do we think highly
enough of what is essential and lasting ! Bunsen surely was one of the greatest
spirits of our times ! Where are the greater ones ? To have known him, belongs to those things
which have bestowed upon my life the greatest value and the greatest charm. I should
much like to hear from you where something reliable and trustworthy may be
found with regard to Egyptian mythology. Is Bunsen’s opinion about a Phoenician
origin well founded ? Are not there any real Egyptian gods ? And can their
origin and their development be traced ? . . . Some time ago I wrote for the
Times a notice of Bunsen’s Life, but until Parliament rises there is not much
hope of its appearing ; it has been clipped a good deal, and I think a little
later on I shall pubUsh it unmutilated.’



To M. Renan.


Parks End, y««^ 26.


‘ My dear Friend, — I can truly
feel for you in the loss which you have suffered ; it will sooner or later come
to all of us. But life is different after we have lost our father and mother. I
have my mother staying with me, and should enjoy her presence here very much if
it were not for the sad cause which brought her here — the death of my only
sister, with whom she used to live in Germany.



With every one of these losses
life seems to become more unreal,



there is less and less to live
for, to care for ; and if one still cares



for one’s work, it is because it
makes one forget life as it is, and life



as we thought it was or might be.
... I hear your new work is nearly









i868] Visit to Fulham 353


finished and I am curious to
see what you think of St. Paul.
I hope you have seen Jowett’s book on the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans
; it is very good, original, and honest. I am able at last to work again, and I
hope my health is quite re-established. I am printing my first translation of
the Rig-veda ; I sent you a specimen the other day, and hope to send you the
first volume by September. I am also
reprinting my Chips, which have just been preached against in Westminster
Abbey.’



To THE Same.


Parks End, 1868.


‘ You speak in far too
laudatory terms of my own work, and I am afraid it will only raise the bile of
certain people. I was amused by what you said about the Concessions aux Negres.
You are right to a certain extent, but the same applies to all countries. If you
want to carry people along with you, you must begin where you find them,
otherwise you run on like an engine without any carriages attached to it. The
best proof that I do not concede too much is that the science of religion has
been preached against in West- minster Abbey by a real bishop. However, they do
not mean to burn me yet, and I hope I shall still convince the Bishop that we
heretical Germans are far better Christians than the most orthodox of bishops.
I am printing my translation of the Veda. I had called it in my preface a
Traduction raisonn^e, if one may use such an expression, and I am glad to find
you use that very word in your Rapports. I have also finished my edition of the
Prdtisdkhya, in which I was forestalled by Regnier. His edition is really
excellent, and I cannot sufficiently regret that he should have been taken away
from Sanskrit. The school
of Burnouf will become
extinct with him. After carefully
examining every line of his Prdtisdkhya while printing my own, I am bound to
say there is not another Sanskrit scholar living who would have done his work
as well as Regnier, It is bad enough that the throne should be usurped, but why
Chairs of Sanskrit or Hebrew.? However, I am afraid I am talking treason, and
with Ewald’s^ example before me I ought to be careful.’



Another pleasant visit paid
this year was to the Bishop of London and Mrs. Tait, at Fulham, on one
afternoon of which Max Mliller and his wife were taken to the Volunteer Camp at
Wimbledon, and watched the shooting for the
Queen’s Prize. Since the Ray Lodge days he had ceased himself to be an active
Volunteer.



^ He had refused in 1867 to
take the oath of allegiance to Prussia and was pensioned off.



I A a








354 Visit to Gloucester [ch.
xvi



Soon after this Max Mliller
made a short visit to Gloucester and its neighbourhood, guided by his friend
Mr. Bellows. Of this visit Mr. Bellows
writes: —



‘When at your house in 1868 I
found Professor Max Miiller had some thought of visiting the Phillips Library
at Cheltenham to examine the Oriental MSS. it contained, and I asked him to
come to Gloucester for a few days, when he could do this, besides joining one
of our field excursions of the Cotteswold Club to Berkeley Castle, &c. : a
little programme that was soon after carried out. I recollect that to impress
him the more favourably with our Gloucestershire scenery I told him of an old
friend of ours, James Atkins, a well- known botanist, having come to Painswick
several years before to spend a fortnight, and that he was so pleased with the
Cotswold Hills that he had stayed there ever since.



‘ Professor Max Miiller smiled,
and rejoined, “ Do you know that that was what happened to me, here at Oxford !
/ came here to spend a fortnight, and I have been here ever since ! “



‘ I first ventured to write to
Professor Max Miiller on some philological matter — I am not sure what, but I
think something about the old Cornish language, about which I wanted to beg his
help. When I came to know him personally I was irresistibly attracted by the
power of sympathy that was his most striking characteristic, as I am sure
others will admit that it was, and the secret of the charm that made him a
leader of men. This power of sympathy he possessed in a larger degree than any
other person I have ever met, except Count Tolstoi : for greatly as they
differed in their other gifts, as well as in their entire environments, Max
Miiller and Tolstoi were alike in this.



·
Even the high attainments Professor Max Miiller
unquestionably possessed did not so affect those with whom he came in contact
as did this force of sympathy, to which he owed his broad-mindedness, and his
insight into the essence of religion itself: I will not say of the religions of
the East merely, but the general relation of the soul of man to the truth, in
which all these are included. I need only refer to his preface to Chips from a
German Workshop as a noble example of his sympathy for men of widely differing
modes of thought. It reads like an expansion of the nineteenth psalm, where the
universality of the sunlight and sunheat in the outward creation is shown as
the correlative to the uncreated light and power that is unlimited in its
operation, by time or space. And now he is gone, and no one will ever again
take his place. This very thought is assurance, for it means that he fills a
place in another state of existence for which he alone was created.’












i868] Stay at Bonchiirch 355


One of the visits paid under
Mr. Bellows’ guidance was to Mr. Bryan Hodgson, who, as Resident at Nepal, had
acquired an extensive acquaintance with the tribes and languages of the
Himalayan slopes. Mr. Hodgson lived to a great age, and died in 1895. It is
from his researches that our know- ledge of Northern Buddhism is chiefly
derived. He formed a valuable collection of above 300 MSS., a few of which he
gave to the Bodleian.



To PvIr. Bryan Hodgson.


Parks End, August 25, 1868.


·
My dear Hodgson, — What would I give for your
quiet Vihar at Alderley — your otium cum digniiate — doing exactly as you like,
read- ing or writing what you like, without being driven to publish and
republish, without lectures, without printer’s devils, &c. &c. I can
assure you I am sometimes nearly beside myself with all I have to attend to ;
to say nothing of mere Grihastha matters, which are sometimes troublesome too.
However, it cannot be helped, and I only mention it as my excuse for not having
written to you before. I have looked at your papers and the drawing, and I
think it would be a great pity if those carefully executed sketches were not published.
Then as to my lecture (“ Stratification of Language “) I cannot think that we
differ so much. I have frequently availed myself of lexicographic evidence. But
grammatical evidences have, as you know, a different value, and for the object
I had in view in my lecture the grammatical structure of language was of the
greatest importance.’






In the autumn a new edition of
both volumes of the Lcchires on Language was called for. It was the fifth
edition of Vol. I, the second of Vol. II. The new edition of two volumes was of
3,000 copies. At the same time a large second edition of Chips, Vols. I and II,
was published, and Max Miiller found that his writings in this one year had
brought in above ;^i, 200.



Except the short visits
mentioned, the summer had been



spent in work at Oxford, and as
soon as his mother returned



to Germany, he took his wife and
children to Bonchurch, and



gave himself up to rest and
outdoor life for a fortnight. Long



walks were taken with his wife in
all directions, and all parts



of the beautiful island were
explored. One delightful day was



given to Carisbrooke, where the
rector, Mr. James, an early



Oxford friend, received the Max
Miillers, showing them the



A a 2








356 Vt’stt to Tennyson [ch. xvi



Castle and the fine Roman
villa, which had not been long excavated.



Another expedition, in which
their eldest child shared, was to Freshwater, where a night was spent with Mr.
and Mrs. Tennyson. The poet was in
rather a silent mood till after the ladies withdrew, when, over their pipes, he
read out some of his latest poems to Max Miiller, his rich deep voice sound-
ing through the house till far into the small hours.



To HIS Mother (for her
birthday).



Translation. Bonchurch, October
9.



‘ Each birthday, even the
happiest, has its sad side. It is a station nearer death ; but whilst in youth
and the full enjoyment of life this thought seems terrible, it loses much of
its terror as one gets older, for the parting from the few whom we leave behind
is made up for by the hope of rejoining the many who are gone before us. So,
though this birthday must be very sad to you, you must accustom yourself more
and more to the thought that here is not our abiding city, that all that we
call ours here is only lent, not given us, and that if the sorrow for those we
have lost remains the same, we must yet acknow- ledge with gratitude to God the
great blessing of having enjoyed so many years with those whom He gave us as
parents, or children, or friends. One forgets so easily the happy years we have
had with those who were the nearest to us. Even these years of happiness,
however short they may have been, were only given us, we had not deserved them.
I know well there is no comfort for this pain of part- ing ; the wound always
remains, but one learns to bear the pain, and learns to thank God for what He
gave, for the beautiful memories of the past, and the yet more beautiful hope
for the future. If a man has lent us anything for several years, and at last
takes it back, he expects gratitude, not anger, and if God has more patience
with our weakness than men have, yet murmurs and complaints for the life which
He measured out to us as is best for us, are not what He expected from us. A.
spirit of resignation to God’s will is the only comfort, the only relief under
the trials God lays upon us, and with such a spirit the heaviest as well as the
lightest trials of life are not only bearable, but useful, and gratitude to God
and peace in life and in death remain untroubled. May this quiet and peaceful
resignation beautify and brighten the evening of your life, that is the one
wish I have for your sixty-eighth birthday. . . . We were yesterday at Fresh-
water, where Tennyson has his house, and he invited us (G. and Ada) to stay
with him. It was very interesting.’









i868] Education in India 357


The following letter was
written to the Duke of Argyll soon after his appointment as Secretary of State
for India
: —



To THE Duke of Argyll.


Oxford, December 16.


·
... As for more than twenty years my principal
work has been devoted to the ancient literature of India, I cannot but feel a deep and
real sympathy for all that concerns the higher interests of the people of that
country. Though I have never been in India, I have many friends there, both
among the civilians and among the natives, and I believe I am not mistaken in
supposing that the publication in England of the ancient sacred writings of the
Brahmans, which had never been published in India, and other contributions from
different European scholars towards a better knowledge of the ancient
literature and religion of India, have not been without some effect on the
intellectual and religious movement that is going on among the more thoughtful
members of Indian society. I have sometimes regretted that I am not an
Englishman, and able to help more actively in the great work of educating and
improving the natives. But I do rejoice that this great task of governing and
benefiting India should have fallen to one who knows the greatness of that task
and all its oppor- tunities and responsibilities, who thinks not only of its
political and financial bearings, but has a heart to feel for the moral welfare
of those millions of human beings that are, more or less directly, committed to
his charge.






‘India
has been conquered once, but India
must be conquered again, and that second conquest should be a conquest by
education. Much has been done for
education of late, but if the funds were tripled and quadrupled, that would
hardly be enough.



‘ The results of the
educational work carried on during the last twenty years are palpable
everywhere. They are good and bad, as was to be expected. It is easy to find
fault with what is called Young Bengal, the product of English ideas grafted on
the nadve mind.



But Young Bengal, with all its
faults, is full of promise. Its bad



features are apparent everywhere,
its good qualities are naturally



hidden from the eyes of careless
observers. . . . India
can never be



anglicized, but it can be
reinvigorated. By encouraging a study of



their own ancient literature, as
part of their education, a national



feeling of pride and self-respect
will be reawakened among those



who influence the large masses of
the people. A new national litera-



ture may spring up, impregnated
with Western ideas, yet retaining its



native spirit and character. The
two things hang together. In order



to raise the character of the
vernaculars, a study of the ancient









m








358 Illness of Children [ch.
xvi



CLASSICAL LANGUAGE IS
ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY : FOR FROM IT THESE MODERN DIALECTS HAVE BRANCHED OFF, AND
FROM IT ALONE CAN THEY DRAW THEIR VITAL STRENGTH AND BEAUTY. A NEW NATIONAL
LITERATURE WILL BRING WITH IT A NEW NATIONAL LIFE AND NEW MORAL VIGOUR. AS TO
RELIGION, THAT WILL TAKE CARE OF ITSELF. THE MISSIONARIES HAVE DONE FAR MORE THAN
THEY THEMSELVES SEEM TO BE AWARE OF, NAY, MUCH OF THE WORK WHICH IS THEIRS THEY
WOULD PROBABLY DISCLAIM. THE CHRISTIANITY OF OUR NINETEENTH CENTURY WILL HARDLY
BE THE CHRISTIANITY OF INDIA.
BUT THE ANCIENT RELIGION OF INDIA
IS DOOMED — AND IF CHRISTIANITY DOES NOT STEP IN, WHOSE FAULT WILL IT BE ? ‘



The following letter alludes to
a little indulgence Max Muller allowed himself more than once. The forests
round Dessau
are famous for their wild boar, and through his cousin^ Baroness Stolzenberg,
he was able occasionally to secure one from the ducal forester. The arrival of
the first one entire made a sensation at the Oxford Railway Station, and a mes-
sage was sent up that a dead ‘ Bear ‘ had arrived there for Professor Max
MUller. The dinner given to eat the haunch was a great success, and one head of
a house was observed to enjoy three helpings.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Parks End,
December 20.



·
Yesterday we had a large dinner-party, the
Vice-Chancellor, &c., and had the haunch of wild boar, which was excellent.
We had already lived a week on the boar, which was a very good one, and arrived
in good condition. A young man in London
who comes here sometimes to work for me brought it in its skin. The skin is
being dressed as a mat, the head we have sent to my father-in-law, and the rest
we are slowly eating up. It has amused me having it, and brought back old
days.’






The first months of 1869
brought great anxiety to Max Miiller and his wife. Early in January they went
with their two eldest girls to stay with a cousin at Taplow, where, after a few
days, their eldest child sickened with scarlet fever.



The alarm was very great, as
there was a large party of young cousins living in the house, and the whole
family moved at once, the mother and her sick child alone remaining isolated on
the top floor of a huge country house. Max Miiller, who had already returned to
Oxford, had the
younger children .









1869] Member of French
Institute 359


with
him, and could not therefore go to his wife and sick child for fear of
infection. It was a very severe case, and the eldest child was only slowly
recovering when the second little girl developed the terrible illness, and was
brought back to be nursed with her sister. Max Miiller suffered acutely from
the anxiety, which lasted nearly two months, greatly aggravated too by the
feeling that they had driven the whole family from their home. Mercifully the
infection did not spread. The second child lay for more than a fortnight at
death’s door. One night, when her case
seemed hopeless, the father
avatar
அன்பு தளபதி
வி.ஐ.பி

வி.ஐ.பி

நிகழ்நிலை
இணையாநிலை

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மதிப்பீடுகள் : 344

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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 1:59 pm

came to see her, but the
lengthy process of disinfection made it impossible for him to repeat the visit,
as his lectures had begun. His daily letters were the one support of his wife.



‘ How little one thinks that these heavy trials and
afBictions may come upon us any day. One lives on as if life were to last for
ever, and as if we should never part with those who are most dear to us. Life
would be intolerable were it otherwise, but how little one is prepared for what
life really is.’



January 24.


‘ I am longing to see you and
our dear litde Ada.
I am afraid you do not tell me all, and I cannot tell you how I feel for your
solitude in all this fearful anxiety. There is but one help and one comfort in
these trials, that is to know by whom they are sent. If one knows that nothing
can happen to us without Him, one does not feel quite helpless even under the
greatest terrors of this life. I tremble always when I open your letters.’



One ray of sunshine came to
brighten this time of gloom, in Max Miiller’s election as a Foreign Member of
the French Institute, the youngest man ever elected. The choice lay between him
and Theodor Mommsen, who was some years his senior. In writing to congratulate
him, Max Miiller’s child- like friend, Stanislas Julien, the great Sinologue,
says: ‘et maintenant vous pouvez porter I’habit brode ‘ — the beautiful dress
invented for the members of the Institute by Richelieu, and which Max Miiller,
before he was made a Privy Councillor, always wore at Court by the Queen’s
permission.



To Max JMUller.


Paris, i^” viars.


‘ J’ai ^t^ heureux, Monsieur,
de concourir a votre nomination



comme associ^ Stranger de
I’lnstitut. Prdcisement I’^t^ dernier j’avais









360 Letter from Guizot [ch. xvi



lu vos Lectures k la British
Insiihition sur la science et la formation du langage, et j’avais dtd
extr6mement frappd de I’^l^vation, de la profondeur et de I’abondance des iddes
que vous y avez expos^es. Je ne suis pas
un juge competent de vos travaux sur les V/das, mais je me f^licite d’avoir un
peu contribu^ a vous en fournir les materiaux, et je vous remercie d’en avoir
gardd le souvenir, Mon seul regret est de ne vous avoir pas acquis vous-meme a
la France.
C’est une fortune que j’envie un peu a I’Angleterre,. tout en lui en faisant mon
compliment. Recevez, Monsieur et savant confrere, I’assurance de ma
consideration la plus distingu^e. ‘ Guizot.’



Traftslation.


‘I was glad, Monsieur, to
contribute to your nomination as a Foreign Member of the Institute. It was only
last year that I read your Lectures at the British Institution on the “ Science
and Formation of Language,” and I was very much struck with the elevation, the
depth, and the richness of the ideas which you there brought forward. I am not
a competent judge of your labours on the Rig-veda, but I con- gratulate myself
in having contributed a little in furnishing you with materials for it, and I
thank you for remembering this. IVIy one regret is, not to have secured you
yourself for France.
It is a piece of good fortune for which I envy, though at the same time I con-
gratulate, England.
Receive, Monsieur and learned confrere, the assurance of my highest esteem. ‘
Guizot.’



To HIS Wife.


February 14.


‘ One does not like to think of
anything, or feel happy about anything, till this illness of the children is
quite over ; yet you will see from the enclosed letters that I have felt very
happy to-day when I heard that I had been elected one of the eight Foreign
Members of the Academy. It has been my ambition, I might almost say my foolish
ambition through life, to be some day what I saw Humboldt was, when as a mere
boy I first called on him in Paris, a Foreign Member of the French Institute;
and now the thing has come to pass, and I do feel very happy about it. Still,
what is that till we know that our little Mary is out of danger, and that we
may look forward to a happy meeting ? ‘



March 15.


‘ I assure you when I think of
what might have been, I seem to have no room for any feeling but that of
unceasing thankfulness. “ Forget not all
His benefits.” One ought to keep up the recollection of these great blessings,
for daily life is so very apt to wash it away.’









1869] Dr. Kielhorn 361


Early in January Max Miiller
received a pressing invita- tion from Professor Huxley, who had just been made
President of the Ethnological Society, to lecture on the ethnological aspects
of Indian Philology.



To Professor Huxley.


Parks Y.v.t>, January 8,
1869.



‘ It is very difficult to say
no to such pleading as yours. But I have made a vow to undertake nothing new
till what I have now in hand is finished, and it would be dishonest not to keep
it. I am truly glad that you have taken the Ethnological Society in hand. I have not followed all the squabbles there
seem to have been, but I feel certain that something ought to be done to raise
the character of ethnological or anthropological research, and there is no one
who can do it as well as you. I shall willingly help you hereafter when I am a
little freer, but there are three books in the Press that must be finished
first — (i) the first volume of the translation of the Rig- veda, (2) the
Prdtisdkhya, the oldest work on phonetics (this is printed), and (3) the fifth
volume of the text of the Rig-veda, with the native commentaries. I hope this
will all be done before the year is out, but even then I have promised Longman
two more volumes of Chips.



‘ I should be so glad if you
would come to Oxford
from a Saturday to Monday and stay with us. Term begins towards the end of
January ; if you could let me know a week before, I could then make sure of
some friends who would be glad to meet you.’



Among the many young Germans
whom Max Miiller was able to assist to positions in India
few became more distin- guished, or have done better work for Sanskrit
scholarship, than Dr. Kielhorn, now Professor at Gottingen. The following is one of the many
letters that passed between them : —



To Dr. Kielhorn.


Translation. ‘Parks’E^d,
January 10.



‘ . . . I am delighted with
your photograph, you look so well, and the old Pundit at your side looks a
veritable Guru ^ in the true sense of the word, I am glad that the Government
is giving a grant for the purchase of MSS. I had already proposed this matter
when Lord Elgin was Governor, and advised the Government not to make the matter
too public, as that raises the price of MSS. at once. Well, a beginning is
made.



‘ I have finished the
Prdtisdkhya, and the translation is progressing.



·
Teacher.












362 Religion of the Hindus [ch.
xvi



I have sent you and Biihler my
second edition of Chips through the Government, also to Dr. Wilson.



‘ Kind regards to Biihler. I
have not heard from him for a very long time, but have just received his
Apastamba, which gives me much pleasure ; it is an old friend of mine. What do
you think of a Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum ? Could that be done in Bombay ? Bhao Dagi is sure to have much material. It
ought really to be begun soon.’



To THE Duke of Argyll.


Taplow Covkt, January 14, 1869.



·
It is certainly true that the religion of the
Hindus, as far as we can gather it from their sacred hymns in the Veda, is free
from every- thing that strikes us as degrading in the present state of religion
and morality in India.
But between the ancient religion of India and the religious worship of
the present generation there have been several falls and several rises.
Buddhism, in the sixth century before our era, was a reaction against the
corruptions that had crept into the ancient religion even at that early time.
Then Buddhism, starting with the highest aspirations, degenerated into
monasticism and hypocrisy, and a most rigorous form of the old Brahmanic
religion took possession of India,
and drove Buddhism out of every corner of the country. Since that time there
have been several religious reforms, though of a more local character, and this
makes it very difficult to generalize and treat the whole religious life of India
as one organic body of religious thought. Yet so much may be said with perfect
truth, that if the religion of India
could be brought back to that simple form which it exhibits in the Veda, a
great reform would be achieved. Something would be lost, for some of the later
metaphysical speculations on religion, and again the high and pure and almost
Christian morality of Buddha, are things not to be found in the Veda. But, as
far as the popular conceptions of the deity are concerned, the Vedic religion,
though childish and crude, is free from all that is so hideous in the later
Hindu Pantheon. ^






‘ With regard to the inevitable
decay of religion, a difference ought to be made between two classes of
religion, natiojial and personal. There
are ancient religions, like that of Greece, and that of India too, which grow
up like national languages, when it is impossible to speak of individual
influences, because all individual influence is determined by the silent and
almost unconscious approval or dis- approval of the community. In these
religions I think we can watch for a time a decided progress, a gradual
elimination of what is bad, i.e. what is not acceptable to the national
conscience.









1869] M. M!s Prdtisdkhya, etc.
363



·
But religions, like Buddhism, Mohammedanism, and
Christianity too, belong to a different class. They start with a high ideal
con- ceived by a representative man, representative either of a nation or of
the whole of humanity, and that high ideal is hardly ever realized ; it has to
adapt itself to larger circles and lower levels, and can only be kept from
utter degeneration by constant efforts at reform.’






To M. Michel Br6al.


Parks End, February 19.


‘ I knew you would be pleased
at the result of the last election, but I was glad all the same to receive your
congratulations, and to know that you approve of the choice of that
distinguished body, which no doubt before long will count you among its
members. To me it is the highest honour that could possibly be bestowed upon
me. I believe I may honestly say it has
been through life the only object of what you may call a foolish ambition. That
I should obtain it so soon I did not expect, and I am afraid my success will
secure me many di’psus, but I have long learned that no one does us so much
service as our dipsiis, nos a?nis les ennemis, and I do not think my head will
be quite turned, as I know too well that “ merit is the good opinion which our
friends have of us,” as Lord Palmerston used to say. I hope I shall have the
pleasure of seeing you and making the acquaintance of Madame Breal before this
year is over. As soon as three books of
mine which are now in the Press are finished, I hope to present them in person
to the Academy. The Prdtisdkhya is finished, the first volume of the
translation is printed as far as page 224, and there is a third little book
printing, which is to be a surprise. I hope when I and my wife come to Paris, we shall find you
in the full enjoyment of all the pleasures and treasures of a Grihastha. ]\Iany
thanks for your Ide’es laientes du Lajigage, which I read at once with the
greatest pleasure, as I do everything you write. You know how to prepare your
meats, and do not expect your readers to eat raw flesh. M. Brachet’s Granwiar
is out. Now that Parliament is sitting, there is little chance of getting a
review, but I shall see what I can do. M. Harris is hard at work translating my
Chips. There is an Italian translation coming out of my lecture on “
Stratification.” I need not say that the lecture is quite at your service, if
you think a French translation would interest people in France. Schleicher’s death is a
very great loss to us, more even than Bopp’s, who had finished his work.’



Max Miiller found that
incessant work was the only help



in these months of anxiety,
and, as is shown in the various









364 Comparative Mythology [ch.
xvi



letters, he had been far from
idle. The first volume of Trans- lations from the Vcdic Hymns came out in May.
His lectures this term were on * Sanskrit Grammar as a Foundation for
Philological Research.’ In the following letter to Sir George Cox, he upholds
Sanskrit and Comparative Philology as the necessary foundation for a study of
Comparative Mythology : —



Parks End, March 3, 1869.


‘ . . . I should like to see
you and talk the matter of Comparative Mythology over with you. I cannot help
feeling that you work at this subject under great difficulties, and I sometimes
doubt whether you ought to give your principal energies to that subject. I
speak to you quite openly, for I believe you would be offended if I did
not. The most minute criticism of
etymological coincidences seems to me the only safe foundation of Comparative
Mythology. When there is no etymological foundation I should not venture to
take a step, however clear the material coincidences of character,
circumstances, and the general dhiouement might be. I believe you have done
good service by pointing out the necessity of admitting a common origin, even
when the evidence of the common nomenclature is wanting, but I doubt whether
with those principles it is safe to enter upon the treatment of the whole
subject. The dangers are very great, and much harm may be done. And when you come
to fables or stories of modern date, the dangers become still greater. Here
there is an immense literature to master first, i. e. the historical and purely
historical evidence of the migration of fables. When the ground has so far been
cleared, there comes the labour of tracing back really old common Aryan stories
to their roots, whether mythical or proverbial.
If therefore you ask me, I tell you openly, do not make Comparative
Mythology the principal work of your life, unless you make up your mind first
to study Sanskrit and Comparative Philology. I believe you can do far more real
and important work in other fields of research, though I should be very sorry
if we were not from time to time to get hints and impetus from you on a subject
where you certainly have seen beyond the horizon of other scholars. I am just
printing a curious collection of Buddhist stories contained in Buddhaghosha’s
commentary on the Dhammapada, and therefore not later than about a.d. 400.’



Early in April he had all his
children safe under his roof



again, and it was soon evident
that any summer plans must



be made with reference to their
health. The doctor prescribed



a foreign bath, and it was
finally settled that after Com-












1869] Translation of Veda 365


memoration the whole family
should go to Soden in the Taunus, where Max Muller’s mother would join them.



Before leaving home Max Muller
heard from his friend Dr. John Muir, from Edinburgh, that he had received the
first volume of his Translations from the Ve die Hymns, ‘in which you show a
great deal of minute learning. But if you go into everything in the same
elaborate way in future, you will require to live to the age of Methuselah to
finish your task. I cannot but express
the wish that you had translated more and annotated less ; that you had given
what the world expected from you, a translation at once scholarlike and
elegant, and entering into the spirit of Vedic antiquity, exhibiting in short
the results of profound research without much display of the apparatus of learning.’
The same com- plaint was made by many other subscribers, and Max Muller soon
found that his plan of translation was far too elaborate. A second volume was published, but not till
many years later, as Vol. XLVT of the Sacred Books of the East, the volume
already published, of which Dr. Muir complains, being reprinted with many
additional Hymns as Vol. XXXII of that series, in place of another work of
which Max Muller was disappointed. Some
idea may be gained of the enormous labour bestowed on this volume of
translations from the long list of works on the Veda which Max Muller had
consulted, and to which he fully admits his indebtedness. The list fills six
pages octavo. Max Muller held that the first translators of the Veda should be
decipherers, ‘ bound to justify every word of the translation in exactly the
same way in which decipherers of hieroglyphic or cuneiform inscriptions justify
any step they take.’



In another letter Dr. John Muir
expresses the wish that more light should be thrown on Buddha, and trusts that
Max Muller intends to write more about him. This wish was fulfilled next year
by the translation from the Pali of Buddha’s Dhammapada, or Path of Virtue, the
book he alludes to in the letter to M. Breal as ‘ a surprise.’



To M. Regnier (former tutor to
the Comte de Paris, and a distinguished Sanskritist).



Parks End, Oxford, May 13, 1869.


‘ My dear Friend, — It is
really very provoking to know that you









/











366 Coquerel’s Apostles’ Creed
[ch. xvi



are in England, and
that it is impossible to effect a meeting. I have a lecture every day, and
during the Whitsuntide holidays we have friends staying with us, and even if I
could leave them for a day, I am kept here because the Archbishop of
Canterbury, who is the Visitor of our College (All Souls), will be here from
Saturday till Tuesday, and all the Fellows have to be in attendance. I cannot
ask you to give me a day as I know how much your presence is valued by your old
friends, but if you should by any fortunate chance find yourself free for a
day, it would be a great treat to me and my wife to receive you at our house
and show you our children, who, I am thankful to say, are either getting
stronger or are really quite well again. Sun- shine seems to have returned to
our house with the spring, and at present there are few clouds to be seen, at
least no more than we all want to make the sky really beautiful.



·
I shall be busy here till about the end of June,
and I hope then to go to Paris,
though I am afraid I shall find few of my friends there. My plan was to take lodgings at St. Germain
or some other place near Paris,
and to settle there for some months with my wife and four children, taking our
English nurse and a Swiss bonne with us. But this plan has become somewhat
doubtful because my mother wishes to spend the summer with us in England, and in that case I should probably go
to Paris alone and stay only for a fortnight,
and then go to fetch my mother from Germany. Could you or Madame
Regnier give us any hint as to where and how to settle ourselves near Paris, if we carry out
our original plan ?






‘I am now printing my last
volume (second edition, Sanskrit Grammar), of which I enclose the title.
Prdtisdkhya and Rig-veda (translation) are finished, and I look forward with
great pleasure to presenting my “ thrins “ to the Academy.



*I had a letter from M. Guizot,
which I value more than many



a cordon and crachat^


Shortly before leaving for Germany, Max
MUller offered Messrs. Longmans a translation of Coquerel’s Apostles Qrcd, an
offer that was rejected, as Mr. Longman did not consider the book sufficiently
orthodox. Against this opinion Max Miiller protests in the following letter : —



Oxford, June 24.


‘ My dear Longman, — I am sorry
to hear that you think Coquerel’s book would not sell, though, if it were of so
startling a character as you imagine, I should think that it would excite some
interest, and have even a commercial success.



‘ But allow me to say, that
though I should not venture to criticize









1869] La Bible dans Vlnde 367


your judgement as far as the
commercial success of the book is con- cerned, I must protest most strongly
against the judgement you have formed of its religious character.



‘ The book is written in a
liberal, but in a deeply religious spirit, teaching men to distinguish between
the dead crust and the living kernel of Christianity, and warning them against
throwing away what is true, eternal, and divine, because in course of time it
has been sur- rounded and almost hidden by what is conventional, changeable, and
human. It is an interpretation and historical vindication of the antiquated,
almost unintelligible, and certainly widely misunderstood language of the
so-called Apostles’ Creed, a document which, I feel sure, no educated man and
no clergyman in England
would take to be the work of the Apostles. The book is written throughout in
the most correct language, and there are passages in it which the most eloquent
of our bishops need not be ashamed of in the pulpit.



‘ I write this, not because I
wish you to publish the MS., but because I shall be truly sorry if you think I
had offered you a book to publish w^hich would shock people far more than
anything you have published.’



To THE Dean of Westminster.


Parks Y.iht), June 29, 1869.


·
My dear Stanley,
— That book of Jacolliot’s ^ is as silly, shallow, impudent a composition as
ever I saw. It is sad to think that people can still be taken in with such a
book. Would you believe that Gladstone
was reading it in the midst of the Irish debate ! The book quotes from the Veda
I The extracts are no more from the Veda than from the Koran. I felt so
disgusted that I could read no more ; and then people ask me to review such a
book — they might as well ask me to fight a shoe-black !



·
What I sent you as a first instalment of the Veda
is real and old — of course no one will read that ! Nor do I care. I meant to
write an unreadable book, and I believe I have succeeded.






‘ But I shall soon send you
something that is readable — a col- lection of Buddha’s own sayings. I believe
the final struggle between Buddhism and Christianity, whenever that comes to
pass, will be a hard one, and will end in a compromise — there is a
prophecy! that will have to be tested
some thousand years hence — therefore, at all events, it is safe. But I am quite
serious, and I know you would not refuse Buddha admittance at Westminster, after you have read his Xo’yta.
How small the Irish Church looks from a more (ex)centric point of view, and
that is the real charm and the real blessing of researches into the ancient
history of thought and faith ; they make one feel happy, quiet, and strong,
like Scotch mountain air.’



^ La Bible dans PInde.








368 Soden [ch. xvi


To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks ‘E^D,July 9, 1869.


‘ Dear Mr. Gladstone, — “ Do
not speak to the man at the helm “ may, I suppose, be translated freely into “
Do not write to the Prime INIinister.” If I break this useful rule, it is only
for one word of explanation. The volume which I took the liberty to send to you
is hardly meant to be read ; I know it is perfectly unreadable, except for
Sanskrit scholars. It is, in fact, but the underground foundation on which the
pillars are to rest which are to support the bridge on which people hereafter
may walk across from the nineteenth century after to the nineteenth century
before our era. At the same time I may say that the few Vedic Hymns which I
have translated, or rather de- ciphered, in the first volume, are genuine
relics of the earliest phase of human thought within our reach. Jacolliot’s book,
La Bible dans TInde, which I looked at, is beneath criticism, it is simply
untrue. The author has been deceived, has deceived himself, and tries to
deceive others. I am sorry that my
ticket for Antwerp
is taken for next Thursday, and that I shall not be able to avail myself of
your kind invitation to breakfast, or to carry off the book which you say is
waiting for me.’



The book by Jacolliot, La Bible
dans Hndc, alluded to in the letters to Dean Stanley and Mr. Gladstone, was a
mere imposture, the author purporting to have found the essential features of
the Biblical narrative, the Garden of Eden, Flood, &c., given in the sacred
books of the Brahmans. Max Miiller was in London
one day during the debates on the Disestab- lishment of the Irish Church,
when he heard a quick footstep behind him, and some one touched him on the
shoulder. It was Mr. Gladstone. ‘ Oh, why,’ exclaimed the Prime Minister, ‘
have you not told us of these wonderful discoveries in India ? ‘ and
then poured forth, in the middle of St. James’s Street, his wonder and
admiration oi La Bible dans tLnde^ which he had been studying, when any less
versatile statesman would have been entirely absorbed in his great Irish
measure. It took some time, not only in St. James’s Street, but by letter, before
Mr. Gladstone would give up his belief in Jacolliot’s nonsense.



The stay at Soden, dull in some
ways, was made interesting



to Max MUller by finding an old
friend, Professor Hertz,



whom he had not seen since they
were students together at



Leipzig. He was watching over a young
daughter dying of



decline, and, before they left
Soden, Max followed his friend’s









I








1869] Kiel 369


child
to her last resting-place. His deep sympathy was a help and stay to the poor
parents, and till he joined his loved child some years later, Professor Hertz
often wrote, recalling the time at Soden and the intercourse with the friend of
his youth. It was at Soden also that Max Miiller first heard from Dr. Appleton,
of St. John’s College, his plans for starting the
Academy. Max Muller had taken his whole party for an excursion to the ruins of
Cronberg, on one of the hills of the Taunus range, and his children were
revelling in the enjoyment of a complete day of holiday with their father,
whose incessant work made such a treat a rare one. Dinner in the open air was
just over, when Dr. Appleton was seen to descend from the coach running between
Soden and Cronberg. He had arrived at Soden to find Max Muller gone out for the
day, and, absorbed in his own schemes, did not hesitate to follow him and
entirely engross him for the rest of the day, to the dismay of his children.
When once started, Max Muller was a constant contributor to the Academy, till
it changed hands, and entirely altered its character as a literary paper about two
years before his death. From Soden the party went to Kiel,
where the Platt-Deutsch poet Klaus Groth, with whom Max had formed an intimate
friendship during the poet’s visit to England
a few years before, had secured a de- lightful apartment for them in one of the
pretty villas that line the shores of the beautiful harbour of Kiel.
It stood at the entrance to Dusternbrook, a fine beech forest, the trees of
which hung over the water of the harbour. The garden of the villa ran down to
the water, which is scarcely salt, and has little or no tide. Here a happy six
weeks was spent, varied by long day excursions with Klaus Groth and his
charming wife to all the most beautiful spots round Kiel. A two days’ visit was paid to Plauen and the lakes of Holstein
in one direction, whilst in another they visited Husum, ‘ the grey town on the
grey (North) sea,’ with its flat coast and dykes as in Holland, to make
acquaintance with Theodor Sturm, another Platt-Deutsch poet. Later on, before
leaving Kiel, Max Muller and his wife went to Copenhagen, with which they were delighted, enjoying the
treasures of the Museum
of Northern
Antiquities, and the beautiful pictures of native
Danish art in .



I B b








370 German Philological
Congress [ch. xvi



the palaces. They also visited Elsinore,
and looked across to Sweden
; the sea, the day they visited Elsinore, was
alive with vessels waiting for a favourable wind to take them through the Sound
into the Cattegat. The Max Mullers returned to Kiel
by the Belts, and stayed a night at Schleswig
to see the cathedral with its wonderful wood carvings of the fifteenth century.



During the stay at Kiel, the German Philological Congress held their annual
meeting there, attended by people from all parts of Europe.
Mark Pattison, Rector of Lincoln College, was present, M. Jules Oppert from Paris, and many others,
and it gave Max Muller an opportunity of meeting many engaged in like studies
with himself. He read his paper on Buddhist Nihilism referred to before (p.
192) and made his first speech in German at the farewell banquet.



Many evenings during the visit
to Kiel were spent either at Klaus Groth’s house, or at Forsteck, an exquisite
place belong- ing to Herr Meyer, a Hamburg merchant, commanding a view of the
broadest portion of the great Kieler Bucht, or estuary, where, at the time of
the Crimean War, the whole English Baltic Fleet lay for weeks. On these
occasions Klaus Groth always read out some of his Platt-Deutsch poems, which,
to English ears, are more intelligible read aloud than when read to oneself:
the strange spelling misleading the eye. The pleasure of the time at Kiel was greatly added to
by the pre- sence of a cousin, Captain, now General, Stockmarr, with his wife
and daughter, who joined many of the expeditions. ‘ We have had many happy
hours together,’ writes Max to another cousin, whom he tried to draw to Kiel ;
but at that time the railway communication between Kiel and places on the
Baltic shore was too complicated for short visits, especially where children
were of the party. It was for this reason that his old friend Dr. Prowe, from
Thorn in East Prussia,
was unable to comply with Max’s earnest wish for a meeting.



Early in October the whole party,
including the mother,



returned to Oxford, the two eldest children thoroughly
restored



to health. The lectures announced
for this term were a con-



tinuation of the course on
Sanskrit Grammar. Among the



many letters waiting his return
was an invitation from the









1869] Translation of Veda 371


Khedive of Egypt to be present at the opening of the Suez Canal, but he had to decHne the honour, as taking
him away too long from his work.



To Professor Benfey.


Translation. Parks End, Oxford, November 7, 1869.



‘ Dear Colleague, — Having
returned to England some three weeks ago, I had so many letters to answer that
I only now find time to thank you for your valuable present. I have, so far,
only glanced at your History of Philology, but even this glance has shown me
how much material you have again accumulated in this work, and how useful and
instructive your book is in every way. I hope soon to have time to read it
quietly, but I feel I must not delay in sending you my best thanks.



‘ My path did not lead me, alas
! past Gottingen this time, and my hope of
meeting you perchance at Kiel,
at the Philological Congress, was not fulfilled. . . .



‘ IMy first volume of the Veda
translation has, I hope, reached you, and I should be glad to receive your
opinion about it. According to my judgement there is only 07ie scientifically
justifiable method of in- terpreting the Veda, viz. to settle completely every
word which raises the least doubt. The work is slow and laborious, but if it is
not done you never come to a conclusion, and the same questions turn up again
and again. Of course, for you and me there are certain things which do not need
proofs, but we also made our way slowly through all this, therefore, why not
save others this trouble ? why not cut off, once for all, all unfounded
objections at the outset ?



‘ I hope to send you soon a
book on Buddha ; that makes me think of your review of my Essays : accept my
best thanks. . . . Alas ! I have to get a new edition of my Sanskrit Grammar
ready, which I should like to have done with. . . .’



The Christmas was passed in Oxford, a real German Christmas, with a tree, to which a
few Germans in Oxford
were invited, and at which the various German dishes and sweet- meats, imported
by the old mother, bore a conspicuous part.









B b a








CHAPTER XVII


1870


Lectures on the Science of
Religion. Keshub Chunder Sen. Franco- German War. LL.D. at Edinburgh. Letters to Dean Stanley.



To ‘the Enghsh People.’ Work
for Sick and Wounded. North



Wales. Letters to Dr. Abeken and
Mr. Gladstone. Chips, Vol. IIL



This year, that was to be so
full of stirring events, opened quietly for Max Miiller, who began at once to
prepare the lectures he had undertaken to give at the Royal Institution in
February and March on the ‘ Science of Religion.’



To Dean Stanley.


January 19.


‘ I return Clark’s
^ letter. I quite feel with you that a man like Clark
ought not to be satisfied with simply withdrawing ; he ought to work and fight,
and not look to others to carry a new Reformation.



I do not know much of him, but
all I do know of him makes me like him very much. His words would carry weight
with many people. It might seem bold and imprudent in Temple, but still I think it would be right
if, as a Bishop, he answered Clark’s letter,
and told him publicly that the Old Testament was not originally written in the
language of the nineteenth century, but in old, heavy, poetical Oriental
phraseology, and that, unless his difficuldes extend far beyond the limits
indicated by him, he might well continue to read the Ten Commandments, and
afterwards preach a sermon, and tell his congregation, if they need to be told,
that God never stood on a hill and opened His mouth to tell them in Hebrew what
the still small voice had told Moses, and other prophets too, nay, everybody
who would but listen to that voice, viz. that there are laws independent of man,
nay, in spite of man, yet irresistibly present in the human conscience. . . .
Then why not say, “God spake these words and said “ ? Is our nineteenth-century
language so much better, and is it .









^ Public Orator at Cambridge.








1870] Lectures on the Science
of Religion 373



altogether free from imagery or
idolism ? I shall have to say much stronger things in my lectures, and I am not
afraid. People know that there are far greater difficulties that must be met —
downright atheism among the high and the low. It is so, I assure you, and you
probably know it better than I. And then to hear people fight about Colenso’s
difficulties, as if true religion had anything to do with them, is
disheartening. However, let us look to Rome
and that hideous ‘ performance which passes all mythology, and be
thankful. Ever yours.’
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The very title of the lectures
at the Royal Institution excited opposition and criticism, many people
objecting to the possibility of a scientific study of religions. They were,
however, very well attended, but Max Miiller purposely post- poned the
publication, hoping to make the lectures more complete, as it had been
impossible to deal fully with so vast a subject in the narrow limits of four
lectures. They were first published in 1873, and then only slightly enlarged,
as Max Miiller had found he could not give the necessary time to perfect them ;
but as they had been pirated in America,
he was driven in self-defence to print them in England. The subject was
subsequently carried out in his Hibbert and Gifford Lectures.



On March 20 he writes to tell
his wife he had been offered the degree of LL.D. at Edinburgh, ‘ I really ought
to take care not to have my head turned with all the honours ; there is really
nothing left that I care for now, and I sometimes think the course must soon be
run and all the work over.’



The visit to Edinburgh had to be postponed to the summer,
partly on account of the lectures, partly because his old mother was still with
him.



To HIS Wife.


Frogmore, March 31.


‘ One line to say that I
arrived safe. At the station a carriage was waiting for me, but the Prince is
in London, and
will only, be back in time for dinner. I am in my old room again, and all the
servants seem to be the same as before, which is a good sign. Love to the
mother, and kisses for the children. The Prince has just called me away.’



^ The Doctrine of the
Immaculate Conception of the Virgin.









374 Keshiih Chunder Sen [ch.
xvn



To THE Same.


Frogmore, April i.


‘ We have just come back from London, where we had a
very interesting luncheon at the Deanery. No one there but Keshub Chunder Sen
and the Prince and I. We soon got into a warm discussion, and it was curious to
see how we almost made him confess himself a Christian. He will come to Oxford, and then I hope
to see more of him. He is not as handsome as Satyendranath Tagore, but very
intelligent and pleasing. Last night we had a dinner-party — the Dean of
Windsor and Mrs. Wellesley, Colonel and Mrs. Gordon, who is a sister of Peel,
the Fellow of All Souls, and Mr. Ruthven.
We used to know him in the Berkshire Volunteers. The Princess is very
kind, and asked after you and the children.’



This was Max Muller’s first
acquaintance with Keshub Chunder Sen, which ripened into real friendship, and
they corresponded till the death of the latter in 1884. Unfortunately all Max
Miiller’s letters to Keshub Chunder Sen, touching on the important work of the
Brahma Somaj, seem to have been lost or destroyed.



Two public lectures were given
at Oxford in
the May Term — ‘ On the Origin of Mythology,’ and ‘ On the Migration of
Fables.’ The latter was repeated on June 3 at the Royal Institution. Max
Miiller writes to his wife, who was nursing her father : —



Deanery, Westminster, Jime 4.


‘ I believe my lecture (“ On the
Migration of Fables “) went off very



well ; the place was as full as
it could hold. But I lost all heart for



it when you were not there. I
must go to Oxford
to-day, as Keshub



Chunder Sen waits for me at the
station,



‘ Dr. Scott has accepted the
Deanery of Rochester, and Jowett will be Master of Balliol. I am truly glad,
for though it comes late it will make up for many years of disappointment. Few
people know what it is to see the work which one could do best taken away from
one, and few people make allowance for it, and how it embitters one. I do like to see things come right in the
end, though I know they are always right even if we do not see it. I do not
think that Jowett’s friends have always thought of what he has suffered, and I
trust he will have many years to enjoy his Mastership.’









1870] Iberians — Basks 375


To Professor Freeman.


June, 1870.


‘ I have read your second and
third lectures \ and I have no remarks to make beyond what I said about your
first lecture, that I hope they will be taken to heart. I sometimes wonder that
it should be necessary to say these things again and again, but I believe the
confusion in the popular mind arises chiefly from a confusion of ter- minology,
using a terminology which was meant for linguistic pur- poses for historical or
physiological work. Let people classify blood as much as they like, only let
them use their own bottles for that, and not bottles that were labelled for the
purpose of holding lan- guages. I confess to my mind blood is an irrational and
ungraspable quantity, but if people like to dabble in it, let them have their
san- guinary amusement. I also confess that I consider all historical notices
as to race extremely precarious until you come to writers of our own century.
Before Caesar no one knew the difference between a Celt and a German, as little
as many of our missionaries know the difference between a Hottentot and
Bushman, or between a Tatar and IMongolian. Nearly all that is built on the
statements of the ancients as to race, is built on sand ; it may be very
learned, but it will not stand a breath of harsh criticism. One thing I cannot
understand. Who has invented the Iberians? I see them of late cropping out
here, there, and everywhere. Whoever brought them to England first? It is by no means easy
to get a clear idea what the ancients meant by the Iberians in Spain, and
whether that name may be used synonymously with Bask. But the historical
Iberians or Ebro-people of Spain
never came to England,
except at the time of the Armada. or thereabouts. And least of all would they
explain the black colouring matter among the English, for according to Napier
and Prichard the Basks are fair, their eyes blue, grey, bluish, and light
brown, never dark brown. Some observations are different, and give us twenty-five
brown against twenty-one blue eyes, and this is used as an argument in favour
of a theory that the Basks came from two distinct ethnological stems. In some
places the people with blonde hair form a decided majority. As to the skulls,
the confusion is equally great; see Pruner Bey, Sur les crd?ies basques, 1867.
Then what use can the Iberians be in England ? People who believe that
the Iberians came to England
to introduce a dark pigment, will soon believe that the Buddhists came over
from India to build Stonehenge.’



And now for nearly a year to
come Max Miiller’s heart and thoughts were to be absorbed by the great
Franco-German ^ ‘ History of the Cathedral Church of Wells.’









376 Franco-German War [ch. xvn


War. When able to fix his
attention on his work he went on with the fifth vokime of the Rig-veda, and was
busy in preparing a third volume of Chips for the Press, of which an edition of
3,000 was printed ; while this year also saw the publication of his translation
of the Dhammapada.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. July 17, 1870.





·
These last experiences are terrible ; one cannot
bear to think of it. A murderous attack just because it seems necessary to the
Emperor to make himself popular with his army. The feeling in England is strong against France. I do
not for a moment doubt the result. Germany may lose some battles, but Germany
cannot be killed. The present devil’s brood in France will fall after one lost
battle. There is perhaps nothing better for the ultimate consolidation of
Germany than this war, for no one who speaks German, be he Hanoverian or Saxon,
can hold himself aloof It is the last chance for Austria. If she is great
enough to forget the past and to join Prussia against France her future is
secured ; if she follows Beust’s policy now she is done for. Who knows how long
this war may last ? I should like to live to see the end. The enthusiasm in
Germany must be tremendous ; all the young Germans in England are leaving, and
I would gladly go with them. All my plans are, of course, upset. I hoped to go
to Ems in August, and then we might have met, but one cannot think of that now.
It is not really necessary, but it did me such good before that I would have
used it as a precaution. Now we shall stay quietly here. On August i I have to
go to Edinburgh to be made an honorary doctor. I put it off once, and cannot do
so again. Later on we may go to the sea, but that is uncertain. My assistant.
Dr. Thibaut, received a tele- graphic despatch to-day, and is already on the
way to Rastadt, which of course disturbs my work a good deal.’






The following letter adverts to
a scheme that Max MUller had much at heart at one time, but it led to no
practical results in England : —



To William Longman, Esq.


Oxford, July 12.


·
What I talked about with Mr. Cox was not a
volume of essays, but something very different. I shall try to explain it to
you as shortly as I can.






‘ In Germany the plan has been
adopted for some years of pub-









1870] ‘ Series of Essays ‘ 377


lishing a continuous series of
lectures and essays, and it seems to have answered well, and gradually to take
the place of monthly and quarterly journals.



·
In a Monthly or Quarterly you must print many
articles which are mere padding ; the publisher has to pay for them, and the
buyer has to pay for them, though neither one nor the other wants to have them.
For instance, if a man wants to have my four lectures on the “ Science of
Religion “ he must pay loj., and then he has to cut them out, and they look
untidy.






‘ Now if there existed a “
series of essays,” each essay might be sold for \s. or less, and people would
then be able to get what they really want. Those who now subscribe to
Quarterlies would sub- scribe to the whole series ; those who want the Physical
Science only would take those numbers only which treat of Physical Science,
&c.



‘ You would want about six
names to represent the different branches of knowledge, who should be
responsible for the character of the essays, and give a character to the
series. I have spoken to Huxley and others, and find a general concurrence.



‘ You will probably object that
it would be troublesome and expensive as a matter of publishing. But, on the
other hand, it gives you a constant means of advertising. The series itself
would hardly require more advertising than a Quarterly : you would give a
string of tides from time to time.



‘ I should propose as a title
for the series “ Our Time, a series of essays and lectures, under the
editorship of i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.” One series in Germany, “Populare Vortrage,”
has reached to several hun- dreds of essays. In France you have something like
it in the Revue des Cours Litte’raires, only that that is published every
month, while my plan is to publish whenever there is fresh material.



‘ I am not a man of business, but
I thought that Mr. Cox might



act as a general editor,
supported by six special editors, whose names



would be a guarantee with the
pubUc’



To THE Dean of Westminster.


Parks End, Oxford, July 24.


‘ I send you a copy of my
lectures on the “ Science of Religion.” I do not wish to publish them now, but
I had sixteen copies taken, of which yours is one. By-and-by they will form
part of a larger work, if life and strength last long enough to enable me to
carry out a plan for which all my studies have formed the preparation.



‘ My heart is too full to say
anything about this terrible war.



I believe it is a cup that
could not pass. France cannot break a









378 LL.D. Edinburgh [ch. xvn


united and strong Germany, and
the reckless gambler who usurps the throne of France took advantage of this
national jealousy to save himself from his inevitable end for a few years
longer. But the misery it brings to thousands of happy homes passes all
description ! This war can only end
either in the destruction of Germany, or in a revenge without a parallel in
history.’



To THE Same.


Parks End, Oxford, /w/j^ 26,
1870.



‘ I feel by no means quite
happy about the “ Traitd de paix entre la France et la Prusse.” If it is
genuine, however, then neutraUty on the part of England would be criminal. Even
Turkey came forward to assist her enemy Greece when it became a question of
putting down brigandage. England and Germany hunted down one Corsican — they
ought to combine for the same purpose now. You may have watched the feelings of
those who lost a husband, a brother, a son, or a friend in the tragedy of
Marathon ; multiply that feeling by millions, and you may imagine then what the
state of Germany must be at the present moment, when every family trembles for
the life of those whom they love most, and who are to be mowed down by the
French cannon, simply because one great criminal has been driven mad and
desperate. War in Germany is different from war in England. It was easy for the
Duke of Wellington to preach modera- tion at Paris. He had to revenge defeat,
but no outrages, whilst every German soldier that marches into Paris (and I
trust I shall live to see it !) has to revenge the blood of brothers, and tears
such as only a mother can shed. I should like to see England, not Russia, as
the friend and ally of Germany in this holy war.’



At the end of July Max Miiller
went to Edinburgh, to receive the degree of LL.D. at the same time as his
friend Dr. Acland. The few days’ holiday refreshed and cheered him, weighed
down as he was by the thought of the war, and all that was at stake for his
native country. He wrote to his wife : —



Edinburgh, y«/j/ 31.


‘ This town is glorious and
inspiriting, the true capital of England, far more royal than London. Were I
King, I should reside here and leave London to be the great harbour and
emporium of the country.’



The following is Professor
Macpherson’s speech in presenting Max Muller for the degree of LL.D. :—









1870] Professor Macphersons
Speech 379



‘ I have now to present to you
in the name of the Senatus, as one deemed worthy of the same degree, another
very eminent Professor in the University of Oxford — Max Miiller. I do not
think it necessary to mention any of the numerous University honours which he
has received, or to give you a catalogue of the great Hterary and scientific
societies that have sought to do themselves honour by enrolling him amongst
their members. His name is too well known among us to require such an
enumeration. Those who have not had the pleasure of listening to his delightful
lectures in this city know him well through his writings. In the University of
Oxford he has done more, probably, than any other man to establish the study of
modern languages in what used to be considered the throne of the dead languages
; and he did so at a period when he was engaged in giving to the world writings
which were composed in a language which was dead long before Greek and Latin, I
may say, were born. When England was engaged in the Crimean War, it was Max
MuUer who supplied English ignorance by wridng upon the languages of the seat
of war.



When philologists were beating
about, seeking here and there some



solution or explanation of the
endless facts which had been accumu-



lating for half a century, it was
Max IMiiller who came forward with



his Science of Language. And now,
when England is agitated with



discussions on religious faiths
and religious doctrines. Max Miiller



again steps forward with his
Science of Religion, his lectures upon



which bear all the impress of his
learning and his genius, and breathe



a spirit of religious love and
toleration, which, if it could be extended



to other religious discussions,
would take from them the reproach of



acrimony which has so often been
cast upon them. It is a remarkable



circumstance, considering the great
stake which Britain has in the



East, that it was left to Max
Miiller to bring in a worthy shape before



the world the text of the
Rig-veda — the value of which is acknow-



ledged by all scholars and by all
thinkers throughout the world. As



to the manner in which he has
done so, a verdict of approval has been



pronounced by the scholars of all
Europe ; and as to his acquaintance



with Eastern religious systems,
the best testimony to that is the



appreciation which his work has
received from the Brahmins of India,



who revere the name of Max
Miiller, thank him for his labours, and



regard him as the great exponent
of their religious doctrines in



Europe. With regard to his
qualifications for the performance of



such a task, I know of no man who
could have combined with these



qualities the power of
generalization which he possesses, the power of



detecting truth beneath the
accumulations of mythology and beneath



the decay of tongues, the power
of educing principle and order where



apparently there is nothing but
confusion and chaos. It is the









380 Work for Sick and Wounded
[ch. xvn



combination of these
qualifications which has enabled him to render such incomparable service to the
Science of Comparative Philology and Comparative Mythology, and which has made
him conspicuous both as a discoverer and as a presenter in the most interesting
and popular form of the results of the labours and discoveries of others. No man has done so much to raise these to the
dignity of a science ; no man has done so much to popularize topics which
formerly were considered fit for discussion only in the closet ; and he has
done this without departing from the method of severe scientific treatment : he
has done it by the charm of the manner in which, in a pure and lucid English
which the natives of his adopted country do sincerely envy while they rejoice
to read it, he presents an endless array of facts in new and surprising
combinations. In a word, his edition of the Rtg- veda, his lectures upon the “
Science of Language,” and his lectures upon the “ Science of Religion,” place
him in the very foremost rank of scholars and of thinkers, whether as regards
extent of knowledge, or force and originality of speculation.’



Max MUller always felt at
Edinburgh, and later at Glasgow, the stimulating influence of intercourse with
men ready to talk on the subjects in which they were engaged, and to which they
had devoted their lives, and contrasted it with the fear of ‘ talking shop ‘
that prevails in England. On his return he was again absorbed in the war, and
all the work in his house for the sick and wounded.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. August 14.





‘You can fancy all our thoughts
are with Germany, and I wish I were there. Such a triumph of a good cause has
seldom been seen in history. Where are Adolf and Fritz ^ ? I hope on the Rhine,
perhaps already in France. The English are quite amazed at these results, and
not quite pleased, but that does not matter. G. collects and works. She has
collected already £100, and shrinks from no trouble. Here large collections are
being made. That Emilie is still so angry with Germany astonishes me ; the
heart of every German must beat with joy, and all must be forgotten that
recalls the old misery.’



To E. A. Freeman, Esq.


August 14.


‘ I ought to have written to
you before, but you may imagine where



all my thoughts are just now.
Though I never doubted of ultimate



·
Soldier cousins.












1870] Bismarck 381


success, I was afraid of
reverses in the beginning. Now I expect the war will soon be over, and what I
looked forward to for the last eighteen years almost every day as I opened the
paper — the downfall of the Empire — has come to pass at last. A more
demoralized and demoralizing government than that of Louis Napoleon, history I
be- lieve has seldom known. There will be a national bankruptcy too, I have no
doubt, and millions of French money will be found in the English funds. Peace
will be easy, for Germany wants no conquests, not even Alsace and Lorraine ;
the land is fine enough, but the people are not worth having. Perhaps France
will in future be less eager to guarantee the status quo of Germany ! Now about
the Illyrians ; though I do not hke to quote my own books, I think I can answer
your questions best if for the Illyrians I refer you to a tolerably full
account of them in my Survey of Languages, second edition, pp. 50-60, and as to
the untrustworthiness of classical authorities for ethnological purposes, to a
note in my Lectures on the Science of Language, Volume I, p. 130.’



To THE Dean of Westminster.


Parks End, Oxford, August 23,
1870.



‘Yes, these are great days,
almost overpowering events. If all goes well, and if the author of this
atrocious war is punished, people even in England will believe again that there
is a God in history;
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Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 2:04 pm

I tremble for the Crown Prince
— the French will fight with fury when they fight pro aris et focis, and not
for glory and empire. I think we ought on the whole to be satisfied with the
state of public feeling in England. Unfortunately Gladstone’s mind has taken
hold of the idea of neutrality, and squeezed it and defined it till it means
abdication of the right of judging between right and wrong, between war and
murder. This is a most demoralizing policy, but it cannot be helped now. All
Uberal and independent thinkers are caught in Gladstone’s ministerial net. I
wish Goldwin Smith were in England — some such man is wanted just now.



‘ I do not wonder that there is
a feeling of mistrust with regard



to Bismarck. In home politics
he is as bad as Lord would



be, if he were Prime Minister.
But one may oppose a man as



a Minister without despising him,
and the same Minister, however



self-willed and tyrannical at
home, may be the right man as Foreign



Minister. I do not love Bismarck,
but I feel prepared to defend every



step he has taken since 1866
against all comers. He seems to have



been sans reproche, though no
doubt also sans peur. If he was a bird



of the same feather as Benedetti,
why should he have opposed the



Emperor if, by merely shutting
his eyes, he could have got all he









382 Letters to ‘ the English
People * [ch. xvii



could possibly want for
Germany, and at the same time entangle England and France in a war ? If
Bismarck is to blame in his foreign policy, every German patriot shares his
blame. We wanted to be united, and we have had the naivete to think, as the
French papers say, that we could arrange our internal affairs without
consulting France. If France thinks she has a right to interfere at Rome, at
Madrid, and now at Berlin too, she must learn that this cannot be.



France has been cruelly treated
by the Emperor — how extraordinary



that there should be no man to
take his place, and to save France 1



‘ We have collected about £120
at Oxford, though nearly everybody is away. My wife has a regular workshop
going on all day long, making bandages, &c. &c. Did Lady Augusta
receive my book for Princess Louise, or came it too late ? ‘



To THE Same.


Parks End, Oxford, Atigust 30.


‘. . . I cannot tell you how
this war crushes me. I sometimes feel as if I could bear it no longer and must
be off. What savages we are in spite of all these centuries ! But surely the
Teutonic race is better than the Latin and Slavonic, and the Protestants are
better Christians than the Romans; and the German cause is surely thoroughly
righteous, and the French thoroughly unrighteous. I always think of the simple
soldiers — those who were everything at home, and are nothing in the field of
battle — unknown, unnoticed, and probably better and braver than emperors and
kings and generals. I cannot get my thoughts away from them.’



On August 29 Max Mtiller wrote
the first of his five letters in the Times addressed ‘ to the English People.’
They were reprinted, together with letters from Mommsen, Strauss, and Carlyle,
in a small volume, early in 1871, and sold for the good of the Victoria
Institute for German Widows and Orphans.
The first letter was called forth by a violent attack made by his old
and honoured friend, Sir Harry Verney, on the policy of Germany, accusing
Bismarck of having been willing to accept Holland, and give up Belgium and
Switzerland to France. Such had been more or less Benedetti’s scheme, but it is
well known now that Bismarck
did not listen to these ideas. Max Miiller was no admirer of Bismarck, but he felt bound, much as he
disliked the unconstitutional proceedings that had marked his internal
government, to protest against this attack on his public honour.









1870] Dr. Aheken 383


To Dr. Abeken (then acting as Bismarck’s secretary) ^
Translatio7i. Oxford,
September 9.



‘ I send you enclosed cuttings,
but doubt whether you will receive



them in these chaotic times. If
you do receive my letter, it is to tell



you that here also a German heart
beats full of pride and joy, and



often with pain, when it thinks
of the friends who have dreamt of this



great time of Germany’s
elevation, but who have not lived to see it



realized/


To HIS Mother.


TransJaiwn. Septefnher 11.





·
What great times we live in I though so far
away, I can hardly keep myself quiet ; one lives on newspapers and telegrams.
And then I had so much work that had to be done, that I was at last quite
exhausted from excitement and work, and went alone for a week to Brighton. The sea
air and bathing did me great good, and I came back on Thursday. G.’s father was
here on a visit, so G. could not go with me, though she needs change, and I
think in a few days we shall make a little tour together in Wales. You have no
idea how hard G. has worked. She will tell you all she has collected. ... The
feeling in Germany must be very sad, in spite of the mighty results, for what
terrible sorrow there must be throughout the country 1 Here in England feelings
are much divided. I have fought fiercely in the Times, and I think it has told.
The best part of the nation is for Germany, but the aristocracy has strong
sympathy with France. People are amazed
at the gigantic resources of Germany, and the utter moral rottenness of France.
Well, in the next few weeks Paris will be won ; then our troops will march
home. Alsace and Lorraine will be governed militarily, and in France they can
then slaughter themselves as they like.’






To MoNCURE Conway, Esq.


September 14.


‘ My wife has been collecting as
much as she could get, and I know



from letters received that her
collection has done real good to the



sufferers in different hospitals.
You know that German hospitals are



full of French wounded, and I
believe if any distinction is made



between the French and German
wounded in these hospitals, it is in



favour of the French. Anyhow, in
the presence of death, nationality



‘ Dr. Abeken had been a great
friend of Baron Bunsen, at whose house Max Miiller had learnt to know and
estimate this upright, single- minded man at his right value.









384 King of Prussia [ch.








XVII








vanishes and humanity takes its
place. My wife begs me to say that she will gladly forward any sum however
small. She has more appeals than she can respond to. I should pay no attention
to news- paper rumours as to what the Germans mean to do with regard to the
conditions of peace. The King’s behaviour towards the Emperor is mistaken
chivalry towards a fallen enemy, nothing more. I think, however, that there
ought to be a formal abdication, or a formal decree of a Constituent Assembly
transferring the sovereign power from the Emperor to the Provisional
Government, or to a President ; otherwise it seems impossible to make a treaty
of peace. I believe the general opinion in Germany requires no territorial
aggrandizement, but the military authorities will probably require a better
strategic frontier line, which Germany asked for at the Congress of Vienna, but
which she could not obtain then, owing to the intrigues of Austria and Russia.
If the inhabitants of that district are devoted to France, and cannot bear the
idea of belonging again to Germany, they are free to emigrate. Surely
patriotism has made greater sacrifices than this.’



During September Max Miiller
heard from his old friend Stanislas Julien, the famous Sinologue, in a state of
almost childish panic at the approach of the German armies. He had recently
lost his wife. Max Miiller at once offered him an asylum under his roof; but
the old man, though viveinent toiiche at his friend’s invitation, resolved to
stay and guard his precious library and house, on which he had spent large
sums, and he went through all the sufferings of the siege. But it undermined
his health, and he died about two years later.



To MoNCURE Conway, Esq.


Parks End, Sepfemher 16, 1870.


‘ I read your letter with great
interest. I believe you are quite right



in your estimate of Bismarck, but
I think you underrate the capacities



of the King. The King is a
strange mixture ; he was a mere soldier,



but he learnt much during his
long stay in Bunsen’s house. He M’ill



never be guilty of such folly as
to reinstate Napoleon ; but the situation



is difficult. Suppose Paris
surrendered, which I trust it will do after



the first shot, what can the
German army do but go into winter



quarters in Alsace and Lorraine ?
There may be a provisional treaty



of peace, but it seems to me
that, as the Constituent Assembly is con-



voked, it can be ratified by that
Assembly and its delegates only. If



the Constituent Assembly should
fail, then nothing remains but to



convoke the Legislative Assembly
and the Senate, both of which still









1870] Imperialism in France 385



exist both de jure and de
facto. I confess I cannot understand the enthusiasm for the French Republic. A
republic is perhaps the most perfect form of government, but also the most
difficult. There are good and there are bad republics, and the present French
Republic seems to me the most imperfect political organization that can be
imagined. I should prefer the Russian or the Chinese regime to the present
state of things in France. It seems to me that the en- thusiastic admirers of
this republic, which has nothing but the name of a republic, exceed in folly
the old Legitimists, to whom a King, however foolish and wicked, is a kind of
idol to be worshipped with unquestioning devotion. It is very possible that
Alsace might recover itself and become German, but I doubt whether it is wise
to weaken France at the very moment that Germany becomes so much more powerful.
As to making France harmless, that can never be done, and I doubt whether, for
the sake of Germany, it is desirable. I hope Moltke will take as little as
possible, and Bismarck will make it quite clear that what is taken is taken for
strategic purposes only, and not for the sake of aggrandizement, and in order
to recover some few millions who formerly were Germans. I hope you will publish
your impressions of the war and Bismarck.’



To THE Same.


Parks End, September i8, 1870.


‘ I did not know that the
description of the battle of Rezonville in the Daily News was yours, and I am
glad to hear that we shall have it in a more permanent form in next Eraser. I
do not expect that anybody will see such fighting again, though, from what I
see in the French papers, there will be, I fear, some mad attempt of fighting
in and around Paris. The worst effect of Imperialism is that it has stunted a
whole generation, and there is hardly one man who towers a head above the mob.
They have no statesmen, and Jules Favre himself is reported to have declared
that he could not make peace because his life would not be safe I Is that
statesmanlike or soldierlike ?



Pr^vot Paradol would not have
said that ! It is fearful to see such



a country as France so entirely
demoralized, abandoned, ruined ; it



will take generations to build
her up again. Circumstances so ex-



ceptional as the present state of
France would seem to justify exceptional



measures on the part of the other
Powers. England will not act



alone, and unfortunately there is
no cordial feeling between England



and the United States. Besides,
Mr. Motley is, I suppose, no longer



Minister. What I should like to
see would be a journey of Mr. Glad-



stone and Motley to the head
quarters of the King of Prussia. They



I C C








386 Visit to North Wales [ch.
xvn



would be able to arrange a
peace without a single threat, for Germany- is as anxious for peace as France
is, and they might lay the founda- tions of a league between the three Teutonic
Powers that would be a guarantee of peace for centuries. France would listen to
America, Germany to England, and England and America would be drawn together
again by the good work which they would do in common. Bismarck is quite powerful enough to make
Germany feel ashamed of any wish of territorial aggrandizement ; and all that
Moltke wants are the house-door, the bolt and keys of Germany. I shall have to
run away from Oxford for a few weeks before term begins, and I hope to be off
by Tuesday for North Wales.’



To THE Dean of Westminster.


Carnarvon, September 30, 1870.


‘ My dear Stanley, — I was so
overdone that I ran away to Wales. We
had splendid weather, and enjoyed our rambles immensely. Alas 1 the English
Government is weaker than I expected ; they do not seem to perceive that, since
the destruction of the Western Empire, nothing like the present events has
happened. Germany would be thankful for a little friendly coercion, but what
Germany expected was a recogni- tion of the righteousness of her cause, a fact
now admitted by France, but not yet by England, except by Lord Russell. This
kind of neutrality demoralizes England, and blunts the edge of her moral
conscience. I expected something very different from Gladstone.’



The end of September the Max
Miillers, both tired out with work for the sick and wounded, spent a delightful
fortnight in North Wales, climbing Cader Idris and Snowdon, and exploring each
lovely valley.



Scarcely had they settled
quietly at home than the work began again, and Max M tiller found himself
involved on all sides in long correspondence on the subject filling his heart
as well as his thoughts.



To Dr. Abeken.


Trayislation. Parks End,
Oxford, October 6, 1870.



‘Dear Sir and Friend, — . . .
Gladstone is the soul of the



Cabinet, a man of slow
resolution, but of inflexible will if once the



resolution has been made. As far
as I know him, he is on our side,



not from natural sympathy, but
from conviction, from a feeling of



right and of duty. He was the
only Minister who recognized our



right in the Danish question, and
who called the Treaty of London









1870] Alsace and Lorraine 387


a bad continuation of the Vienna
treaties. His sympathies are more Latin than Teutonic, as you know, and the
commercial prosperity of France had so dazzled him, that he declared hardly a
year ago that France would grow to be the Queen of Europe. It will be difficult
for him and for many Englishmen to take in the new position of the world calmly
and from the right point of view ; but he is nearly the only English statesman
whose stern uprightness I have never doubted, and who is so entirely guided by
noble motives even where he makes mistakes.



‘ I intend writing to
Gladstone, somewhat to this effect : —



‘ I. The thought of conquest of
territory and the acquisition of non- German subjects is foreign to us.



‘2. It is a fate which Germany
has not brought about, that has brought Alsace and Lorraine into the possession
of the German army.



‘ 3. No prince and no statesman
in Germany is strong enough to give up again for any price a possession so
dearly bought.



‘ 4. The settling of the
boundary requires no Congress or diplomatic understanding. It is a purely
military question, and in consequence can only be decided by a Military
Commission. Germany does not wish for any Frenchmen, nor for one inch of
country, only what is indispensable to her future security.



‘ I am writing this in a great
hurry to catch the post.



‘ Well, once more : do not give
any weight to the anti-German out- breaks of the English Press ; they come
mostly from a French and Old- Danish source.



‘ The republican sympathies are
absurd, and only help us and do no harm. Sir H. Verney has improved, but not
enough yet: he is getting old.



‘ The collections in England
are beautiful, larger than for their own patriotic funds after the Crimean War.
A recognition on the side of Germany, especially before the French do so, would
have a good effect, and might be a good occasion of mentioning some useful
truths.’



To THE Right Hon. W, E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, October 6, 1870.


‘ My dear Mr. Gladstone, — If you
knew what an effort it has been



to me not to write to you on some
of the events of the last months,



you would require no assurance of
my readiness to answer, as well as



I can, the inquiries contained in
your letter of October 4, which



I received this morning. I have
no hesitation in asserting that the



conquest of territory inhabited
by people that are not German in



national sentiment is an idea
repugnant to the German mind. Count



Bismarck, whose power arises
chiefly from his accurate knowledge of



the German character, and who is
simply carrying out with the



c c a








388 Alsace and Lorraine [ch.
xvn



prudence and courage of a
statesman what all German patriots have been yearning for during the last fifty
years, would never venture on a war of conquest. The tradition that Alsace and
Lorraine belonged once to Germany has never been forgotten by the people.
German statesmen claimed these provinces in 1815, but Russia supported France
in resisting their claim. One of our most popular German poets, Max von
Schenkendorf, who died in 181 7, wrote: —



“ Doch dort in den Vogesen


Liegt ein verlornes Gut,


Da gilt es, deutsches Blut


Vom Hollenjoch zu losen.”


But an offensive war against
France, to recover that “ lost patrimony,” would have been impossible in
Germany.



‘ Events, however, have
happened for which Germany is not re- sponsible. France has attacked Germany
with the avowed purpose of annexing German soil. The French army has been
beaten back, and the German army, in pursuing the enemy, finds itself in actual
possession of Alsace and Lorraine. The sacrifices on the part of Germany have
been enormous : there is hardly a German family from the Vistula to the Rhine
which is not in mourning. It is a mercy that there have been no German
reverses, and that the atrocities of former French invasions have not been
repeated. There would have been a feeling of righteous anger and fury before
which no stone would have remained upon another at Paris. It is a mercy that
this feeling of revenge does not exist. But a new current of national feeling
has sprung up in Germany, which rests simply on facts, and which no King, no
Minister, would be able to resist. Alsace, they say, is ours, and our sons
shall not have died in vain. The thousands and thousands of German hearts that
lie buried in Alsace and Lorraine have made that soil German once more. Were
Prussia to yield Strassburg and Alsace, she would cease to be Prussia.



‘ In answer to your first
question, therefore, I have no doubt that Count Bismarck did say what M. Jules
Favre reported him to have said, that, whether the inhabitants of Alsace hate
us or no, we shall hold Alsace for Germany.



‘ You say “ it would surprise you
to find that I thought these people



could properly be annexed to
Germany, if their heart is in France as their



country.” My answer is this. To
conquer a province for the sake of



territorial aggrandizement, and
to annex people who do not Nvish to be



annexed, would be an outrage of
the moral sense of Europe. This



is what France intended to do. To
hold a hostile province which has



been conquered in a defensive
war, and with it the people who inhabit



that province, is an evil, I
grant, but it may be a necessary evil, and it









1870] Alsace and Lorraine 389


can never be a crime. Anyhow, a
culprit who is sent to prison has no right to complain that he is being
annexed. I say nothing of the language of Alsace and Lorraine, for the
annexation, if it takes place, does not take place on linguistic grounds. I say
nothing of the friendly or unfriendly feeling of the people, for the annexation
is not advocated on sentimental grounds.



‘ The annexation is the result
of a war forced upon Germany, and the occupation of French territory must be
justified on military and strategic grounds. Germany is determined to make
herself as safe against France as she can make herself, and no Power in Europe
would gainsay her right, nay, her duty, to do what she considers best for her
future security.



‘ The frontier line that is to
protect Germany against France can hardly be considered a matter to be settled
by a Congress of diplo- matists : it can be properly settled by a Military
Commission only. Count Bismarck knows
perfectly well that a disaffected province is no addition to the strength of a
country, but he would probably bow to the judgement of Count Moltke in
determining the positions that seem best to secure the safety of Germany. On
such points, however, the opinion of military authorities from other countries
might justly claim to be heard, and might induce the German strategists to draw
the line so as to include as little as possible of purely French soil, and to
annex as few as possible of purely French inhabitants. The question of
Luxemburg might possibly be reopened and facilitate arrangements in Alsace and
Lorraine. I believe that the statements of the hostile feeling pervading all classes
of society in Alsace are exaggerated. It is true that I judge from the accounts
published by German travellers ; but they were published before the war, and
when no one thought of annexation. As to accurate statistics, they are to be
found in R. Bockh, Der Deutschen Volkszahl und Sprachgebte(,’S>tTLY\w, 1870.
The German portion of Alsace comprises half a million inhabitants, that of
Lorraine 297,500, of which one-ninth part has become French during the last two
centuries. The German inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine, though they were
never considered as the equals of true Frenchmen, have no doubt been greatly
humoured by the French Government ; and as long as France was “ La Grande
Nation,” and Germany no nation at all, it was easy to rouse a feeling of pride
among the Alsacians, not against Germany, which did not exist, but against the
petty nationalities of Baden, Hesse, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, &c. In future, when France will be no longer “ La
Grande Nation,” though always “une grande nation,” the idea of being a German,
and not a Frenchman, will be less intolerable than heretofore.



‘ And if there are people in
the annexed portions of Alsace and









390 Military Conference [ch.
xvn



Lorraine who cannot bear the
idea of belonging to Germany, surely it is not too much to expect from their
patriotism that they should follow the example of thousands of German families
which emigrated to Philadelphia when Alsace was annexed to France. When the
flower of a nation is ready to die for their country, those who have the option
of emigrating from Alsace to France proper are not so greatly to be pitied.



‘ My great anxiety through all
this war has been the unfriendly feeling that is springing up between England
and Germany. The whole future of the world seems to me to depend on the
friendship of the three Teutonic nations, Germany, England, and America. If
Germany is estranged from England, she must become the ally of France and
Russia, which would mean another century of imperiaHsm and despotism. Can
nothing be done to heal the breach ? ‘



To Dr. Abeken.


Translation. October 7, 1870.





‘ . . . The idea of a Congress
is ridiculous, but it is much liked, especially among the diplomatists, though
Gladstone does not care for it. . . . He would like to treat the matter more
from a military point of view. A Military Commission would deal with the
question in a more technical way, and there would be less talk about France’s
dishonour, and such-like phrases. Should the question about Luxem- burg come up
again, it would be a most natural thing to invite the Powers concerned to a
Military Conference. Of course I understand nothing of all these matters, and I
only speak as a member of the Parlia- ment of “ public opinion.” The only thing
for which I feel useful, and perhaps have been of use, is to keep up the good
feeling between England and Germany. If this is also your purpose, please
consider me at your service at any time. Ever yours.



‘ Is there no quicker way to
Versailles than via Berlin ? ‘



To HIS Mother.


Translation. October 9.





‘ Though you wish for no
congratulations on your birthday, I must



still write to you, to comfort
you in your loneliness. Many, many who



used to meet you on this day with
joy, are gone before you, and you



miss their presence which you so
enjoyed. But they are lost to your



sight only, not to your heart,
and that which really belonged to you



in them, can never be lost to
you. Our life here is not our own



work, and we know that it is best
for us all, just as it is. We ought



to bear it, and we must bear it ;
and the more patiently, yes, the more









1870] Feeling in Germany
against England 391



joyfully we accommodate
ourselves to it, the better for us. We must take life as it is, as the way
appointed for us, and that must lead to a certain goal. Some go sooner, some
later, but we all go the same way, and all find the same place of rest.
Impatience, gloom, murmurs, and tears do not help us, do not alter anything,
and make the road longer, not shorter. Quiet resignation, thankfulness, and
faith help us forwards, and alone make it possible to perform the duties which
we all, each in his own sphere, have to fulfil. May God, who has laid many
burdens on you, give you the courage to bear them quietly to the end. The
darker the night, the brighter the stars in the heavens.



‘ We have had a delightful time
in North Wales, walking every- where, as if we were as young as ten years ago.
I wish Emilie had come to England, as she could not go to Paris ; though, if
she has no feeling for this wonderful uprising of the German Fatherland, we
should not have had much peace together, for I can think of hardly anything
else, and G. is more German even than I am. Even for you it must be glorious to
have lived to see these great events. The sacrifice is great and terrible, but
it has not been in vain. Peace cannot be far off. The French are already
becoming reasonable, and should be thankful to have a province like Alsace,
only half French and once entirely German, which they can give up without shame
; the shame for them is in quite a different direction, not in the punishment,
but in the light-hearted folly of which they must now pay the cost.



‘ We have still a little money
by us, if anything special is wanted, and plenty of warm things for the winter.
The collections in England have been splendid. Why do the people in Germany
abuse England so ? They could not expect England to go to war, and that export
of arms is nothing. Such snarling is unworthy of Germany.’



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, October 9.


‘ Dear Mr. Gladstone, — I wish
the French could be made to see that there is no dishonour in taking the
punishment which this war has brought on them. If Jules Favre can bring himself
to call the war criminal, can he wish the crime to go unpunished, or does he
think that such a crime can be atoned for by a mere fine ? Jules Favre and all
who protested against the war may well say, “ Delicta maiorum immeritus lues,
Romane,” &c., &c.’









392 Siege of Parts [ch. xvn


To Mr. Bellows.


Parks End, October ii.


*I was glad to hear so
promising an account of your little Max.
I have a little boy some three years old, and I imagine, just like you,
there is nothing like him. I am sorry to hear of the interruption of your Dictionary.
I shudder when I think of Paris. I spent some happy years there, and have still
several old friends living there, and to think of that town being bombarded !
And yet what is the German army to do ? and is not every one of the thousands
of people that have been killed more precious than the whole of Paris ? ‘



To Dr. Abeken.


Translation. Parks End, Oxford,
October ii, 1870.



‘ Dear Sir and Friend, — ... It
is clearer than ever to me, that if you wish for a common understanding with
England, you will find it best secured on a military basis. That Germany has a
right to secure her position strategically is granted. It remains to demon-
strate, (i) that there is no other means to such security but the annexation of
Alsace and a part of Lorraine ; (2) that the fortresses, which threatened Germany
formerly, will not become a menace to France henceforth.



‘ There are in England also
some voices in favour of a ple’biscite in the parts to be annexed. To me it
seems an un-German comedy, which however might be acted in Alsace with good
prospect of success, “ by desire.”



‘ The French refugees are very
numerous in England, and they make mischief in all circles of society. Germany
is too great to enter upon a paper war. Also with regard to the export of arms,
nothing can be done before Parliament meets.’



To THE Same.


Translation. Oxford, Parks End,
October 25.



‘First of all, many thanks for
your valuable letter. I had not



expected an answer from you, for
I know what you have on your



shoulders now, but it was a great
satisfaction to me to know that



I was not mistaken, and that with
regard to England our goal is



the same. Much might be said with
regard to the paths to this goal,



but there is no time for that
now. Here the situation of things is



a very difficult one. Lord
Granville is neither a Clarendon nor



a Palmerston, but he has the best
intentions, and is amiable to every-



body. He has many French friends,
and of course the French are



everywhere in London now. The
Times is very kind at present. It









1870] Second Letter to ‘the
People of England’ 393



has printed a letter of mine
to-day, which I enclose. It is meant for England, of course, or I should have
used stronger language. The speech of Du Bois-Raymond is much too strong for
English readers, and would only rouse ill feelings.



‘ You know, perhaps, that a
French loan has to-day been launched on the English market. You know, of
course, also that a German loan would have great success here. Though it does
Prussia much credit that she seeks for no foreign loans, yet in so doing she
forgoes much of the sympathy which in England, as everywhere else, is felt for
one’s debtors. Many of the most eager friends of the French are interested in
the French funds — hinc mtiliae lacrymae ! . . .



‘ If I can be of any help, do
make use of me. My influence on the Times is, however, nil\ they only print
what suits them. All I can do is to make what I write palatable.’



The second letter to ‘ the
People of England,’ in the Times of October 22, was in answer to M. Aries
Dufour’s appeal to the English nation to save Alsace and Lorraine. The three
last letters were answers to ‘ Scrutator’s ‘ letters in the Times. It is an open secret now who was the inspirer
of ‘ Scrutator’s ‘ letters. ‘ The hands were the hands of Esau, but the voice
was the voice of Jacob ; ‘ and before he wrote his last letter Max Miiller felt
very certain that he ‘ was called on to withstand in argument one of the most
powerful athletes of our time.’



It is impossible now not to see
how much of the present ill feeling in Germany against England dates from the
year 1870. Without swerving- an inch from the position of neutrality rightly
observed by the English Government, the justice of the cause for which Germany
was fighting, and the reckless wickedness of the French in attacking her, might
have been acknowledged by those in power, whereas Mr. Gladstone’s preference
for the Romance over the Teutonic nations was well known in Germany, and the
general apathy, if not anti- pathy, of the English to the German cause was
universally attributed in Germany to his influence.



The third volume of Chips came
out in the autumn, a very large edition being printed. A second edition of Max
Miiller’s Sanskrit Grammar also was brought out. Both were well received. One
review states that : —



·
Every paper in INIr. ]\Iax Miiller’s third
volume of Chips from a German Workshop is valuable. Applied to them, the term
exhaustive












394 Chips, Vol. Ill — Sanskrit
Grammar [ch. xvn



has really a meaning. Mr. Max
Miiller always draws from a full cask.
He does not write, as so many now do, because he is expected to say
something, but because he has something to say. The subject does not make him,
he makes the subject. His range, too, is some- thing enormous.’



The Globe considered that : —


‘A more delightful volume has
not been published for a very long time. Bearing marks on almost every page of
the profoundest scholar- ship, it is absolutely free from all taint of that
pedantry which is the besetting sin of most German writers.’



Of the Sanskrit Grammar a
review^er says : —



‘ It has been the aim of Mr.
Miiller to produce a work which should combine the clearness of Bopp with the
accuracy of Colebrooke and the native writers whom that great scholar took as
his model. In this his success has been so great that the Sanskrit Grammar for
Beginners is by far the best book that can be put into the hands of a student.
In a word, it combines Oriental fullness and accuracy with the European method.
It says much, both for the progress of Sanskrit in this country, and for the
value of Mr. Miiller’s own labours, that this admirable Grammar has already
reached a second edition.’



To E. A. Freeman, Esq.
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Re: ஆரியர்கள் இந்தியர்களே அது பற்றி சில கருத்துக்கள்

Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 2:05 pm

November 12.


·
I thought it possible that my new volume of
Chips might tempt you to a review. I am not going to write any captatio benevoleniiae,
though I am going to ask a favour. In the two essays “ Are there Jews in
Cornwall ? “ and “ St. Michael’s Mount,” I have had to work through a good deal
of matter with which no one is so familiar as you, viz. ecclesiastical
antiquities. I want very much to know from some competent person whether I am
right or wrong. Therefore the favour I ask is this : if you should review my
book, would you look at these two essays more particularly, and give me the
benefit of your criticism on any points where I may have gone wrong? I meant to have written to you to ask your
advice on these essays before they were printed, but I know you are a busy man,
and there- fore did not wish to take up any of your time. In the essay on “
Cornish Antiquities “ you will find, I think, that we hold the same opinions on
English Ethnology.






‘ I am quite miserable about
Gladstone. England will never have



such an opportunity again. Now it
is lost, irretrievably lost. With



Germany as a friend, the Black
Sea question would have been solved



amicably, and the German vote in
America would have kept the Irish









1870] Mr. Gladstone’s Romance
Sympathies 395



vote in order, so as to prevent
mischief about the Alabama. Now the sin is sinned ! ‘



To THE Right Hon. W, E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, November 12, 1870.


‘ My dear Mr. Gladstone, — I am
surprised to hear that my new volume of Chips from a German Workshop has not
yet reached you. I have written to my
publisher, but I hope that by this time the volume may be already in your
hands. No doubt the mihtary authorities, who maintain that the south-western
frontier of Germany is not secure without taking in part of Alsace and
Lorraine, ought to be fully persuaded that they do not deceive themselves and
render their hue of defence less secure than it is at present. I, of course,
know nothing of military science, but I have great confidence in the calm
judgement of Moltke. It was for that very reason that I thought a Military
Conference the only scheme that could lead to practical results, though, as
long as cession of territory was excluded on prin- ciple, discussion would have
been useless. I am afraid that now a conference of military authorities is no
longer possible. I have often watched with wonder a pointsman on a crowded
railway station, who holds in his hands the fates of thousands, and who by a
movement of his hand, hardly perceptible to others, sends one train to the
right and the other to the left. ... I feel as if two trains, both holding dear
friends, had just started, though not in the direction in which I hoped they
would have gone.’



To E. A. Freeman, Esq.


November 27, 1870.


*My dear Freeman, — . . . I
want to know whether I am right in declining Dr. Bannister’s arguments. Could a
man at that time have held land under a Jew ? What is the most likely meaning
of lejeu ? not le Jut/, surely ? I meant Gladstone’s Roman and Romance
sympathies for France, and his utter inability to appreciate the character of
the struggle now going on between Germany and France. He is fully convinced in his heart that every
German is a heretic sive Protestant, a barbarian, and a villain. He might make
a few charitable exceptions in favour of two or three Germans whom he happens
to know, and who have had the benefit of a tub, physical and intellectual, in
England. Happily the feeling towards England in really influential quarters in
Germany is good. Bismarck’s papers have never joined in the anti-English
barking of the newspapers.



The talk about the exportation
of arms is silly. I wish the French



had bought their arms in
Germany. The sooner there is an end of









39^ First Visit to Hazvarden
[ch. xvn



that kind of international law
the better. Let everybody sell what he can, and let everybody capture what he
can; everything else is mere deception and hypocrisy. If Gladstone had ever to
confess that he was the writer of the article in the Edinburgh, it might make
mischief, for even Bismarck is only a man. But what the real states- men in
Germany want is an alliance offensive and defensive with England : there is no
better way for securing peace in Europe.
France and Russia are the disturbers of the peace ; but, with the
English fleet and the German army as the police of Europe, no cock would dare
to crow at Paris, no bear would growl at St. Petersburg. England might have had the alliance of
Germany for the asking, and at that very time the writer in the Edinburgh
Review calls the King of Prussia a hypocrite, Bismarck a villain, and the
German people half-civilized brutes ! ‘



To his mother Max M tiller writes:



Translation. November 29.


·
I never said I should like to be a Frenchman,
but that I should like to see France strong again, for strong neighbours are
good for keeping a country up to the mark, and keep it from arrogance.’






Early in December Max Miiller
paid the first of several pleasant visits to Havv^arden Castle. He woke early
in the morning to find a white world, and looking through the window saw Mr.
Gladstone making his way alone through the snow to early morning church. He
willingly braved the elements later in the day to secure a quiet talk with the
Prime Minister.



To HIS Wife.


Ha WARDEN Castle, December 10,
1870.



‘ I shall not have much time
before breakfast, but I just wanted to let you know that here I am, quite safe.
A fine large place, full of people. The Bernstorffs are not here ; too busy in
London. General Burnside was here, dined, and then went off to New York for a
week. He is a fine fellow — just like a strong, tall, English general — and he
is truly German, and has told Mr. Gladstone some useful truths. Frederick Peel
is here and Mr. Haywood, all very pleasant.
No talk yet with Mr. Gladstone, except about University matters, but the
fight will come, I expect.’



December 11.


‘ There is so much snow that
everybody had to stay in. However,



Mr. G. and I took a walk through
the snow and talked it all over,



and I told him that any German
statesman who gave up Strassburg









1870] Vmtors at H award en 397


deserved to be hanged, and he
shook himself a litde, but I think he begins to see that we Germans are not
such ogres as he thought.



G. is an old friend of
Abeken’s, but had lost sight of him/



To Dr. Abeken.


Translation. Oxford, Parks End,
December 13, 1870.



‘ Dear Friend, — Your letter of
December 5 arrived here in good time last Friday, just when I was leaving for
Hawarden Castle, where Gladstone had invited me. Count BernstorfF was to be
there, but could not get away from London. General Burnside was there, a good
ally of the German cause. Above all, however, I must tell you that Mr.
Gladstone and Mrs. Gladstone keep your name in friendly and grateful memory;
both send their kindest regards to you, and Mr. Gladstone expressed repeatedly
how sad, though unavoidable, it was in this earthly existence, that the
personal inter- course with men whom we had learnt to love and value highly had
to be broken off. It was most fortunate that I could communicate to G. the
greater part of your letter ; it made a great impression on him. As I told you before, Gladstone’s sympathies
are by no means for Germany, neither is he familiar with the German language or
litera- ture, or the German character or ways ; also the French refugees have
taken great hold upon him. He distrusts Germany, especially Prussia, and
certain unceremonious demonstrations have put him into a bad humour. But he
would like to be persuaded, that is clear to me, and if once he perceives the
justice of the German claims he is sure to be loyal to his perceptions. The Due
de Grammont has mystified him so much, that Gladstone confessed him to be
unreliable. Bene- detti’s letter in the Standard made it easy for me to refute
the Duke by means of the Count. If Benedetti keeps his promise of continuing
the letters, the only thing remaining of the two cats will be the tails !



·
Our conversation dealt chiefly with the
provinces to be surrendered.



According to G., all our
feeling of human dignity is outraged by forcing even one single being to give
up his nationality. Of course I could only rejoin that our feelings would be
still more outraged by shooting down even one man, and that in order to avoid
this alternative, i.e. war, the surrender of certain provinces with their
inhabitants has to be taken into consideration. Then followed the question of
the real or apparent necessity of the Vosges frontier. I could only reply that this was a question
for experts in military and strategic history, and had been discussed
continually since 1648, and that friend as well as foe, German as well as
Frenchmen, were per- fectly at one on this point.



·
The question is whether a short representation
of this matter, with












398 Dislike of England in
Germany [ch. xvn



which every lieutenant of the
Prussian Staff is capable of dealing, would be adequate now. At the close I
could only add that at the present juncture of affairs, and in the present mood
of the German people and army, a statesman who allows himself to be compelled
to surrender Strassburg by threats and not by force would be considered guilty
of high treason. G. replied that the greatest mistakes of the statesmen of our
century lay in giving greater consideration to the phy- sical than to the moral
powers, and that the realization of the German wishes would become a misfortune
for Germany. Of course I could only reply that Germany had the right and was in
duty bound to decide the question, and that she alone would have to bear the
consequences and the responsibility. Many interesting conversations followed,
but I do not know whether they are of any interest to you. Gladstone, of course, only spoke for himself,
and he remarked several times : “ This is my opinion. What the Cabinet thinks
is quite a different question.” He considers the feeling in England not at all
unfriendly towards Germany, and I must confess that the German Press seems to
me much more hostile than the English. How comes this ? In England it is
supposed that the German Press says nothing which is not sanctioned by highest
authority. This is a general opinion, very difficult to correct. If Germany
wishes an under- standing with England in the future, both sides must agree to
work for it. The opponents of a German-English alliance do not fail to work
against it. I told Gladstone clearly that the only sure guarantee for the peace
of Europe consisted in combined action between Germany and England, and if the
fleet of England and the army of Germany took up again their old fraternal
relations no cock in France would crow, no bear in the East would growl. I, of
course, remarked in our conversations that he must consider me zfranc-tireur, as
I had never worn a uniform and never would wear one, and that the happiness of
two sister nations, in whose union the happiness of mankind consisted, was my
earnest wish. There were several members of Parliament present, and also some
other influential people, and I had sometimes to maintain a sharp conflict, but
“ the losses on our side were not important.”



‘ I threw in occasionally a
hint that hostile relations between Germany and England would force the former
to found a formidable navy, also that the German vote in America had up to the
present neutralized the Irish vote. I stayed at Hawarden till last night, and,
though I have accomplished nothing, we have certainly parted friends.



‘ I heard from the German Embassy
that a messenger was leaving



next Thursday, and that he might
take a letter. This gives me an



opportunity of sending you a
volume, at the end of which you will









1870] Letter to Fontane 399


find about eighty letters to
Bunsen : some of them, I think, might interest you.



‘ My wife sends her kindest
regards. We wish you a bright Christmas, bright through that which alone can
give us true joy, i. e. the con- sciousness of having done our duty and having
attained great things. Should you think
that the sincere gratitude of one unknown might be welcome to our great dux and
auspex, I ask you, should the opportunity occur, to give expression of my
feelings of admiration and gratitude to Count Bismarck ; you will do it so much
better than I could do it myself.’



Besides several relatives, many
of Max MUller’s school and University friends were taking active part in the
great war, as the following letter to Fontane, the novelist, shows : —



Translation, Parks End,
December 20, 1870.



‘ My dear Fontane, — Nothing
for a long time has given me greater pleasure than your letter. I had indeed
seen in the papers that you had escaped with a whole skin, but I am glad to
hear at first hand that you have returned to Berlin well and strong, and that
all goes well with you. The feeling here against Germany is bad, and from pure
ignorance ; in Germany the feeling seems even worse against England, and from
the same cause. It makes one wild, and I have hardly any other thought than how
one can help to cure this evil. Help as
far as you can ! ‘



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, December 20.





‘ One gets no rest with this
terrible war, and there seems small hope yet of peace. I had a most interesting
visit at Gladstone’s from December 9-12. It was a great honour, and it is
possible it has done some good. He wrote the whole time, so we had to stay in
the house, and many were the discussions. Bismarck is much disliked in England
: he does mad things, and who knows what enemies he may make. Well, I have done my best, and heard much
that was interesting.



Also I get some news from
Versailles, but that is between us.’



To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Parks End,
December 21, 1870.



‘ My dearest Friend, — I feel
with you the horrors of this time, and



though I am so proud of the
heroism of the German nation, I am



nevertheless ashamed to think how
often the world looked upon the



great spiritual victories of the
Fatherland with scorn and indifference,









40O Klaus Groth^s Quickborn
[ch. xvn



and now is on her knees because
we have learnt to aim our bullets with accuracy and skill. However, I trust
that the wild beast will soon retire, and that the spirit in Germany will
attain the upper hand. At all events, Nemesis has arisen with all grandeur, and
to have lived to see the fall of Imperialism is a comfort to me. I was somewhat
entangled in controversy which was more of an ethical than political nature. My
adversary was Gladstone, but we have parted friends. The feeling in England is not good, for many
reasons ; but it seems to me that the German feeling towards England is still
more childish. Till Germany and England
recognize that they are sister-nations, there will be no calm in Europe. We all
must help to that as far as we can. I have constructed the new volume of my
Chips with that thought underlying it. . . . Renan is in Paris, Mohl told me,
who is in London. London is crowded with Frenchmen, which creates much sympathy
with France, especially in Society. Here in Oxford every- thing is quiet and
calm, and I am decorating the Christmas tree for my four children. My work
proceeds slowly, for there is hardly any time for anything but for the reading
of newspapers. And what are you doing ? Pattison is well, always the same. —
Always in old friendship, yours.’



To Professor Klaus Groth.


Translation. Oxford, December 22,
1870.



‘ Your Quickborn, received
to-day, reminds me of my letter-debts, which I would gladly have paid long ago,
but one lives in such a tumult, one can neither read nor write, from the
quantities to read in the papers. So, first of all, my thanks for this new sign
of life and affection. I shall make my way through it, as it is now vacation.



I hope you have received the
third volume of my Chips, which now



and again will remind you of me.
I have read your dedication to



the Crown Prince with delight, and
what you write of Bismarck is



cheering and encouraging. Yes,
the times are great, but I wish the



deluge of blood were over, or the
animal in man will become all-



powerful, and we shall never come
to our senses. However fine and



elevating may be the heroic
courage of the German nation, killing



does not belong to the fine and
free arts. God grant an honourable



and lasting peace may reward the
countless sacrifices made by the



nation. For a time I felt alarmed
for Kiel and its inhabitants. Your



letter, which I translated at
once and sent to the Times, was never



published. The English like deeds
and stories of horror, and their



taste is for highly-spiced and
peppered articles ! I hope you need not



report the same of Holstein. I
have had to fight a good deal in the









1870] Delegate of University
Press 401



English papers. I hope that is
now over. I hope you and yours are well, and that the clouds over your
happiness are passing away : it grieves me to think that the sunshine is not so
bright there as two years ago. But all that belongs to the small evils of life,
and one learns, with such terrible evils all round one, to bear the little ones
more easily. Shall we meet this year ? I hope so, but one dare make no plans.
On the whole, it goes well with us ; the children are well. I am at times plagued with colds, as lately
when Stockhausen was in Oxford, and sang beautifully, and I had to stay in bed
I I saw him the next morning : he looked well, and was in splendid voice.
To-day some venison and Marzipan arrived here, doubtless from Forsteck.



Has your wife received the new
edition of Deutsche Liebe? Now



farewell, and may our paths
meet in 1871/



In November of this year Max
Muller had been elected a Delegate of the University Press. In July, 1883, he was
made a Perpetual Delegate. He resigned in 1896, finding that he could no longer
spare the time from his private work and ever-increasing correspondence ;
partly also from a growing feeling of the great responsibility resting on the
Delegates in conducting such an important business, a responsibility which he
felt he was not strong enough or young enough to face any longer.



To Matthew Arnold, Esq.


Oxford, December 27, 1870.


‘ My dear Arnold, — I wanted to
read your book before writing to thank you for it, and having read it, I can
thank you all the more honestly. It requires much courage to write about
religious questions, because almost every word you touch is oily and
befingered, and it is difficult to handle them without besmutting one’s hands.
But it is all the more necessary to rescue the old words, to dust them, and rub
them clean, and then show them to the world in their original purity and
splendour, as you have done. Your justification of St. Paul is most successful,
and I expect it will tell more than many learned controversies. You know that
the inevitable decay of words forms part of the science of language, and
therefore your chapter on the vicissitudes of the Pauline phraseology interests
me all the more. It is but a chapter of modern mythology, but a very important
one.



I send you by book post a copy of
some introductory lectures of mine,



on the Science of Religion. I
have only had sixteen copies struck off,



and I send one to you, because if
you look at them, you will see at



I D d








402 Etymological Meaning of
Words



once what my object was in
delivering them. It will take several years before I publish what I want to say
on the whole subject, but in the meantime I wanted you to know that we are
working in the same mine, I on a very low level as yet, you on a high level,
but on the whole with the same purpose. There was one expression in your book
with which I could not agree. The etymology of words is not a merely fanciful
argument ; the etymological meaning, if accurately elaborated, is a most
important historical element. There was a time when the etymological meaning of
a word represented what really was to the early framers of language the most
striking feature of an object, or the most important characteristic of a new
conception. To put an etymology in the place of a definition, is no doubt
foolish, but in the history of thought etymology holds a most important place.
Plato’s chaff is only directed against those who would use etymology instead of
a definition ; that there could be a historical element in etymology was beyond
Plato’s horizon. At the same time I do not defend R.’s etymologies. I send you
the new edition of Deutsche Liebe, because the translation of your poem strikes
me as really successful, I was glad to hear that you feel more kindly towards
Bunsen; Froude wrote to me to tell me the same. Yours very truly.’









CHAPTER XVIII


1871


King of Burma. Correspondence
with Abeken and Gladstone. Taine’s Lectures. Peace Festival. Letter from Crown
Prince. Death of father-in-law. Ems. Interviews with Emperor and Crown
Prince. Dr. Stainer. New edition of
Lectures on Lajiguage.



The year opened gloomily for
France and Germany, and even for many in England, who were watching the great
contest with beating hearts. Max Miiller found little rest, and the
correspondence with Mr. Gladstone and Dr. Abeken at Versailles was actively
carried on. January found him preparing a second edition of Volume III of
C-^z/^j-, of which the first edition of 3,000 copies was nearly sold out.



Max MUller received about this
time a Burmese letter from the Minister for Foreign Affairs at Mandalay,
conveying the thanks of Mindoon Min, the enlightened King of Burma, for his
translation of the Dhammapada, and expressing his great pleasure in hearing of
the desire of the learned Professors of Europe and America to know more about
the doctrines of Buddha, and ending with a promise to print the three ‘
Beedaghats ^ ‘ in Pali, and send copies for distribution to the English
Commissioner. If this work was ever begun, it was doubtless stopped by the
accession to the throne of the savage Thebaw, and the subsequent conquest and
annexation of Burma by the English. It was reserved for King Chula- langkorn,
the present enlightened King of Siam, to print the whole Tripitaka.



To Sir Charles Murray (Minister
at Lisbon).



Parks End, Oxyorh, Ja?iuary,
1871.



‘ IMy dear Sir, — I should have
answered your letter before, but Christmas brings many duties and distractions
to a man with a family ^ Pitakas, the sacred canon of Buddhism.



D d 2








404 Metaphor [ch. xvm


of young children, who at the
same time enjoys the privilege of Christmas dinners in College, and has to
perform important duties at College meetings. The Warden, to whom I mentioned
your letter, told me he would write to you and send me his letter, but he has
not done so. I believe his chief object
was to remind you of your portrait for our hall.



‘Now with regard to “metaphor” :
that seems to me an inexhaustible



subject, and one that can be
approached from many points. No



single writer could treat it with
anything like completeness, and every



contribution, however special,
would be useful. The array of lan-



guages which you can either
command or call to your assistance is



ample for making a successful
attack, and I should think that the



library of the Academy at Lisbon
would give you the opportunity for



verifying any statements for
which you do not like to trust to your



memory. A book on metaphor, even
in English alone, could be



made not only very instructive,
as revealing the secret working of the



national mind, but very amusing,
particularly if the languages of the



people and their slang
expressions are taken into account — a stunner,



a fizzer, a brick, &c. I have
myself treated the subject of metaphor



in its most general aspects in
the eighth lecture of my second series,



and as you may not have that
volume by you, I send you a copy, the



Foreign Office having kindly
relaxed the extreme rigour of their



recent rule against sending
anything in the Ambassador’s bag. How



such a treatise on metaphor
should be arranged is more than I could



venture to suggest. If it was
arranged according to the principal



subjects from which metaphors are
borrowed, it would become interest-



ing as a study of national
character, for “ out of the abundance of the



heart the mouth speaketh.” But
any collection carefully made, with



reference to authorities, so
that it might be used and quoted by sub-



sequent writers, would
certainly be well received.



*If at any time my services can
be of any use to you in your



literary researches, please to
command them at all times in the name



of the Mallard \ Yours
faithfully,



‘ Max MUller.’


To Dr. Abeken.





Translation. Oxford, Parks
‘Y.^ti, January 3, 187 1.



·
Dear Friend, — Many thanks for your last letter.
I greatly value your full answers to my letters, when your whole time and
strength belongs to the sacred cause of the Fatherland, when your heart, your
head, and your hands are sure to find litde time and rest. If I could only do
more here ! The desire to do so is not wanting. I have again had an interesting
correspondence with Gladstone. I sent him the



·
The All Souls crest. Sir C. Murray had been a
Fellow of the College.












1871] Work for Sick and Wounded
405



pamphlet by Seidewitz (1867),
Prussia s Rights wilh regard to Luxemburg, and as he wrote to me that the last
Luxemburg telegrams had made him less hopeful about a better understanding, I
communicated to him in English form your opinions with regard to Luxemburg. His
answer of December 29 was good. He knew of no answer then to Lord Granville’s
letter, which had been sent via Berlin, but he admitted that there is no doubt
that military urgency might justify, in given circumstances, a Power actually
at war in taking into its own hands provisionally the settlement of certain
ques- tions, which could only be finally disposed of by a joint authority. The Whigs are very angry at Lord Stanley’s
famous interpretation of the Luxemburg affair. . . .



‘ It seems to me it is
necessary to think of the future even more than of the present, and I confess
that all my hopes of a great future for Europe are based on the alliance of the
two great Teutonic sister- nations on the Continent and in the isles.
Everything else seems artificial and only temporary ; this alone is organic and
lasting. But it is indeed a hard task. In England the war has now become a
party question : the Tories will make it a reason for their attack on the
Government. That is good on the whole; it will lead to a com- bination of Tories
and Radicals, and so the great Liberal party — the support of the Government —
will be forced to take up a firm position with regard to foreign policy. Even a
change of Government, though not probable at present, would not do any harm,
for it would con- centrate English power and English opinion. It would be wiser
if Germany did not underestimate England’s military and naval power, and thus
weaken the desire for an English alliance. England’s fleet is stronger than
ever, her people are strong and patriotic, her credit is the best in the world.
(That makes me think the German loan in England ought to have been introduced
differently — a better god- mother, and a fatter or finer child !)



‘My wife sends kindest regards.
She is German through and through, and she and my three girls, the youngest
only six years old, work indefatigably for the wounded. Henry Acland is
doubtful about the German cause, but he was much pleased with your thought
about him, and he reciprocates your kind messages.



‘ I consider Count Bismarck’s
message to me the greatest reward for the little I have been able to do.’



To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Parks Y.^Ti, January
5, 1871.






‘ I should have answered your
last letter before this, if I had not



waited to send you a copy of the
Letters on the War, which arrived









4o6 Bismarck’s Thanks to M. M.
[ch. xvm



to-day at last, and was sent
off at once. You will see in them the character of the controversy between me
and Gladstone, even without having the letters written by “ Scrutator “ at
hand. I am quite convinced that Gladstone’s accomplice has muddled a good deal,
for Gladstone, in spite of all his weaknesses, is after all a very fine fellow.
One does not become Prime Minister of England without having a very strong
back. His sympathies, alas ! are altogether Norman, not Saxon, but his feeling
for what is right is stronger than all his other feelings. It is not true to say that he could have
prevented the war, for, in spite of his great majority, he would have become
impossible for his office, had he threatened France, or tried to interfere in
the struggle between France and Germany. Now matters stand very differently in
England. The war has become a party
question : the Tories, with the extreme Liberals, will attack the Ministry on
the basis of foreign policy. This will force the powerful Liberal party to a
decided and recognized policy, and that is best for us. The German feeling
towards England is incomprehensible to me, and the Government does not in the
least encourage it. The war-power of England is greater than it has ever been —
the fleet is ready to strike, the whole nation is patriotic, and the wealth is
colossal. It is worth while to have such an ally, and Germany, conscious of her
own greatness, ought to speak as peer to peer, not as a hysterical housewife to
a housemaid. Well, we will hope for the best.



‘ Just think, I have received
the warmest thanks from Bismarck from Versailles ! ‘



To HIS Mother.


Translation. January 7, 1871.





‘ I have sent you a little book
with my letters on the war. I lately received from Versailles, through Abeken,
most grateful thanks from Bismarck. I will copy the letter for you : “ First,
my thanks for what you have done and are doing for Germany, for our holy cause
! This expression of gratitude is not from me alone. I write in the name of
Count Bismarck, who spoke to me only yesterday with a full and thankful
recognition of your great and influential activity during this time, which he
has heard of through the newspapers. He is rejoiced to have such an ally.” What
can one desire more ? ‘



To THE Same.


Translation. January 15, 187 1.





‘ The news of John’s ^ death
was a great shock : what misery for



his poor mother. . . . The
whole land must be full of mourning — even



^ His cousin, John von Basedow,
shot hy franc-tireurs.









1871] Gasparin s Pamphlet 407


here one cannot enjoy life,
when one reads every day of these battles, and one sees no hope of peace. Here
in England sympathies are much divided ; pity is naturally on the side of
France, and Bismarck’s policy has alienated many people in England. But, on the
whole, all goes well. The screams in the papers signify little : much of it
comes from French refugees, who swarm in London. The better classes are
inclined to Germany, but not to Bismarck ! I am not an admirer of his, highly
as I prize the work he has done for Germany, and truly as I recognize that the
whole aim of his life has been the welfare of his Fatherland. Such work cannot
always be carried out with perfectly clean hands. On the other hand, I cannot
agree with the German abuse of the French nation. The French as a nation fight
bravely, and show that they are by no means so depraved and perishing as the
writers in the German papers think. At all events I hate such hector- ing, as
if the Germans were the general guardians of morality, and privileged
possessors of all virtues. If this war goes on long, all Europe will be a
desert, and one must be ashamed of mankind. The wild beasts behave better.’



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



January 29.


·
... As long as one reads the pages of Comte de
Gasparin’s pamphlet, one seems to live in a pure and bracing atmosphere, one
begins to breathe freely, one’s heart expands, everything around seems bright
and full of hope. But we cannot live on mountain-tops, we must live and work in
the low cloudy valleys, and when one is brought again face to face with real
life and real men, the heart fails and all hopes vanish. I knew there were such
men in France as the writer of this pamphlet. There is the true and noble ring
of the old French mettle in all his words and all his thoughts. If a country
can still produce such men, it need not despair about its fate. I feel quite
ashamed when I see German writers speak of the whole of France as one vast Babylon,
implying at the same time that Heaven has granted to us the exclusive privilege
of all virtue and godliness. The only pity is that in France the good men
withdraw from the front of political life ; Gambetta rules, while Gasparin
retires to Switzerland.






‘ Count Gasparin’s scheme seems
to me quite perfect. It gives in reality far more to Germany than she will get
by annexing Alsace and Lorraine. It would be a blessing to Germany, to France,
to Europe.



‘ But can it be ? First of all,
there is a large and at present very



powerful party in Germany, which
is no longer accessible to any



arguments. We must take men as
they are, and we must take nations



as they are ; and a nation
flushed with victory and crushed by grief is









4o8 Goldwin Smith on the War [ch.
xvm



not like a nation in its right
mind. It is with nations as with indi- viduals. How often do we see a friend
rushing into misery, whom we might save if we could hold him by the arm, or
make him listen to reason. That fight against the irrational and unconquerable
powers of life is the most distressing; yet I do not say that reason should not
fight against unreason : I only fear that in this case the fight is hopeless
from the beginning.



Suppose Germany and France placed their fate in the hands of Count Gasparin,
what could he do? Could he persuade the Great Powers to guarantee the
neutrality of Alsace ? Such a guarantee implies a readiness to go to war for
the sake of others. If it does not mean that, it means nothing. Does that
readiness exist in England ? Is there
any party in England strong enough to carry such a measure, and to commit the
country to such contingencies ? Depend upon it, Germany would
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Re: ஆரியர்கள் இந்தியர்களே அது பற்றி சில கருத்துக்கள்

Post by அன்பு தளபதி on Fri Mar 11, 2011 2:08 pm

demand very stringent
guarantees, for Lord Stanley’s words after the conclusion of the treaty for the
neutrality of Luxem- burg have been a terrible lesson. I should consider
England capable of the most generous and heroic eflforts, but from what I see
of the temper of the people, and the strange attraction between the most
opposite political centres, I have grave doubts as to the possibility of such a
guarantee receiving the approval of Parliament.



‘ Then comes the question about
Russia, and whatever the personal character of the present Czar may be, no
Pvussian statesman would help to heal that sore to which he trusts as the best
security for the success of the Russian policy of the future.



‘Count Gasparin’s pamphlet has
no doubt been sent to Count Bismarck. If not, I should gladly send it through
Dr. Abeken. It is a masterpiece in every sense.



*If Alsace is too small by
itself, why not make it a Canton of Switzerland ? It would thus join an
established political system, and enjoy the traditional prestige of Swiss
neutrality. But I have no hope.’



The growth of feeling in
England against Germany and for France, was often a sore trial to Max Miiller,
but he was refreshed from time to time by sympathetic letters from many English
friends, and especially from Mr. Goldwin Smith, at that time living at Ithaca
in the United States, who took a wide, unprejudiced, historical view of the
whole question.



He was always for the annexation
of Alsace and Lorraine,



‘ provided a good natural
frontier could be formed,’ and con-



sidered the bombardment of Paris
‘a disagreeable necessity’ ;



whilst he asked, in a letter to
Max Miiller, ‘ what demon had









1871] Feeling about Strassburg
409



entered into his countrymen,
that when they are delivered by a wonderful display of German heroism, and at
vast expense of German blood, from the peril which has always been hanging over
them, . . . they, instead of blessing, curse their deliverers ? ‘



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, February 2.


‘ Before thanking you for your
letter, I wrote to Mr. Delane to ask him whether he would allow me to write a
review of Count Gasparin’s pamphlet, and thus bring his ideas before the
English public. I have his reply to-day, and he simply declines. He evidently
considers the matter as settled. I have sent the pamphlet to Dr. Abeken. Un-
fortunately there were some remarks in it which are sure to offend Count
Bismarck, particularly where he tells him that by his decision about Alsace he
has to prove whether he possesses mere hahilete or political genius. However,
the real difficulty is that even Count Bismarck is not strong enough, supposing
he was influenced by the future rather than by the present, to oppose the
military party, and I believe the feeling in Germany is so strong that for any
statesman now to give up Strassburg would be simply to abdicate. There is a
poetry about Strassburg which is stronger than all prose. Nations have their
rough- hewn destinies to fulfil; at present I see no help. I just see the
morning papers : I do not believe in the conditions of peace ; it would be a
challenge to Nemesis, and people in Germany have not read history to no
purpose. But it is hard to mediate between intoxi- cation and madness.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. February 7.





‘ The feeling in England is
less excited. They must yield to the inevitable. So I have not packed up, but
have had to let people know I could live in Germany as well as, if not better
than, here ! I have not anything to complain of, and continue to have most
interesting letters from Gladstone, the Prime Minister. He is a very clever and
honourable man, and would willingly do his best, but he has a difficult
position.’



The following letter is given
by permission, as showing the feeling of an unbiassed historian on the recent
events : —



SOMERLEAZE, WeLLS, SOMERSET,





February 19, 1871.


‘My DEAR MtJLLER, — I have got a
wild scheme in my head, in



which you may possibly be able to
help me. It seems pretty certain









4T0 Freeman on the War [ch. xvm



that the German troops are to
march into Paris. Now that is a thing which does not happen much above once in
a thousand years, and a thing for which I have been earnestly longing ever
since 976. For the first time in my
life, I wish to see a military spectacle.
I have said ever since 1851, that, if L. N. Buonaparte was to be
guillotined, and they would only send me word, I would come and see the show,
in whatever part of the world I might be. And this show will be quite as
satisfactory as the other. But is it possible ?
Is it safe ? I do not doubt that you have means of finding out ; you
doubtless know some of the swells at Versailles or somewhere. If you could give me a lift, I should be
deeply obliged. If I could get to see the Emperor’s triumph without
jeopardizing mine own self, I should greatly enjoy it, and I might make something
of it for the public advantage. If I did go, I should hke to get Bryce, Pindar,
or somebody to come with me.



‘ I hope you have by this time
seen both my Pall Mall letters. To my utter amazement, the Tivies has gone and
reprinted the second of them. That paper has hitherto made it a fixed rule
never to mention me or any writing of mine, or to let my name appear, except at
the Mid-Somerset election, when they could not well help it. What does this
mean ?



‘ I am sending for the Academy,
as I see you have been writing in it.



Do you altogether forbid me to
say “ Kikero “ ?



·
Yours very truly, Edward A. Freeman.’






To Dr. Abeken.


Translation. Parks End,
February 20, 187 1.



‘ Dear Friend, — I enclose the
letter of a friend of Germany, Mr.
Freeman. I do not know if his name is familiar to you. He is one of the
best historians and public men in England — a man like Treitschke,
indefatigable with his pen, and always to the point and incisive. He has been
faithful to our cause to the end, from solid true conviction. His letter will
show you his desire, and I thought it worth while to send it just as it is. You
know the English too well to think that a man like Mr. Freeman would keep
anything in the background. He is one who has belonged to us from a deep
conviction ; he keeps himself, however, quite independent, and the only thing
it is possible to do for him is a kindness hke the one he asks for. We need all
the help in England which we can procure by honest means. I often ponder now
over the change of affairs at the death of Peter III, and I still hope that we
may win the battle of Burkersdorf, though it be only on the diplomatic
battle-field, but may we win it before it is too late. Do not underestimate
England :









1871] Jewish Thought in Greek
Mythology 411



she has only twenty million
inhabitants — but they are EngHshmen, and they come from Schleswig-Holstein.’



The answer to Mr. Freeman’s
request was as follows : —



March lo, 1871.


·
My dear Freeman, — I had a letter from my friend
at Versailles : he says it was impossible to write, for nothing was settled
from hour to hour about the entry, in fact there has been no entree
trioviphale. It is curious that, in spite of all provocation, my friend — and
he reflects Bismarck, I believe, most faithfully — clings to the idea of a
friendship between England and Germany as the only safety for the future. Have you seen “Scrutator’s” book? I have not,
but I heard from a friend this morning that it is simply libellous, and that
legal action should be taken. If so, I am certain that Gladstone had nothing to
do with it, but that it is , pur et simple!






The following letter shows
that, amidst all the excitement of the times, Max MUlIer did not allow his work
to flag : —



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, February 21, 1871.


·
You will think me very unreasonable, I am
afraid, if just now I trouble you with a question about Homeric Mythology and
Religion, I should not venture to do so, did I not think that you or your son
could answer my inquiry by a simple Yes or No. The fact is, I am preparing a
new edition of my Lectures on the Science of Language, and as they are to be
stereotyped, I have to revise them carefully once more. When I came to the
passage in my Second Series where I had tried in a few lines to explain your
view of the origin of Greek Mythology, I did not know what to do. From reading
your book I certainly thought that you admitted an early stratum of Jewish
thought, on which, by metamorphic and other processes, the religion and
mythology of Homer were built up. In a letter which you did me the honour to
address to me, you proposed a different theory, or at least you gave me a new
insight into your views on the subject.



You seem to admit there an
independent origin for the religious



and mythological opinions of the
Greeks and the Jews, and to be



satisfied with the admission of a
later contact betv/een Aryan and



Semitic ideas. Under these
circumstances I thought the best plan



would be, if you allowed me, to
print in a note some extracts from



your letter, and I therefore send
you the original, that you may look



at it once more, and tell me
whether you object to my proposal. In



either case, whether you say Yes
or No, I must request you to









412 Abeken’s Views of England
[ch. xvm



return me the letter, for I
hope my children will hereafter value it as



much as myself


‘ PS. — I sent Count Gasparin’s
pamphlet to Dr. Abeken, but I have not heard from him lately. I am almost
afraid my last letters, which I sent through the English Post Office, and not
as before through the Prussian courier, may not have reached him. I feel as
strongly as ever that Count Gasparin’s proposal is the right one, but I cannot
believe that at present it is possible. Though I am an extreme Radical in
University politics, I was glad that Professor Fawcett’s amendment was rejected
; it would have weakened our position in the conflict which is coming. But I
feel convinced that the sooner the last trace of protection is removed from the
study of Theology at Oxford
the better. At All Souls our Fellowship Examination is entirely in Modern
History and Law, and no clergyman ought to have any chance of being elected ;
yet out of fifteen fellows elected under the new Statute, four are clerical.
They won in a fair and open field.



‘M.M.’


From Dr. Abeken.


Translation. February 21, 1871.



‘ It is a decisive week on
which we have entered. The armistice ends with the end of the week, unless
there is a guarantee for peace. It would
be a terrible misfortune if war had to begin again; the indignation of our army
would be greater than ever. At this moment Thiers is sitting with Prince
Bismarck for their first exchange of views in the same salon in which, at the
beginning of November, he was discussing an armistice. He might then have had
just the same conditions as now, and what must he feel when he thinks what his
country might have been spared, had he or his colleagues then listened to
reason ! We too should have been spared much, if false- hood and vanity had
then been less powerful in France.
People tell us to be moderate ; they forget what moderation is required if,
after our new efforts and sacrifices, we make no harder conditions than we made
in November. You say, “ Make peace with France
and make peace with England.”
No one can long for it more truly than we.
Every alliance is repulsive to us except friendship with England.



But the tone of the debates in
Parliament, nay, even the tone of the



Queen’s Speech, which tries to
deal equal measure to both sides, and



for that very reason deals
unequal measure, cannot advance peace



and friendship. What might England have
done, what misery might



England have prevented, if, at the
beginning of the war, it had



possessed the moral courage to
call Good good. Wrong wrong,



Right right. Crime criminal ! It
has turned out well for us that



England did not act, now that the
world has witnessed this new act









1871] Letters on the War 413


in the solemn drama of history.
The French sentiments of the people of Alsace
and Lorraine
prove to me all the more strongly that we are in duty bound to bring back this
German race to the German Empire. We have to cure them of a fearful disease,
that future generations, though blushing at the disgrace of their forefathers,
may grow up to a healthy life. It is inconceivable how, while German language
and German morals remained unchanged, the love for the old German Fatherland
has become almost extinct. Thmk of the Protestants of Alsace, of the
Evangelical clergy of Alsace
! How can they be so blind as not to see that the fate of the Evangelical Church
in Alsace depends on their union with Germany, while union with France implies
its certain extinction? The Roman Catholics in Germany
are not so blind ; and their leaders, whose home is not in Germany, but at Rome,
do all they can to prevent the union of Alsace
with Protestant Germany.’



To Dr. Abeken.


Translation. Parks End,
February 24, 187 1.



·
Dear Friend, — I received your letter this
morning, and I am indeed glad to hear that the Crown Prince remembers me so
kindly. I wrote to him at once, and enclose the letter, asking you to look
through it and hand it to the Crown Prince with a copy of the Letters on the
War. I send the book by post, just as it is; there was no time to have it
bound. I have also written to Gladstone, after having received your letter :
alas I the Protestant argument has no effect on him. Lord Shaftesbury is the
man for that; he has already done something in the matter, but his views are
very narrow. Public opinion is getting more moderate in England. The only thing
now is to wait — perhaps our enemies may do good service to us.






‘ I sent you a pamphlet of
Count Gasparin. Gladstone is delighted with it, as you may have heard ; the
spirit of it is good. I could not help telling Gladstone that Russia would
never think of helping to heal the wound : many plans for the future are built
on the reopening of this wound.



‘ With regard to Freeman, do
what you can ; ... he has a powerful, indefatigable pen, and is German through
and through. Could you not persuade old Carlyle to write or to say something very
amiable ? ‘



To THE Right Hon. W. E.
Gladstone.



Parks End, February 27, 1871.


‘ My dear Mr. Gladstone, — I
received your letter this morning,



and I look forward with great
interest to the short Memorandum to



which you refer. I believe there
is no scholar occupied with the









414 Views on the Peace [ch. xvm



study of the growth and
spreading of religious ideas, who has not had to modify some of his own
opinions on the subject during the last ten years. The evidence has become so
much larger and richer and deeper, that we are forced, whether we like it or
not, to assume a new standpoint in order to command the whole field that is
open before us. I sent you the extract from Abeken’s letter as it stood, but I
marked it private, private as it were, even to you, intended for the
dispassionate spectator of the grand drama of history, not for the Prime
Minister of England. Otherwise I could not have left what Abeken said about
Moral Courage without incurring the charge of impertinence. I have told him
what I think on the subject, and that it is easy to be wise post factum. With
the same intention, I sent you his frank confession about the state of feeling
in Alsace and Lorraine. I admit it was a
surprise to me, and I could quote statements from recent travellers in those
provinces that would lead to different con- clusions. But before all things it
is right that the truth should be known, and I wanted you in particular to know
it. Lord Granville possesses, no doubt, information on the subject of public
feeling in Alsace and Lorraine from independent sources, and he would not quote
Abeken against Abeken, in discussing the dangers which this Peace may bring on
Europe. The difficulties are doubtless very great, yet blood, language, and
religion are three powerful allies in the struggle which will now begin. Yours
sincerely.’



To THE Same. February 28.


‘Dear Mr. Gladstone, — Accept
my best thanks for the Memo- randum, of which you sent me a copy. I should be
very happy to discuss some points with you in more peaceful times ; this Peace
is no peace. Yet do not judge the statesmen of Germany too harshly. After the sad experience which they have had
of the French, they cannot bring themselves to believe that a people who could
not forgive Sadowa, would ever forget Sedan. It is their duty to think, first
of all, of the safety of the country committed to their care. They are
convinced that war will begin again whatever they do, or at all events they
think that the only chance of peace is the hopelessness of a new attack on the
part of France.



‘ As you told me in your letter
that a new Bill on Clerical Fellowships



would soon be presented to
Parliament, I have taken the liberty to



send you a few remarks on the
subject of Fellowships in general. I



have watched their working now
for more than twenty-two years, being



in fact one of the oldest
residents at Oxford, and I confess I should



like to see these magnificent
resources of the University more usefully



applied than they are at present.
My remarks on Fellowships in









1871] M. Renan — M. Taine 415


general I should be quite
prepared to send to the T’mes, if you thought it could be of any use.’



To M. Renan.


Oxford, March 7, 1871.


‘ I was so pleased to hear that
you and Madame Renan had not suffered during the last months, and that you are
well enough to resume your work. Let us forget, or let us at least be silent on
the past ; it has been too horrible. I know you are as strongly French as I am
German, but that does not prevent both of us, I think, from feeling deeply the
shame and degradation which that war has brought on the race to which we belong
as men. We feel ashamed if we are told that our ancestors, our most distant
ancestors, were simious; is there one race of animals so savage, so brutal, as
man can be ? nor does there seem to be any hope of progress or improvemicnt
with regard to our ideas respecting war. We all share the guilt of it, we are
all ready to take part in it, and we are actually proud of our efficiency in
manslaughter. I know of one redeeming feature only in war : it shows that there
are some things for which men are ready to die ; that there is in man the gift
of martyrdom, which I suppose the brutes do not possess ; but, apart from that,
we must all hide our faces in shame and grief. No doubt the best you and Madame
Renan can do, is to go away for a time so as to have complete change. In a few
weeks more England
will be lovely in the warmth and colours of spring. We shall certainly be at Oxford till June, and my wife asks me to tell you and
Madame Renan that she hopes you will come and stay with us at Oxford. There are two rooms at your disposal,
you would find plenty of work at the Bodleian Library, and nothing could give
her and me greater pleasure than to have you quietly staying here as long as
you are able. If you would only let us know a few days before when we may
expect you, you will find everything ready for you. I had a letter from M.
Taine to-day ; I hope the University will invite him to give us a course of
lectures. I did not venture to propose you, for, though we are advancing, we
advance slowly. He would lecture in French on some period of French Literature.
It is not settled yet, but I hope it will succeed.’



To HIS Mother.


Translation. March ro.


‘ One begins to live quietly
again, now that peace is made : it was a fearful time, and one keeps thinking,
who knows when it may begin again ? The joy in Germany must be immense. The Crown
Prince sent me word I ought, as an old friend, to have sent him a copy of my
Letters on the War. I have done so now, and I wrote a beautiful letter too ! ‘









4i6 Lecture on Mythology [ch.
xvm



On March 31 Max Miiller
delivered an evening lecture at the Royal Institution on Mythology, which was,
as usual, largely attended. It was some years before this that his friend Lord
Strangford wrote : ‘ Here (in England)
there is no school
of Philology, and I do
not quite hold Max Miiller guiltless for not having founded one, instead of
going off into Comparative Mythology.’



As the Professorship of Modern
European Languages had been abolished when Max Miiller accepted the new Chair
of Comparative Philology, it was resolved from time to time to invite
celebrated foreigners to lecture on some foreign language or literature, and
this year the Curators were anxious to secure the services of M. Taine. The
following letter gives an account of the scheme, with some hints on lecturing :



To M. Taine.


Oxford, March 17, 1871.


‘ I hasten to answer your kind
letter as far as I can. First, as to the time. The fact is that our Summer Term
is over the first week of June, and very little work is done during the last
week. Therefore if you could begin before Whit-Sunday, you would probably have
a better audience. Your course of lectures is the first beginning of a new
experiment, and everything will depend on your success. Oxford is an extremely difficult place to
lecture in, because all audiences are very mixed. You have young students, you
have fellows and tutors, you have Professors, and for your lectures ladies
also, I think. It is difficult to hit where there are so many targets.



I do not expect that you will
have many young students, and you may



therefore aim a little higher. I
should lecture as if I were addressing



a highly educated lady, not
taking much for granted, making every-



thing clear by a full statement
of facts, but then drawing out the very



best lessons that the facts will
yield. For that purpose your philo-



sophers and moralists would be
more useful, perhaps, than your



dramatists, but I dare say you
are right in selecting the latter. My



only fear is that the classical
dramatic writers are a little too well



known, and that they may not
prove sufficiently attractive. A picture



of the thoughts and manners of
the times in which they lived would



remedy that defect, and you would
know better than anybody else



how to place before us the
political and intellectual stage on which



Racine and Moli^re were
themselves the actors. Lastly, as to the



language: it has been decided,
not without some opposition, that









iSyi] M. Taine’s Lectures 417


the lectures should be given in
French. But, of course, many of your hearers would have difficulty in
following, and therefore a slow and very distinct delivery would be a matter of
great consequence. The lectures are open to every member of the University, and
the invitation to lecture comes to you from the Vice-Chancellor, in the name of
the University. The lectures are delivered at the Taylor Institution, because
the funds for paying the Lecturer come out of Sir Robert Taylor’s bequest. It
is not an easy task which you are undertaking, but I feel very sanguine as to
its success. If you want any further information I shall be most happy to give
it.’



M. Taine accepted the
invitation, and arrived in Oxford soon after the above letter was written.



Though M. Taine was not
actually the guest of the Max Miillers, residing in their house, he was
constantly with them, and, after he had received the degree of Honorary D.C.L.,
they gave a very large party, at which they gathered together all the leading
spirits in Oxford to meet the distinguished foreigner, who charmed everybody by
his easy and agreeable conversation. The next morning the appalling news of
some of the worst deeds of the Commune was in the papers, and the brilliant Frenchman
was an altered being; he was wounded to the heart by the savage acts of his
countrymen, and seemed as if unable to look any one in the face. Happily his
lectures were already finished, and he left immediately, deeply commiserated by
Max Muller, to whom he acknow- ledged that it was far worse than the
humiliation inflicted by the war with Germany.



To Rev. G. Cox.


‘ I looked at Gladstone’s book
Homeric Synchrofti’sm — it is very disappointing. So great a man, so imperfect
a scholar ! He has no idea how shaky the ground is on which he takes his stand.
The reading of those ethnic names in the hieroglyphic inscriptions varies with
every year and with every scholar. I do not blame them : their studies are and
must be tentative, and they are working in the right direction. But the use
which Gladstone makes of their labours is to me really painful, all the more so
because it is cleverly done, and I believe bona fide.’



During the month of April Max
MUller accepted the



invitation of the committee who
were arranging the German



I E e








4i8 German Peace Festival [ch.
xvm



Peace Festival in London, to
deliver the address on that occasion. The Festival took place on May i, and was
a brilliant success. The music, the artistic tableaux vivants, the expression
of deep gratitude, of exultant patriotism, tempered by the thought of all that
the victory had cost the Father- land, can never be forgotten by any of those
present. Max Muller’s speech throughout struck the right note, and he could
feel from the first how he carried his audience with him. The translation,
which is given in the Appendix, had the benefit of being corrected by him.



To HIS Mother.


Translation. Oxford, May 3.





‘ My speech will be printed,
and I will send you a copy. It has been much discussed in the English papers.
It was not an easy task. The audience
was a very mixed one. The Ambassador was there, and the republicans, &c.
Yes, it went off very well, and I am glad I undertook it. The next day Lord
Granville, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, asked me to dinner. To-day I
received a most kind letter from the Crown Prince, written by himself. ... It
was very good of him, for doubtless he has many letters to write.’



By gracious permission of His
Majesty the German Emperor the letter from the Crown Prince is inserted here :



Berlin, i. Mai 1871.


‘ Ich habe mit aufrichtigem
Danke und ganz besonderem Interesse Ihre Letters on the War entgegengenommen,
welche Sie die Freund- lichkeit hatten, mir zu iibersenden.



‘ Mit der einmiitigen Hingebung
unseres Volkes wahrend der grossen Zeit, die wir durchkampft, steht in schonem
Einklang die patriotische Haltung, welche unsere deutschen Briider, oft unter
den schwierigsten Verhaltnissen und mit Opfern aller Art, bewahrt, und durch
die sie sich fiir immer einen Anspruch auf die Dankbarkeit des Vaterlandes
erworben haben.



‘ Dass die Erfahrungen, welche
die Deutschen in England wahrend unseres ruhmvollen Krieges gemacht, nicht
immer erfreulich waren, ist mir freilich bekannt. Griinde der verschiedensten
Art kommen zusammen, um eine Verstimmung zu erzeugen, die hiiben und driiben
von alien einsichtigen und patriotischen Mannern gleich schmerzlich empfunden
ist.



‘ Meine feste und
zuversichtliche Hoffnung bleibt es aber, dass



dieselbe bald jenem herzlichen
Einvernehmen wieder Platz machen









1871] Letter from the Crown
Prince 419



wird, welches die Natur unserer
gegenseitigen Beziehungen und Interessen verlangt. Dieses Ziel wollen wir
verfolgen, unbeirrt durch Aufregungen und Eindriicke des Augenblicks,
iiberzeugt, dass es fiir das Gedeihen beider Lander ebenso heilsam wie fiir den
Frieden Europas unerlasslich ist.



‘ Sie haben Ihrerseits niemals
aufgehort, in diesem Geiste thatig zu sein, und es ist mir deshalb Bediirfniss,
Ihnen meine dankbare Anerkennung fiir Ihr erfolgreiclies Wirken hierdurch
auszusprechen.



‘ Ihr wohlgeneigter Friedrich
Wilhelm, Kronprinz/



Translation. Berlin, May i, 187
1.



·
I have received with much interest and sincere
thanks your Letters on the War, which you so kindly sent to me. The courageous
devotion of our people during all the great time of the war is in beautiful
harmony with the patriotic feeling which our German brethren every- where have
shown, often under the most difficult circumstances, and which they have proved
by sacrifices of all kinds, thus securing for themselves for ever the gratitude
of the Fatherland. I know also, only too well, that the experiences of the
Germans in England during our glorious war were not always happy ones. Reasons
of all kinds combined to produce a discord which makes itself felt as painfully
here as in England, by all really discerning and patriotic men.



·
My firm and confident hope, however, remains,
that this discord will soon give way again to the hearty understanding which is
the natural expression of our mutual relations and interests. Let us struggle
towards this goal, unhindered by the excitements and im- pressions of the
moment, convinced that this common understanding is as necessary for the
development of both countries, as it is indispensable for the peace of Europe.






‘ You, for your part, have never
ceased to act in this spirit, and



I therefore feel impelled to give
expression to my grateful recognition



of your successful efforts. Your
well-wisher,



‘ Frederick William, Crown
Prince.’



The end of May^ Max writes to
his mother : ‘ The scenes in Paris are awful, and one thinks what these furies
would have done in Germany if they had got there.’



During the latter part of the war
Max Muller had carried



on an interesting correspondence
with the venerable diplo-



matist Lord Stratford de
Redclifife, whose sympathies were



entirely German. It has not been
possible to recover Max



Muller’s letters. Lord Stratford
sent him a poem at the



close of the war in praise of
Germany, which was published



E e 2








420 Death of Father -in-Law —
Ems [ch. xvm



in Germany in a collection of
poems on the war, and had a large circulation.



Only a month after the Peace
Festival Max MUller lost his father-in-lawj after a very short illness. As he
had already settled to visit Ems again this summer for the waters, he resolved
to start as soon as he could, and take his wife for a change, and his little
boy with him. They joined his mother at Chemnitz, from which place he wrote to
Dr. Abeken, telling him of his plans, and adding, ‘From year to year we seem to
visit the dead more than the living, and the old happy, beautiful times of
meeting do not return.’ Shortly before leaving England Max Miiller had received
a visit from a German, consulting him on the advisability of starting a general
subscription among Germans living out of Germany for a monument in
commemoration of the war. Max explains his views in the following letter. We
know how thoroughly they were realized by the great Germania on the banks of
the Rhine.



To Professor Bernays.


Translation. Oxford, Jiine 12.


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